Search results for: hard turning
500 The Impact of Cutting Tool Materials on Cutting Force
Authors: M.A. Kamely, M.Y. Noordin
Abstract:A judicious choice of insert material, tool geometry and cutting conditions can make hard turning produce better surfaces than grinding. In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of cutting tool materials on cutting forces (feed force, thrust force and cutting force) in finish hard turning of AISI D2 cold work tool steel. In conclusion of the results obtained with a constant depth of cut and feed rate, it is important to note that cutting force is directly affected by cutting tool material.
Keywords: hard turning, cutting force, cutting tool materials, mixed ceramic, cbnProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3394
499 Analysis of Hard Turning Process of AISI D3-Thermal Aspects
Authors: B. Varaprasad, C. Srinivasa Rao
Abstract:In the manufacturing sector, hard turning has emerged as vital machining process for cutting hardened steels. Besides many advantages of hard turning operation, one has to implement to achieve close tolerances in terms of surface finish, high product quality, reduced machining time, low operating cost and environmentally friendly characteristics. In the present study, three-dimensional CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) based simulation of hard turning by using commercial software DEFORM 3D has been compared to experimental results of stresses, temperatures and tool forces in machining of AISI D3 steel using mixed Ceramic inserts (CC6050). In the present analysis, orthogonal cutting models are proposed, considering several processing parameters such as cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut. An exhaustive friction modeling at the tool-work interfaces is carried out. Work material flow around the cutting edge is carefully modeled with adaptive re-meshing simulation capability. In process simulations, feed rate and cutting speed are constant (i.e.,. 0.075 mm/rev and 155 m/min), and analysis is focused on stresses, forces, and temperatures during machining. Close agreement is observed between CAE simulation and experimental values.
Keywords: Hard-turning, computer-aided engineering, computational machining, finite element method.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1063
498 Tool Damage and Adhesion Effects in Turning and Drilling of Hardened Steels
Authors: Chris M. Taylor, Ian Cook, Raul Alegre, Pedro Arrazola, Phil Spiers
Abstract:Noteworthy results have been obtained in the turning and drilling of hardened high-strength steels using tungsten carbide based cutting tools. In a finish turning process, it was seen that surface roughness and tool flank wear followed very different trends against cutting time. The suggested explanation for this behaviour is that the profile cut into the workpiece surface is determined by the tool’s cutting edge profile. It is shown that the profile appearing on the cut surface changes rapidly over time, so the profile of the tool cutting edge should also be changing rapidly. Workpiece material adhered onto the cutting tool, which is also known as a built-up edge, is a phenomenon which could explain the observations made. In terms of tool damage modes, workpiece material adhesion is believed to have contributed to tool wear in examples provided from finish turning, thread turning and drilling. Additionally, evidence of tool fracture and tool abrasion were recorded.
Keywords: Turning, drilling, adhesion, wear, hard steels.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1186
497 Experimental Investigation of Chatter Vibrations in Facing and Turning Processes
Authors: M. Siddhpura, R. Paurobally
Abstract:This paper investigates the occurrence of regenerative chatter vibrations in facing and turning processes. Orthogonal turning (facing) and normal turning experiments are carried out under stable as well as in the presence of controlled chatter vibrations. The effects of chatter vibrations on various sensor signals are captured and analyzed using frequency domain methods, which successfully detected the chatter vibrations close to the dominant mode of the machine tool system.
Keywords: Chatter vibrations, facing, turning.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3386
496 Turning Thin-Walled Workpieces with Variable Depth of Cut
Authors: M. Sadilek, L. Petrkovska, J. Kratochvil
The article deals with the possibilities of increasing the efficiency of turning thin-walled workpieces. It proposes a new strategy for turning and it proposes new implementation of roughing cycles where a variable depth of cut is applied. Proposed roughing cycles are created in the CAD/CAM system. These roughing cycles are described in relation to their further use in practice.
The experimental research has focused on monitoring the durability of cutting tool and increases its tool life. It compares the turning where the standard roughing cycle is used and the turning where the proposed roughing cycle with variable depth of cut is applied. In article are monitored tool wear during cutting with the sintered carbide cutting edge. The result verifies theoretical prerequisites of tool wear.
