Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Cutting condition

26 Investigation of Chip Formation Characteristics during Surface Finishing of HDPE Samples

Authors: M. S. Kaiser, S. Reaz Ahmed

Abstract:

Chip formation characteristics are investigated during surface finishing of high density polyethylene (HDPE) samples using a shaper machine. Both the cutting speed and depth of cut are varied continually to enable observations under various machining conditions. The generated chips are analyzed in terms of their shape, size, and deformation. Their physical appearances are also observed using digital camera and optical microscope. The investigation shows that continuous chips are obtained for all the cutting conditions. It is observed that cutting speed is more influential than depth of cut to cause dimensional changes of chips. Chips curl radius is also found to increase gradually with the increase of cutting speed. The length of continuous chips remains always smaller than the job length, and the corresponding discrepancies are found to be more prominent at lower cutting speed. Microstructures of the chips reveal that cracks are formed at higher cutting speeds and depth of cuts, which is not that significant at low depth of cut.

Keywords: HDPE, surface-finishing, chip formation, deformation, roughness.

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25 Dimensional Accuracy of CNTs/PMMA Parts and Holes Produced by Laser Cutting

Authors: A. Karimzad Ghavidel, M. Zadshakouyan

Abstract:

Laser cutting is a very common production method for cutting 2D polymeric parts. Developing of polymer composites with nano-fibers makes important their other properties like laser workability. The aim of this research is investigation of the influence different laser cutting conditions on the dimensional accuracy of parts and holes from poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) material. Experiments were carried out by considering of CNTs (in four level 0,0.5, 1 and 1.5% wt.%), laser power (60, 80, and 100 watt) and cutting speed 20, 30, and 40 mm/s as input variable factors. The results reveal that CNTs adding improves the laser workability of PMMA and the increasing of power has a significant effect on the part and hole size. The findings also show cutting speed is effective parameter on the size accuracy. Eventually, the statistical analysis of results was done, and calculated mathematical equations by the regression are presented for determining relation between input and output factor.

Keywords: Dimensional accuracy-PMMA-CNTs-laser cutting.

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24 Process Optimisation for Internal Cylindrical Rough Turning of Nickel Alloy 625 Weld Overlay

Authors: Lydia Chan, Islam Shyha, Dale Dreyer, John Hamilton, Phil Hackney

Abstract:

Nickel-based superalloys are generally known to be difficult to cut due to their strength, low thermal conductivity, and high work hardening tendency. Superalloy such as alloy 625 is often used in the oil and gas industry as a surfacing material to provide wear and corrosion resistance to components. The material is typically applied onto a metallic substrate through weld overlay cladding, an arc welding technique. Cladded surfaces are always rugged and carry a tough skin; this creates further difficulties to the machining process. The present work utilised design of experiment to optimise the internal cylindrical rough turning for weld overlay surfaces. An L27 orthogonal array was used to assess effects of the four selected key process variables: cutting insert, depth of cut, feed rate, and cutting speed. The optimal cutting conditions were determined based on productivity and the level of tool wear.

Keywords: Cylindrical turning, nickel superalloy, turning of overlay, weld overlay.

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23 An Alternative Approach for Assessing the Impact of Cutting Conditions on Surface Roughness Using Single Decision Tree

Authors: S. Ghorbani, N. I. Polushin

Abstract:

In this study, an approach to identify factors affecting on surface roughness in a machining process is presented. This study is based on 81 data about surface roughness over a wide range of cutting tools (conventional, cutting tool with holes, cutting tool with composite material), workpiece materials (AISI 1045 Steel, AA2024 aluminum alloy, A48-class30 gray cast iron), spindle speed (630-1000 rpm), feed rate (0.05-0.075 mm/rev), depth of cut (0.05-0.15 mm) and tool overhang (41-65 mm). A single decision tree (SDT) analysis was done to identify factors for predicting a model of surface roughness, and the CART algorithm was employed for building and evaluating regression tree. Results show that a single decision tree is better than traditional regression models with higher rate and forecast accuracy and strong value.

