Search results for: mixed ceramic
789 Modeling of Plasticity of Clays Submitted to Compression Test
Authors: Otávio J.U. Flores, Fernando A. Andrade, Dachamir Hotza, Hazim A. Al-Qureshi
Abstract:In the forming of ceramic materials the plasticity concept is commonly used. This term is related to a particular mechanical behavior when clay is mixed with water. A plastic ceramic material shows a permanent strain without rupture when a compressive load produces a shear stress that exceeds the material-s yield strength. For a plastic ceramic body it observes a measurable elastic behavior before the yield strength and when the applied load is removed. In this work, a mathematical model was developed from applied concepts of the plasticity theory by using the stress/strain diagram under compression.
Keywords: Plasticity, clay, modeling, coefficient of friction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1981
788 Kaolin for Production of Souvenirs
Authors: Ruedee Niyomrath
Abstract:Ranong province has the best kaolin, and it is the most useful of all the clay types used in ceramic making. Until recently, there has been only one community business making ceramics in Ranong province. And this business could not build the mix of body and glaze from their raw material without assistance. Considering these problems, this research is aimed to test the composition of ceramic body and glaze which suit. Kaolin from Ranong is the raw material which these search focuses on. All other raw materials use in the investigation will come from southern Thailand, kaolin and limestone from Ranong province, ball clay from Surat Thani province, white sand from Songkhla province, and feldspar from Nakhon Si Thammarat province. Results can be used to develop the efficiency of industrial production which in return will enhance the business process.
Keywords: Ceramic body and glaze, Ceramic material, Ceramic production from kaolin, Ceramic souvenirs.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1747
787 Calculation of the Ceramics Weibull Parameters
Abstract:The paper deals with calculation of the parameters of ceramic material from a set of destruction tests of ceramic heads of total hip joint endoprosthesis. The standard way of calculation of the material parameters consists in carrying out a set of 3 or 4 point bending tests of specimens cut out from parts of the ceramic material to be analysed. In case of ceramic heads, it is not possible to cut out specimens of required dimensions because the heads are too small (if the cut out specimens were smaller than the normalised ones, the material parameters derived from them would exhibit higher strength values than those which the given ceramic material really has). On that score, a special testing jig was made, in which 40 heads were destructed. From the measured values of circumferential strains of the head-s external spherical surface under destruction, the state of stress in the head under destruction was established using the final elements method (FEM). From the values obtained, the sought for parameters of the ceramic material were calculated using Weibull-s weakest-link theory.
Keywords: Hip joint endoprosthesis, ceramic head, FEM analysis, Weibull's weakest-link theory, failure probability, material parametersProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2537
786 Effect of Coal on Engineering Properties in Building Materials: Opportunity to Manufacturing Insulating Bricks
Authors: Bachir Chemani, Halima Chemani
The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of adding coal to obtain insulating ceramic product. The preparation of mixtures is achieved with 04 types of different masse compositions, consisting of gray and yellow clay, and coal. Analyses are performed on local raw materials by adding coal as additive. The coal content varies from 5 to 20 % in weight by varying the size of coal particles ranging from 0.25mm to 1.60mm.
Initially, each natural moisture content of a raw material has been determined at the temperature of 105°C in a laboratory oven. The Influence of low-coal content on absorption, the apparent density, the contraction and the resistance during compression have been evaluated. The experimental results showed that the optimized composition could be obtained by adding 10% by weight of coal leading thus to insulating ceramic products with water absorption, a density and resistance to compression of 9.40 %, 1.88 g/cm3, 35.46 MPa, respectively. The results show that coal, when mixed with traditional raw materials, offers the conditions to be used as an additive in the production of lightweight ceramic products.
Keywords: Clay, coal, resistance to compression, insulating bricks.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2083
785 CFD Simulation of SO2 Removal from Gas Mixtures using Ceramic Membranes
Authors: Azam Marjani, Saeed Shirazian
This work deals with modeling and simulation of SO2 removal in a ceramic membrane by means of FEM. A mass transfer model was developed to predict the performance of SO2 absorption in a chemical solvent. The model was based on solving conservation equations for gas component in the membrane. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of mass and momentum were used to solve the model equations. The simulations aimed to obtain the distribution of gas concentration in the absorption process. The effect of the operating parameters on the efficiency of the ceramic membrane was evaluated. The modeling findings showed that the gas phase velocity has significant effect on the removal of gas whereas the liquid phase does not affect the SO2 removal significantly. It is also indicated that the main mass transfer resistance is placed in the membrane and gas phase because of high tortuosity of the ceramic membrane.