Keywords: Variable depth of cut, CAD-CAM system, turning, durability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1691
495 Investigation of Tool Temperature and Surface Quality in Hot Machining of Hard-to-Cut Materials
Authors: M.Davami, M.Zadshakoyan
Production of hard-to-cut materials with uncoated carbide cutting tools in turning, not only cause tool life reduction but also, impairs the product surface roughness. In this paper, influence of hot machining method were studied and presented in two cases. Case1-Workpiece surface roughness quality with constant cutting parameter and 300 ºC initial workpiece surface temperature. Case 2- Tool temperature variation when cutting with two speeds 78.5 (m/min) and 51 (m/min). The workpiece material and tool used in this study were AISI 1060 steel (45HRC) and uncoated carbide TNNM 120408-SP10(SANDVIK Coromant) respectively. A gas flam heating source was used to preheating of the workpiece surface up to 300 ºC, causing reduction of yield stress about 15%. Results obtained experimentally, show that the method used can considerably improved surface quality of the workpiece.
Keywords: Hard-to-cut material, Hot machining, Surfaceroughness, Tool TemperatureProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2053
494 Manufacturing of Twist-Free Surfaces by Magnetism Aided Machining Technologies
Authors: Zs. Kovács, Zs. J. Viharos, J. Kodácsy
As a well-known conventional finishing process, the grinding is commonly used to manufacture seal mating surfaces and bearing surfaces, but is also creates twisted surfaces. The machined surfaces by turning or grinding usually have twist structure on the surfaces, which can convey lubricants such as conveyor screw. To avoid this phenomenon, have to use special techniques or machines, for example start-stop turning, tangential turning, ultrasonic protection or special toll geometries. All of these solutions have high cost and difficult usability. In this paper, we describe a system and summarize the results of the experimental research carried out mainly in the field of Magnetic Abrasive Polishing (MAP) and Magnetic Roller Burnishing (MRB). These technologies are simple and also green while able to produce twist-free surfaces. During the tests, C45 normalized steel was used as workpiece material which was machined by simple and Wiper geometrical turning inserts in a CNC turning lathe. After the turning, the MAP and MRB technologies can be used directly to reduce the twist of surfaces. The evaluation was completed by advanced measuring and IT equipment.
Keywords: Magnetism, finishing, polishing, roller burnishing, twist-free.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1024
493 Optimizing Turning Parameters for Cylindrical Parts Using Simulated Annealing Method
Authors: Farhad Kolahan, Mahdi Abachizadeh
In this paper, a simulated annealing algorithm has been developed to optimize machining parameters in turning operation on cylindrical workpieces. The turning operation usually includes several passes of rough machining and a final pass of finishing. Seven different constraints are considered in a non-linear model where the goal is to achieve minimum total cost. The weighted total cost consists of machining cost, tool cost and tool replacement cost. The computational results clearly show that the proposed optimization procedure has considerably improved total operation cost by optimally determining machining parameters.
Keywords: Optimization, Simulated Annealing, Machining Parameters, Turning Operation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1381
492 Process Capability Analysis by Using Statistical Process Control of Rice Polished Cylinder Turning Practice
Authors: S. Bangphan, P. Bangphan, T. Boonkang
Quality control helps industries in improvements of its product quality and productivity. Statistical Process Control (SPC) is one of the tools to control the quality of products that turning practice in bringing a department of industrial engineering process under control. In this research, the process control of a turning manufactured at workshops machines. The varying measurements have been recorded for a number of samples of a rice polished cylinder obtained from a number of trials with the turning practice. SPC technique has been adopted by the process is finally brought under control and process capability is improved.
Keywords: Rice polished cylinder, statistical process control, control charts, process capability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3560
491 Chip Formation during Turning Multiphase Microalloyed Steel
Authors: V.Sivaraman, S. Sankaran, L. Vijayaraghavan
Abstract:Machining through turning was carried out in a lathe to study the chip formation of Multiphase Ferrite (F-B-M) microalloyed steel. Taguchi orthogonal array was employed to perform the machining. Continuous and discontinuous chips were formed for different cutting parameters like speed, feed and depth of cut. Optical and scanning electron microscope was employed to identify the chip morphology.