Keywords: Cutting condition, surface roughness, decision tree, CART algorithm.

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22 Fabrication, Testing and Machinability Evaluation of Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: S. S. Panda, Arkesh Chouhan, Yogesh Deshpande

Abstract:

The present paper deals with designing and fabricating an apparatus for the speedy and accurate manufacturing of fiber reinforced composite lamina of different orientation, thickness and stacking sequences for testing. Properties derived through an analytical approach are verified through measuring the elastic modulus, ultimate tensile strength, flexural modulus and flexural strength of the samples. The 00 orientation ply looks stiffer compared to the 900 ply. Similarly, the flexural strength of 00 ply is higher than to the 900 ply. Sample machinability has been studied by conducting numbers of drilling based on Taguchi Design experiments. Multi Responses (Delamination and Damage grading) is obtained using the desirability approach and optimum cutting condition (spindle speed, feed and drill diameter), at which responses are minimized is obtained thereafter. Delamination increases nonlinearly with the increase in spindle speed. Similarly, the influence of the drill diameter on delamination is higher than the spindle speed and feed rate.

Keywords: Delamination, FRP composite, multi response optimization, Taguchi design.

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21 Using Single Decision Tree to Assess the Impact of Cutting Conditions on Vibration

Authors: S. Ghorbani, N. I. Polushin

Abstract:

Vibration during machining process is crucial since it affects cutting tool, machine, and workpiece leading to a tool wear, tool breakage, and an unacceptable surface roughness. This paper applies a nonparametric statistical method, single decision tree (SDT), to identify factors affecting on vibration in machining process. Workpiece material (AISI 1045 Steel, AA2024 Aluminum alloy, A48-class30 Gray Cast Iron), cutting tool (conventional, cutting tool with holes in toolholder, cutting tool filled up with epoxy-granite), tool overhang (41-65 mm), spindle speed (630-1000 rpm), feed rate (0.05-0.075 mm/rev) and depth of cut (0.05-0.15 mm) were used as input variables, while vibration was the output parameter. It is concluded that workpiece material is the most important parameters for natural frequency followed by cutting tool and overhang.

Keywords: Cutting condition, vibration, natural frequency, decision tree, CART algorithm.

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20 A Flute Tracking System for Monitoring the Wear of Cutting Tools in Milling Operations

Authors: Hatim Laalej, Salvador Sumohano-Verdeja, Thomas McLeay

Abstract:

Monitoring of tool wear in milling operations is essential for achieving the desired dimensional accuracy and surface finish of a machined workpiece. Although there are numerous statistical models and artificial intelligence techniques available for monitoring the wear of cutting tools, these techniques cannot pin point which cutting edge of the tool, or which insert in the case of indexable tooling, is worn or broken. Currently, the task of monitoring the wear on the tool cutting edges is carried out by the operator who performs a manual inspection, causing undesirable stoppages of machine tools and consequently resulting in costs incurred from lost productivity. The present study is concerned with the development of a flute tracking system to segment signals related to each physical flute of a cutter with three flutes used in an end milling operation. The purpose of the system is to monitor the cutting condition for individual flutes separately in order to determine their progressive wear rates and to predict imminent tool failure. The results of this study clearly show that signals associated with each flute can be effectively segmented using the proposed flute tracking system. Furthermore, the results illustrate that by segmenting the sensor signal by flutes it is possible to investigate the wear in each physical cutting edge of the cutting tool. These findings are significant in that they facilitate the online condition monitoring of a cutting tool for each specific flute without the need for operators/engineers to perform manual inspections of the tool.

Keywords: Tool condition monitoring, tool wear prediction, milling operation, flute tracking.