Keywords: Multiphase microalloyed steel, chip formation, Taguchi technique, turning, cutting parametersProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1541
490 Performance Assessment of Carbon Nano Tube Based Cutting Fluid in Machining Process
Authors: Alluru Gopala Krishna, Thella Babu Rao
Abstract:In machining, there is always a problem with heat generation and friction produced during the process as they consequently affect tool wear and surface finish. An instant heat transfer mechanism could protect the cutting tool edge and enhance the tool life by cooling the cutting edge of the tool. In the present work, carbon nanotube (CNT) based nano-cutting fluid is proposed for machining a hard-to-cut material. Tool wear and surface roughness are considered for the evaluation of the nano-cutting fluid in turning process. The performance of nanocoolant is assessed against the conventional coolant and dry machining conditions and it is observed that the proposed nanocoolant has produced better performance than the conventional coolant.
Keywords: CNT based nanocoolant, turning, tool wear, surface roughness.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1500
489 Effect on the Performance of the Nano-Particulate Graphite Lubricant in the Turning of AISI 1040 Steel under Variable Machining Conditions
Authors: S. Srikiran, Dharmala Venkata Padmaja, P. N. L. Pavani, R. Pola Rao, K. Ramji
Abstract:Technological advancements in the development of cutting tools and coolant/lubricant chemistry have enhanced the machining capabilities of hard materials under higher machining conditions. Generation of high temperatures at the cutting zone during machining is one of the most important and pertinent problems which adversely affect the tool life and surface finish of the machined components. Generally, cutting fluids and solid lubricants are used to overcome the problem of heat generation, which is not effectively addressing the problems. With technological advancements in the field of tribology, nano-level particulate solid lubricants are being used nowadays in machining operations, especially in the areas of turning and grinding. The present investigation analyses the effect of using nano-particulate graphite powder as lubricant in the turning of AISI 1040 steel under variable machining conditions and to study its effect on cutting forces, tool temperature and surface roughness of the machined component. Experiments revealed that the increase in cutting forces and tool temperature resulting in the decrease of surface quality with the decrease in the size of nano-particulate graphite powder as lubricant.
Keywords: Solid lubricant, graphite, minimum quantity lubrication, nanoparticles.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 796
488 ANN Based Model Development for Material Removal Rate in Dry Turning in Indian Context
Authors: Mangesh R. Phate, V. H. Tatwawadi
This paper is intended to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) based model of material removal rate (MRR) in the turning of ferrous and nonferrous material in a Indian small-scale industry. MRR of the formulated model was proved with the testing data and artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed for the analysis and prediction of the relationship between inputs and output parameters during the turning of ferrous and nonferrous materials. The input parameters of this model are operator, work-piece, cutting process, cutting tool, machine and the environment.
The ANN model consists of a three layered feedforward back propagation neural network. The network is trained with pairs of independent/dependent datasets generated when machining ferrous and nonferrous material. A very good performance of the neural network, in terms of contract with experimental data, was achieved. The model may be used for the testing and forecast of the complex relationship between dependent and the independent parameters in turning operations.
Keywords: Field data based model, Artificial neural network, Simulation, Convectional Turning, Material removal rate.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1855
487 Improvement of Ride Comfort of Turning Electric Vehicle Using Optimal Speed Control
Authors: Yingyi Zhou, Tohru Kawabe
Abstract:With the spread of EVs (electric Vehicles), the ride comfort has been gaining a lot of attention. The influence of the lateral acceleration is important for the improvement of ride comfort of EVs as well as the longitudinal acceleration, especially upon turning of the vehicle. Therefore, this paper proposes a practical optimal speed control method to greatly improve the ride comfort in the vehicle turning situation. For consturcting this method, effective criteria that can appropriately evaluate deterioration of ride comfort is derived. The method can reduce the influence of both the longitudinal and the lateral speed changes for providing a confortable ride. From several simulation results, we can see the fact that the method can prevent aggravation of the ride comfort by suppressing the influence of longitudinal speed change in the turning situation. Hence, the effectiveness of the method is recognized.
Keywords: Electric vehicle, speed control, ride comfort, optimal control theory, driving support system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 697
486 Advance in Monitoring and Process Control of Surface Roughness
Authors: Somkiat Tangjitsitcharoen, Siripong Damrongthaveesak
This paper presents an advance in monitoring and process control of surface roughness in CNC machine for the turning and milling processes. An integration of the in-process monitoring and process control of the surface roughness is proposed and developed during the machining process by using the cutting force ratio. The previously developed surface roughness models for turning and milling processes of the author are adopted to predict the inprocess surface roughness, which consist of the cutting speed, the feed rate, the tool nose radius, the depth of cut, the rake angle, and the cutting force ratio. The cutting force ratios obtained from the turning and the milling are utilized to estimate the in-process surface roughness. The dynamometers are installed on the tool turret of CNC turning machine and the table of 5-axis machining center to monitor the cutting forces. The in-process control of the surface roughness has been developed and proposed to control the predicted surface roughness. It has been proved by the cutting tests that the proposed integration system of the in-process monitoring and the process control can be used to check the surface roughness during the cutting by utilizing the cutting force ratio.
Keywords: Turning, milling, monitoring, surface roughness, cutting force ratio.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1895
485 The Crack Propagation on Glass in Laser Thermal Cleavage
Authors: Jehnming Lin
In the laser cleavage of glass, the laser is mostly adopted as a heat source to generate a thermal stress state on the substrates. The crack propagation of the soda-lime glass in the laser thermal cleavage with the straight-turning paths was investigated in this study experimentally and numerically. The crack propagation was visualized by a high speed camera with the off-line examination on the micro-crack propagation. The temperature and stress distributions induced by the laser heat source were calculated by ANSYS software based on the finite element method (FEM). With the cutting paths in various turning directions, the experimental and numerical results were in comparison and verified. The fracture modes due to the normal and shear stresses were verified at the turning point of the laser cleavage path. It shows a significant variation of the stress profiles along the straight-turning paths and causes a change on the fracture modes.
Keywords: Laser cleavage, glass, fracture, stress analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1438
484 Homogenization of Cocoa Beans Fermentation to Upgrade Quality Using an Original Improved Fermenter
Authors: Aka S. Koffi, N’Goran Yao, Philippe Bastide, Denis Bruneau, Diby Kadjo
Cocoa beans (Theobroma cocoa L.) are the main components for chocolate manufacturing. The beans must be correctly fermented at first. Traditional process to perform the first fermentation (lactic fermentation) often consists in confining cacao beans using banana leaves or a fermentation basket, both of them leading to a poor product thermal insulation and to an inability to mix the product. Box fermenter reduces this loss by using a wood with large thickness (e>3cm), but mixing to homogenize the product is still hard to perform. Automatic fermenters are not rentable for most of producers. Heat (T>45°C) and acidity produced during the fermentation by microbiology activity of yeasts and bacteria are enabling the emergence of potential flavor and taste of future chocolate. In this study, a cylindro-rotative fermenter (FCR-V1) has been built and coconut fibers were used in its structure to confine heat. An axis of rotation (360°) has been integrated to facilitate the turning and homogenization of beans in the fermenter. This axis permits to put fermenter in a vertical position during the anaerobic alcoholic phase of fermentation, and horizontally during acetic phase to take advantage of the mid height filling. For circulation of air flow during turning in acetic phase, two woven rattan with grid have been made, one for the top and second for the bottom of the fermenter. In order to reduce air flow during acetic phase, two airtight covers are put on each grid cover. The efficiency of the turning by this kind of rotation, coupled with homogenization of the temperature, caused by the horizontal position in the acetic phase of the fermenter, contribute to having a good proportion of well-fermented beans (83.23%). In addition, beans’pH values ranged between 4.5 and 5.5. These values are ideal for enzymatic activity in the production of the aromatic compounds inside beans. The regularity of mass loss during all fermentation makes it possible to predict the drying surface corresponding to the amount being fermented.
Keywords: Cocoa fermentation, fermenter, microbial activity, temperature, turning.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1132
483 Investigations Into the Turning Parameters Effect on the Surface Roughness of Flame Hardened Medium Carbon Steel with TiN-Al2O3-TiCN Coated Inserts based on Taguchi Techniques
Authors: Samir Khrais, Adel Mahammod Hassan , Amro Gazawi
Abstract:The aim of this research is to evaluate surface roughness and develop a multiple regression model for surface roughness as a function of cutting parameters during the turning of flame hardened medium carbon steel with TiN-Al2O3-TiCN coated inserts. An experimental plan of work and signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) were used to relate the influence of turning parameters to the workpiece surface finish utilizing Taguchi methodology. The effects of turning parameters were studied by using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) method. Evaluated parameters were feed, cutting speed, and depth of cut. It was found that the most significant interaction among the considered turning parameters was between depth of cut and feed. The average surface roughness (Ra) resulted by TiN-Al2O3- TiCN coated inserts was about 2.44 μm and minimum value was 0.74 μm. In addition, the regression model was able to predict values for surface roughness in comparison with experimental values within reasonable limit.