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19 Prediction of Cutting Tool Life in Drilling of Reinforced Aluminum Alloy Composite Using a Fuzzy Method

Authors: Mohammed T. Hayajneh

Abstract:

Machining of Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) is very significant process and has been a main problem that draws many researchers to investigate the characteristics of MMCs during different machining process. The poor machining properties of hard particles reinforced MMCs make drilling process a rather interesting task. Unlike drilling of conventional materials, many problems can be seriously encountered during drilling of MMCs, such as tool wear and cutting forces. Cutting tool wear is a very significant concern in industries. Cutting tool wear not only influences the quality of the drilled hole, but also affects the cutting tool life. Prediction the cutting tool life during drilling is essential for optimizing the cutting conditions. However, the relationship between tool life and cutting conditions, tool geometrical factors and workpiece material properties has not yet been established by any machining theory. In this research work, fuzzy subtractive clustering system has been used to model the cutting tool life in drilling of Al2O3 particle reinforced aluminum alloy composite to investigate of the effect of cutting conditions on cutting tool life. This investigation can help in controlling and optimizing of cutting conditions when the process parameters are adjusted. The built model for prediction the tool life is identified by using drill diameter, cutting speed, and cutting feed rate as input data. The validity of the model was confirmed by the examinations under various cutting conditions. Experimental results have shown the efficiency of the model to predict cutting tool life.

Keywords: Composite, fuzzy, tool life, wear.

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18 Effect of Composite Material on Damping Capacity Improvement of Cutting Tool in Machining Operation Using Taguchi Approach

Authors: S. Ghorbani, N. I. Polushin

Abstract:

Chatter vibrations, occurring during cutting process, cause vibration between the cutting tool and workpiece, which deteriorates surface roughness and reduces tool life. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of cutting parameters and tool construction on surface roughness and vibration in turning of aluminum alloy AA2024. A new design of cutting tool is proposed, which is filled up with epoxy granite in order to improve damping capacity of the tool. Experiments were performed at the lathe using carbide cutting insert coated with TiC and two different cutting tools made of AISI 5140 steel. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array was applied to design of experiment and to optimize cutting conditions. By the help of signal-to-noise ratio and analysis of variance the optimal cutting condition and the effect of the cutting parameters on surface roughness and vibration were determined. Effectiveness of Taguchi method was verified by confirmation test. It was revealed that new cutting tool with epoxy granite has reduced vibration and surface roughness due to high damping properties of epoxy granite in toolholder.

Keywords: ANOVA, damping capacity, surface roughness, Taguchi method, vibration.

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17 Chatter Suppression in Boring Process Using Passive Damper

Authors: V. Prasannavenkadesan, A. Elango, S. Chockalingam

Abstract:

During machining process, chatter is an unavoidable phenomenon. Boring bars possess the cantilever shape and due to this, it is subjected to chatter. The adverse effect of chatter includes the increase in temperature which will leads to excess tool wear. To overcome these problems, in this investigation, Cartridge brass (Cu – 70% and Zn – 30%) is passively fixed on the boring bar and also clearance is provided in order to reduce the displacement, tool wear and cutting temperature. A conventional all geared lathe is attached with vibrometer and pyrometer is used to measure the displacement and temperature. The influence of input parameters such as cutting speed, depth of cut and clearance on temperature, tool wear and displacement are investigated for various cutting conditions. From the result, the optimum conditions to obtain better damping in boring process for chatter reduction is identified.

Keywords: Boring, chatter, mass damping, passive damping.

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16 Analytical Modelling of Surface Roughness during Compacted Graphite Iron Milling Using Ceramic Inserts

Authors: S. Karabulut, A. Güllü, A. Güldas, R. Gürbüz

Abstract:

This study investigates the effects of the lead angle and chip thickness variation on surface roughness during the machining of compacted graphite iron using ceramic cutting tools under dry cutting conditions. Analytical models were developed for predicting the surface roughness values of the specimens after the face milling process. Experimental data was collected and imported to the artificial neural network model. A multilayer perceptron model was used with the back propagation algorithm employing the input parameters of lead angle, cutting speed and feed rate in connection with chip thickness. Furthermore, analysis of variance was employed to determine the effects of the cutting parameters on surface roughness. Artificial neural network and regression analysis were used to predict surface roughness. The values thus predicted were compared with the collected experimental data, and the corresponding percentage error was computed. Analysis results revealed that the lead angle is the dominant factor affecting surface roughness. Experimental results indicated an improvement in the surface roughness value with decreasing lead angle value from 88° to 45°.