Keywords: Medium carbon steel, Prediction, Surface roughness, Taguchi methodProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1655
482 Optimization of Surface Roughness in Turning Process Utilizing Live Tooling via Taguchi Methodology
Authors: Weinian Wang, Joseph C. Chen
The objective of this research is to optimize the process of cutting cylindrical workpieces utilizing live tooling on a HAAS ST-20 lathe. Surface roughness (Ra) has been investigated as the indicator of quality characteristics for machining process. Aluminum alloy was used to conduct experiments due to its wide range usages in engineering structures and components where light weight or corrosion resistance is required. In this study, Taguchi methodology is utilized to determine the effects that each of the parameters has on surface roughness (Ra). A total of 18 experiments of each process were designed according to Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array (OA) with four control factors at three levels of each and signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) were computed with Smaller the better equation for minimizing the system. The optimal parameters identified for the surface roughness of the turning operation utilizing live tooling were a feed rate of 3 inches/min(A3); a spindle speed of 1300 rpm(B3); a 2-flute titanium nitrite coated 3/8” endmill (C1); and a depth of cut of 0.025 inches (D2). The mean surface roughness of the confirmation runs in turning operation was 8.22 micro inches. The final results demonstrate that Taguchi methodology is a sufficient way of process improvement in turning process on surface roughness.
Keywords: Live tooling, surface roughness, Taguchi Parameter Design, CNC turning operation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 627
481 Optimization of Diverter Box Configuration in a V94.2 Gas Turbine Exhaust System using Numerical Simulation
Authors: A. Mohajer, A. Noroozi, S. Norouzi
The bypass exhaust system of a 160 MW combined cycle has been modeled and analyzed using numerical simulation in 2D prospective. Analysis was carried out using the commercial numerical simulation software, FLUENT 6.2. All inputs were based on the technical data gathered from working conditions of a Siemens V94.2 gas turbine, installed in the Yazd power plant. This paper deals with reduction of pressure drop in bypass exhaust system using turning vanes mounted in diverter box in order to alleviate turbulent energy dissipation rate above diverter box. The geometry of such turning vanes has been optimized based on the flow pattern at diverter box inlet. The results show that the use of optimized turning vanes in diverter box can improve the flow pattern and eliminate vortices around sharp edges just before the silencer. Furthermore, this optimization could decrease the pressure drop in bypass exhaust system and leads to higher plant efficiency.
Keywords: Numerical simulation, Diverter box, Turning vanes, Exhaust systemProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2699
480 Straight Line Defect Detection with Feed Forward Neural Network
Authors: S. Liangwongsan, A. Oonsivilai
Nowadays, hard disk is one of the most popular storage components. In hard disk industry, the hard disk drive must pass various complex processes and tested systems. In each step, there are some failures. To reduce waste from these failures, we must find the root cause of those failures. Conventionall data analysis method is not effective enough to analyze the large capacity of data. In this paper, we proposed the Hough method for straight line detection that helps to detect straight line defect patterns that occurs in hard disk drive. The proposed method will help to increase more speed and accuracy in failure analysis.
Keywords: Hough Transform, Failure Analysis, Media, Hard Disk DriveProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1872
479 Process Optimisation for Internal Cylindrical Rough Turning of Nickel Alloy 625 Weld Overlay
Authors: Lydia Chan, Islam Shyha, Dale Dreyer, John Hamilton, Phil Hackney
Abstract:Nickel-based superalloys are generally known to be difficult to cut due to their strength, low thermal conductivity, and high work hardening tendency. Superalloy such as alloy 625 is often used in the oil and gas industry as a surfacing material to provide wear and corrosion resistance to components. The material is typically applied onto a metallic substrate through weld overlay cladding, an arc welding technique. Cladded surfaces are always rugged and carry a tough skin; this creates further difficulties to the machining process. The present work utilised design of experiment to optimise the internal cylindrical rough turning for weld overlay surfaces. An L27 orthogonal array was used to assess effects of the four selected key process variables: cutting insert, depth of cut, feed rate, and cutting speed. The optimal cutting conditions were determined based on productivity and the level of tool wear.
Keywords: Cylindrical turning, nickel superalloy, turning of overlay, weld overlay.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 788
478 An Erosion-based Modeling of Abrasive Waterjet Turning
Authors: I. Zohourkari, M. Zohoor
Abstract:In this paper, an erosion-based model for abrasive waterjet (AWJ) turning process is presented. By using modified Hashish erosion model, the volume of material removed by impacting of abrasive particles to surface of the rotating cylindrical specimen is estimated and radius reduction at each rotation is calculated. Different to previous works, the proposed model considers the continuous change in local impact angle due to change in workpiece diameter, axial traverse rate of the jet, the abrasive particle roundness and density. The accuracy of the proposed model is examined by experimental tests under various traverse rates. The final diameters estimated by the proposed model are in good accordance with experiments.
Keywords: Abrasive, Erosion, impact, Particle, Waterjet, Turning.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2306
477 Taguchi-Based Surface Roughness Optimization for Slotted and Tapered Cylindrical Products in Milling and Turning Operations
Authors: Vineeth G. Kuriakose, Joseph C. Chen, Ye Li
The research follows a systematic approach to optimize the parameters for parts machined by turning and milling processes. The quality characteristic chosen is surface roughness since the surface finish plays an important role for parts that require surface contact. A tapered cylindrical surface is designed as a test specimen for the research. The material chosen for machining is aluminum alloy 6061 due to its wide variety of industrial and engineering applications. HAAS VF-2 TR computer numerical control (CNC) vertical machining center is used for milling and HAAS ST-20 CNC machine is used for turning in this research. Taguchi analysis is used to optimize the surface roughness of the machined parts. The L9 Orthogonal Array is designed for four controllable factors with three different levels each, resulting in 18 experimental runs. Signal to Noise (S/N) Ratio is calculated for achieving the specific target value of 75 ± 15 µin. The controllable parameters chosen for turning process are feed rate, depth of cut, coolant flow and finish cut and for milling process are feed rate, spindle speed, step over and coolant flow. The uncontrollable factors are tool geometry for turning process and tool material for milling process. Hypothesis testing is conducted to study the significance of different uncontrollable factors on the surface roughnesses. The optimal parameter settings were identified from the Taguchi analysis and the process capability Cp and the process capability index Cpk were improved from 1.76 and 0.02 to 3.70 and 2.10 respectively for turning process and from 0.87 and 0.19 to 3.85 and 2.70 respectively for the milling process. The surface roughnesses were improved from 60.17 µin to 68.50 µin, reducing the defect rate from 52.39% to 0% for the turning process and from 93.18 µin to 79.49 µin, reducing the defect rate from 71.23% to 0% for the milling process. The purpose of this study is to efficiently utilize the Taguchi design analysis to improve the surface roughness.
Keywords: CNC milling, CNC turning, surface roughness, Taguchi analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 622
476 Classification of Germinatable Mung Bean by Near Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging
Authors: Kaewkarn Phuangsombat, Arthit Phuangsombat, Anupun Terdwongworakul
Hard seeds will not grow and can cause mold in sprouting process. Thus, the hard seeds need to be separated from the normal seeds. Near infrared hyperspectral imaging in a range of 900 to 1700 nm was implemented to develop a model by partial least squares discriminant analysis to discriminate the hard seeds from the normal seeds. The orientation of the seeds was also studied to compare the performance of the models. The model based on hilum-up orientation achieved the best result giving the coefficient of determination of 0.98, and root mean square error of prediction of 0.07 with classification accuracy was equal to 100%.
Keywords: Mung bean, near infrared, germinatability, hard seed.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 878
475 Pioneer Synthesis and Characterization of Boron Containing Hard Materials
Authors: G. Çelik Gül, F. Kurtuluş
Abstract:The first laboratory synthesis of hard materials such as diamond proceeded to attack of developing materials with high hardness to compete diamond. Boron rich solids are good candidates owing to their short interatomic bond lengths and strong covalent character. Boron containing hard material was synthesized by modifiedmicrowave method under nitrogen atmosphere by using a fuel (glycine or urea), amorphous boron and/or boric acid in appropriate molar ratio. Characterizations were done by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive analyze (SEM/EDS), thermo gravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA).