Keywords: CGI, milling, surface roughness, ANN, regression, modeling, analysis.

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15 Tool Wear of Metal Matrix Composite 10wt% AlN Reinforcement Using TiB2 Cutting Tool

Authors: M. S. Said, J. A. Ghani, Che Hassan C. H., N. N. Wan, M. A. Selamat, R. Othman

Abstract:

Metal matrix composites (MMCs) attract considerable attention as a result from its ability in providing a high strength, high modulus, high toughness, high impact properties, improving wear resistance and providing good corrosion resistance compared to unreinforced alloy. Aluminium Silicon (Al/Si) alloy MMC has been widely used in various industrial sectors such as in transportation, domestic equipment, aerospace, military, construction, etc. Aluminium silicon alloy is an MMC that had been reinforced with aluminium nitrate (AlN) particle and become a new generation material use in automotive and aerospace sector. The AlN is one of the advance material that have a bright prospect in future since it has features such as lightweight, high strength, high hardness and stiffness quality. However, the high degree of ceramic particle reinforcement and the irregular nature of the particles along the matrix material that contribute to its low density is the main problem which leads to difficulties in machining process. This paper examined the tool wear when milling AlSi/AlN Metal Matrix Composite using a TiB2 (Titanium diboride) coated carbide cutting tool. The volume of the AlN reinforced particle was 10% and milling process was carried out under dry cutting condition. The TiB2 coated carbide insert parameters used were at the cutting speed of (230, 300 and 370m/min, feed rate of 0.8, Depth of Cut (DoC) at 0.4m). The Sometech SV-35 video microscope system used to quantify of the tool wear. The result shown that tool life span increasing with the cutting speeds at (370m/min, feed rate of 0.8mm/tooth and DoC at 0.4mm) which constituted an optimum condition for longer tool life lasted until 123.2 mins. Meanwhile, at medium cutting speed which at 300m/m, feed rate of 0.8mm/tooth and depth of cut at 0.4mm we found that tool life span lasted until 119.86 mins while at low cutting speed it lasted in 119.66 mins. High cutting speed will give the best parameter in cutting AlSi/AlN MMCs material. The result will help manufacturers in machining process of AlSi/AlN MMCs materials.

Keywords: AlSi/AlN Metal Matrix Composite milling process, tool wear, TiB2 coated cemented carbide tool.

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14 Neural Network Monitoring Strategy of Cutting Tool Wear of Horizontal High Speed Milling

Authors: Kious Mecheri, Hadjadj Abdechafik, Ameur Aissa

Abstract:

The wear of cutting tool degrades the quality of the product in the manufacturing processes. The on line monitoring of the cutting tool wear level is very necessary to prevent the deterioration of the quality of machining. Unfortunately there is not a direct manner to measure the cutting tool wear on line. Consequently we must adopt an indirect method where wear will be estimated from the measurement of one or more physical parameters appearing during the machining process such as the cutting force, the vibrations, or the acoustic emission etc…. In this work, a neural network system is elaborated in order to estimate the flank wear from the cutting force measurement and the cutting conditions.

Keywords: Flank wear, cutting forces, high speed milling, signal processing, neural network.

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13 Technology of Thermal Spray Coating Machining

Authors: Jana Petrů, Tomáš Zlámal, Robert Čep, Lenka Čepová

Abstract:

This article is focused on the thermal spray coating machining issue. Those are irreplaceable in many areas of nowadays industrial branches such as aerospace industry, mostly thanks to their excellent qualities in production and also in renovation of machinery parts. The principals of thermal spraying and elementary diversification are described in introduction. Plasma coating method of composite materials – cermets – is described more thoroughly. The second part describes thermal spray coating machining and grinding in detail. This part contains suggestion of appropriate grinding tool and assessment of cutting conditions used for grinding a given part. Conclusion describes a problem which occurred while grinding a cermet thermal spray coating with a specially designed grindstone and a way to solve this problem.

Keywords: Coating, aerospace, plasma, grinding.

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12 Optimization of Surface Roughness and Vibration in Turning of Aluminum Alloy AA2024 Using Taguchi Technique

Authors: Vladimir Aleksandrovich Rogov, Ghorbani Siamak

Abstract:

Determination of optimal conditions of machining parameters is important to reduce the production cost and achieve the desired surface quality. This paper investigates the influence of cutting parameters on surface roughness and natural frequency in turning of aluminum alloy AA2024. The experiments were performed at the lathe machine using two different cutting tools made of AISI 5140 and carbide cutting insert coated with TiC. Turning experiments were planned by Taguchi method L9 orthogonal array.Three levels for spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool overhang were chosen as cutting variables. The obtained experimental data has been analyzed using signal to noise ratio and analysis of variance. The main effects have been discussed and percentage contributions of various parameters affecting surface roughness and natural frequency, and optimal cutting conditions have been determined. Finally, optimization of the cutting parameters using Taguchi method was verified by confirmation experiments.

Keywords: Turning, Cutting conditions, Surface roughness, Natural frequency, Taguchi method, ANOVA, S/N ratio.

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11 Finite Element Modeling to Predict the Effect of Nose Radius on the Equivalent Strain (PEEQ) for Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)

Authors: Moaz H. Ali, M. N. M. Ansari, Pang Jing Shen

Abstract:

In present work, prediction the effect of nose radius, rz (mm) on the equivalent strain (PEEQ) and surface finish during the machining of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) through orthogonal cutting process. The results were performed at several of the nose radiuses, rz (mm) while the cutting speed, vc (m/min), feed rate, f (mm/tooth) and depth of cut, d (mm) were remained constant. The equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ) was estimated by using finite element modeling (FEM) and applied through ABAQUS/EXPLICIT software. The simulation results led to conclude that the equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ) was increased and surface roughness (Ra) decreased when increasing nose radius, rz (mm) during the machining of titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) in dry cutting conditions.

Keywords: Finite element modeling (FEM), nose radius, plastic strain (PEEQ), titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V).

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10 Analysis of Chatter in Ball End Milling by Wavelet Transform

Authors: S. Tangjitsitcharoen

Abstract:

The chatter is one of the major limitations of the productivity in the ball end milling process. It affects the surface roughness, the dimensional accuracy and the tool life. The aim of this research is to propose the new system to detect the chatter during the ball end milling process by using the wavelet transform. The proposed method is implemented on the 5-axis CNC machining center and the new three parameters are introduced from three dynamic cutting forces, which are calculated by taking the ratio of the average variances of dynamic cutting forces to the absolute variances of themselves. It had been proved that the chatter can be easier to detect during the in-process cutting by using the new parameters which are proposed in this research. The experimentally obtained results showed that the wavelet transform can provide the reliable results to detect the chatter under various cutting conditions.

Keywords: Ball end milling, wavelet transform, fast fourier transform, chatter.

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9 Chips of Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo Alloy – A Detailed Geometry Study

Authors: Dmytro Ostroushko, Karel Saksl, Carsten Siemers, Zuzana Rihova

Abstract:

Titanium alloys like Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo (Ti- 6246) are widely used in aerospace applications. Component manufacturing, however, is difficult and expensive as their machinability is extremely poor. A thorough understanding of the chip formation process is needed to improve related metal cutting operations.In the current study, orthogonal cutting experiments have been performed and theresulting chips were analyzed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.Chips from aTi- 6246ingot were produced at different cutting speeds and cutting depths. During the experiments, depending of the cutting conditions, continuous or segmented chips were formed. Narrow, highly deformed and grain oriented zones, the so-called shear zone, separated individual segments. Different material properties have been measured in the shear zones and the segments.