Keywords: Boron containing materials, hard materials, microwave synthesis, powder X-ray diffraction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1952
474 Optimization of Surface Roughness and Vibration in Turning of Aluminum Alloy AA2024 Using Taguchi Technique
Authors: Vladimir Aleksandrovich Rogov, Ghorbani Siamak
Determination of optimal conditions of machining parameters is important to reduce the production cost and achieve the desired surface quality. This paper investigates the influence of cutting parameters on surface roughness and natural frequency in turning of aluminum alloy AA2024. The experiments were performed at the lathe machine using two different cutting tools made of AISI 5140 and carbide cutting insert coated with TiC. Turning experiments were planned by Taguchi method L9 orthogonal array.Three levels for spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool overhang were chosen as cutting variables. The obtained experimental data has been analyzed using signal to noise ratio and analysis of variance. The main effects have been discussed and percentage contributions of various parameters affecting surface roughness and natural frequency, and optimal cutting conditions have been determined. Finally, optimization of the cutting parameters using Taguchi method was verified by confirmation experiments.
Keywords: Turning, Cutting conditions, Surface roughness, Natural frequency, Taguchi method, ANOVA, S/N ratio.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4468
473 PID Controller Design for Following Control of Hard Disk Drive by Characteristic Ratio Assignment Method
Authors: Chaoraingern J., Trisuwannawat T., Numsomran A.
Abstract:The author present PID controller design for following control of hard disk drive by characteristic ratio assignment method. The study in this paper concerns design of a PID controller which sufficiently robust to the disturbances and plant perturbations on following control of hard disk drive. Characteristic Ratio Assignment (CRA) is shown to be an efficient control technique to serve this requirement. The controller design by CRA is based on the choice of the coefficients of the characteristic polynomial of the closed loop system according to the convenient performance criteria such as equivalent time constant and ration of characteristic coefficient. Hence, in this study, CRA method is applied in PID controller design for following control of hard disk drive. Matlab simulation results shown that CRA design is fairly stable and robust whilst giving the convenience in controller-s parameters adjustment.
Keywords: Following Control, Hard Disk Drive, PID, CRAProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1829
472 Performance Evaluation of Conventional and Wiper Carbide Tools When Turning 6060 Aluminium Alloy: Analysis of Surface Roughness
Authors: Salah Gariani, Taher Dao, Khaled Jegandi
Wiper inserts are widely used nowadays, particularly in turning and milling operations, due to their unique geometric characteristics that generate superb surface finish and improve productivity. Wiper inserts can produce double the feed rate while preserving comparable surface roughness compared to that produced by conventional cutting tools. This paper reports an experimental investigation of surface quality generated in the precision dry turning of 6060 Aluminium alloy using conventional and wiper inserts at different cutting conditions. The Taguchi L9 array, Analysis of Means (AOM) and variance (ANOVA) were employed in the development of the experimental design and to optimise the process parameter identified: average surface roughness (Ra). The experimental results show that the wiper inserts substantially improved the surface quality of the machined samples by a factor of two compared to those for the conventional insert under all cutting conditions. The ANOVA and AOM analysis showed that the type of insert is the most significant factor affecting surface roughness, with a Percentage Contribution Ratio (PCR) value of 67.41%. Feed rate also significantly affected surface roughness but contributed less to its variation. No significant difference was found between values of Ra using wiper inserts under dry and wet cooling modes when turning 6060 Aluminium alloy.
Keywords: 6060 Aluminium alloy, conventional and wiper carbide tools, dry turning, average surface roughness.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 44
471 Simultaneous Optimization of Machining Parameters and Tool Geometry Specifications in Turning Operation of AISI1045 Steel
Authors: Farhad Kolahan, Mohsen Manoochehri, Abbas Hosseini
Machining is an important manufacturing process used to produce a wide variety of metallic parts. Among various machining processes, turning is one of the most important one which is employed to shape cylindrical parts. In turning, the quality of finished product is measured in terms of surface roughness. In turn, surface quality is determined by machining parameters and tool geometry specifications. The main objective of this study is to simultaneously model and optimize machining parameters and tool geometry in order to improve the surface roughness for AISI1045 steel. Several levels of machining parameters and tool geometry specifications are considered as input parameters. The surface roughness is selected as process output measure of performance. A Taguchi approach is employed to gather experimental data. Then, based on signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, the best sets of cutting parameters and tool geometry specifications have been determined. Using these parameters values, the surface roughness of AISI1045 steel parts may be minimized. Experimental results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Keywords: Taguchi method, turning parameters, tool geometry specifications, S/N ratio, statistical analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2195