Keywords: Titanium alloy, Ti-6246, chip formation, machining, shear zone, microstructure

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8 3D Modeling of Temperature by Finite Element in Machining with Experimental Authorization

Authors: P. Mottaghizadeh, M. Bagheri

Abstract:

In the present paper, the three-dimensional temperature field of tool is determined during the machining and compared with experimental work on C45 workpiece using carbide cutting tool inserts. During the metal cutting operations, high temperature is generated in the tool cutting edge which influence on the rate of tool wear. Temperature is most important characteristic of machining processes; since many parameters such as cutting speed, surface quality and cutting forces depend on the temperature and high temperatures can cause high mechanical stresses which lead to early tool wear and reduce tool life. Therefore, considerable attention is paid to determine tool temperatures. The experiments are carried out for dry and orthogonal machining condition. The results show that the increase of tool temperature depends on depth of cut and especially cutting speed in high range of cutting conditions.

Keywords: Finite element method, Machining, Temperature measurement, Thermal fields

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7 Microstructure Changes of Machined Surfaceson Austenitic 304 Stainless Steel

Authors: Lin. Yan, Wenyu. Yang, Hongping. Jin, Zhiguang Wang

Abstract:

This paper presents a experiment to estimate the influences of cutting conditions in microstructure changes of machining austenitic 304 stainless steel, especially for wear insert. The wear insert were prefabricated with a width of 0.5 mm. And the forces, temperature distribution, RS, and microstructure changes were measured by force dynamometer, infrared thermal camera, X-ray diffraction, XRD, SEM, respectively. The results told that the different combinations of machining condition have a significant influence on machined surface microstructure changes. In addition to that, the ANOVA and AOMwere used to tell the different influences of cutting speed, feed rate, and wear insert.

Keywords: Microstructure Changes, Wear width, Stainless steel

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6 The Impact of Cutting Tool Materials on Cutting Force

Authors: M.A. Kamely, M.Y. Noordin

Abstract:

A judicious choice of insert material, tool geometry and cutting conditions can make hard turning produce better surfaces than grinding. In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of cutting tool materials on cutting forces (feed force, thrust force and cutting force) in finish hard turning of AISI D2 cold work tool steel. In conclusion of the results obtained with a constant depth of cut and feed rate, it is important to note that cutting force is directly affected by cutting tool material.

Keywords: hard turning, cutting force, cutting tool materials, mixed ceramic, cbn

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5 The Effect of the Tool Geometry and Cutting Conditions on the Tool Deflection and Cutting Forces

Authors: A. Fata, B. Nikuei

Abstract:

In this paper by measuring the cutting forces the effect of the tool shape and qualifications (sharp and worn cutting tools of both vee and knife edge profile) and cutting conditions (depth of cut and cutting speed) in the turning operation on the tool deflection and cutting force is investigated. The workpiece material was mild steel and the cutting tool was made of high speed steel. Cutting forces were measured by a dynamometer (type P.E.I. serial No 154). The dynamometer essentially consisted of a cantilever structure which held the cutting tool. Deflection of the cantilever was measured by an L.V.D.T (Mercer 122) deflection indicator. No cutting fluid was used during the turning operations. A modern CNC lathe machine (Okuma LH35-N) was used for the tests. It was noted that worn vee profile tools tended to produce a greater increase in the vertical force component than the axial component, whereas knife tools tended to show a more pronounced increase in the axial component.

Keywords: Cutting force, Tool deflection, Turning, Cuttingconditions.

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4 Tool Wear and Surface Roughness Prediction using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in Turning Steel under Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL)

Authors: S. M. Ali, N. R. Dhar

Abstract:

Tool wear and surface roughness prediction plays a significant role in machining industry for proper planning and control of machining parameters and optimization of cutting conditions. This paper deals with developing an artificial neural network (ANN) model as a function of cutting parameters in turning steel under minimum quantity lubrication (MQL). A feed-forward backpropagation network with twenty five hidden neurons has been selected as the optimum network. The co-efficient of determination (R2) between model predictions and experimental values are 0.9915, 0.9906, 0.9761 and 0.9627 in terms of VB, VM, VS and Ra respectively. The results imply that the model can be used easily to forecast tool wear and surface roughness in response to cutting parameters.

Keywords: ANN, MQL, Surface Roughness, Tool Wear.

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3 The Performance of PVD Coated Grade in Milling of ADI 800

Authors: M. Ibrahim Sadik, Toril Myrtveit

Abstract:

The aim of this investigation is to study the performance of the new generation of the PVD coated grade and to map the influence of cutting conditions on the tool life in milling of ADI (Austempered Ductile Iron). The results show that chipping is the main wear mechanism which determines the tool life in dry condition and notch wear in wet condition for this application. This due to the different stress mechanisms and preexisting cracks in the coating. The wear development shows clearly that the new PVD coating (C20) has the best ability to delay the chipping growth. It was also found that a high content of Al in the new coating (C20) was especially favorable compared to a TiAlN multilayer with lower Al content (C30) or CVD coating. This is due to fine grains and low compressive stress level in the coating which increase the coating ability to withstand the mechanical and thermal impact. It was also found that the use of coolant decreases the tool life with 70-80% compare to dry milling.

Keywords: Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI), coating, chipping, milling, tool performance.

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2 CAD Based Predictive Models of the Undeformed Chip Geometry in Drilling

Authors: Panagiotis Kyratsis, Dr. Ing. Nikolaos Bilalis, Dr. Ing. Aristomenis Antoniadis

Abstract:

Twist drills are geometrical complex tools and thus various researchers have adopted different mathematical and experimental approaches for their simulation. The present paper acknowledges the increasing use of modern CAD systems and using the API (Application Programming Interface) of a CAD system, drilling simulations are carried out. The developed DRILL3D software routine, creates parametrically controlled tool geometries and using different cutting conditions, achieves the generation of solid models for all the relevant data involved (drilling tool, cut workpiece, undeformed chip). The final data derived, consist a platform for further direct simulations regarding the determination of cutting forces, tool wear, drilling optimizations etc.

Keywords: Drilling, CAD based simulation, 3D-modelling.

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1 On-Line Geometrical Identification of Reconfigurable Machine Tool using Virtual Machining

Authors: Alexandru Epureanu, Virgil Teodor

Abstract:

One of the main research directions in CAD/CAM machining area is the reducing of machining time. The feedrate scheduling is one of the advanced techniques that allows keeping constant the uncut chip area and as sequel to keep constant the main cutting force. They are two main ways for feedrate optimization. The first consists in the cutting force monitoring, which presumes to use complex equipment for the force measurement and after this, to set the feedrate regarding the cutting force variation. The second way is to optimize the feedrate by keeping constant the material removal rate regarding the cutting conditions. In this paper there is proposed a new approach using an extended database that replaces the system model. The feedrate scheduling is determined based on the identification of the reconfigurable machine tool, and the feed value determination regarding the uncut chip section area, the contact length between tool and blank and also regarding the geometrical roughness. The first stage consists in the blank and tool monitoring for the determination of actual profiles. The next stage is the determination of programmed tool path that allows obtaining the piece target profile. The graphic representation environment models the tool and blank regions and, after this, the tool model is positioned regarding the blank model according to the programmed tool path. For each of these positions the geometrical roughness value, the uncut chip area and the contact length between tool and blank are calculated. Each of these parameters are compared with the admissible values and according to the result the feed value is established. We can consider that this approach has the following advantages: in case of complex cutting processes the prediction of cutting force is possible; there is considered the real cutting profile which has deviations from the theoretical profile; the blank-tool contact length limitation is possible; it is possible to correct the programmed tool path so that the target profile can be obtained. Applying this method, there are obtained data sets which allow the feedrate scheduling so that the uncut chip area is constant and, as a result, the cutting force is constant, which allows to use more efficiently the machine tool and to obtain the reduction of machining time.

Keywords: Reconfigurable machine tool, system identification, uncut chip area, cutting conditions scheduling.

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