Keywords: Gas separation, finite element, ceramic, sulphur dioxide, simulation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2133
784 Innovation to Protect the Smoke and Odor Pollutions in Benjarong Ceramic Production
Authors: Chonmapat Torasa, Witthaya Mekhum
The improvement of a filer case utilized to purify the let-out smoke and smell in the production of Benjarong Ceramic is studied through Participatory Action Research (PAR). This research is aimed to protect smell, dirty smoke, and air pollution which are effects of incomplete combustion in the production of Benjarong ceramic. This research was conducted at Jongjint Benjarong Ceramic Factory in Plai Bang, Bang Kruai, Nonthaburi Province,Thailand, also 12 employees were interviewed for data collection. All collected data were analyzed to develop and create solution to protect smoke and smell pollution from Benjarong ceramic production. The results revealed that the employees who have used the developed filer cases are moderately satisfied. In addition to the efficiency of developed smoke-and-smell filer cases, it was found that Overall, the respondents were satisfied moderately with efficiency of modified smoke and smell filter cases.
Keywords: Benjarong Ceramic, Community Economy, OTOP Production, Production.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1671
783 A Review on the Usage of Ceramic Wastes in Concrete Production
Authors: O. Zimbili, W. Salim, M. Ndambuki
Construction and Demolition (C&D) wastes contribute the highest percentage of wastes worldwide (75%). Furthermore, ceramic materials contribute the highest percentage of wastes within the C&D wastes (54%). The current option for disposal of ceramic wastes is landfill. This is due to unavailability of standards, avoidance of risk, lack of knowledge and experience in using ceramic wastes in construction. The ability of ceramic wastes to act as a pozzolanic material in the production of cement has been effectively explored. The results proved that temperatures used in the manufacturing of these tiles (about 900⁰C) are sufficient to activate pozzolanic properties of clay. They also showed that, after optimization (11-14% substitution); the cement blend performs better, with no morphological difference between the cement blended with ceramic waste, and that blended with other pozzolanic materials. Sanitary ware and electrical insulator porcelain wastes are some wastes investigated for usage as aggregates in concrete production. When optimized, both produced good results, better than when natural aggregates are used. However, the research on ceramic wastes as partial substitute for fine aggregates or cement has not been overly exploited as the other areas. This review has been concluded with focus on investigating whether ceramic wall tile wastes used as partial substitute for cement and fine aggregates could prove to be beneficial since the two materials are the most high-priced during concrete production.
Keywords: Blended, morphological, pozzolanic properties, waste.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 8597
782 Gypsum Composites with CDW as Raw Material
Authors: R. Santos Jiménez, A. San-Antonio-González, M. Del Río Merino, M. González Cortina, C. Viñas Arrebola
Abstract:In this study, the feasibility of incorporating ceramic waste from bricks (perforated brick and double hollow brick) and extruded polystyrene (XPS) waste, is analysed. Results show that it is possible to incorporate up to 25% of ceramic waste and 4% of XPS waste over the weight of gypsum in a gypsum matrix. Furthermore, with the addition of ceramic waste an 8% of surface hardness increase and a 25% of capillary water absorption reduction can be obtained. On the other hand, with the addition of XPS, a 26% reduction of density and a 37% improvement of thermal conductivity can be obtained. The obtained results are favorable to use these materials in order to produce prefabricated gypsum and also as material for interior cladding walls.
Keywords: CDW, waste materials, ceramic waste, XPS, construction materials, gypsum.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1944
781 Synthesis of Hard Magnetic Material from Secondary Resources
Authors: M. Bahgat, F. M. Awan, H. A. Hanafy, O. N. Alzeghaibi
Strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O19; Sr-ferrite) is one of the well-known materials for permanent magnets. In this study, Mtype strontium ferrite was prepared by following the conventional ceramic method from steelmaking by-product. Initial materials; SrCO3 and by-product, were mixed together in the composition of SrFe12O19 in different Sr/Fe ratios. The mixtures of these raw materials were dry-milled for 6h. The blended powder was presintered (i.e. calcination) at 1000°C for different times periods, then cooled down to room temperature. These pre-sintered samples were re-milled in a dry atmosphere for 1h and then fired at different temperatures in atmospheric conditions, and cooled down to room temperature. The produced magnetic powder has a dense hexagonal grain shape structure. The calculated energy product values for the produced samples ranged from 0.3 to 2.4 MGOe.
Keywords: Ceramic route, Hard magnetic materials, Strontium ferrite.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2257
780 Modeling the Time-Dependent Rheological Behavior of Clays Used in Fabrication of Ceramic
Authors: L. Hammadi, N. Boudjenane, R. Houdjedje, R. Reffis, M. Belhadri
Abstract:In this study, we investigated the thixotropic behavior of two clays used in fabrication of ceramic. The structural kinetic model (SKM) was used to characterize the thixotropic behavior of two different kinds of clays used in fabrication of ceramic. The SKM postulates that the change in the rheological behavior is associated with shear-induced breakdown of the internal structure of the clays. This model for the structure decay with time at constant shear rate assumes nth order kinetics for the decay of the material structure with a rate constant.
Keywords: Ceramic, clays, structural kinetic model, thixotropy, viscosity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1137
779 Finite Element Analysis of Full Ceramic Crowns with and without Zirconia Framework
Authors: Porojan S., Sandu L., Topală F.
Abstract:Simulation of occlusal function during laboratory material-s testing becomes essential in predicting long-term performance before clinical usage. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of chamfer preparation depth on failure risk of heat pressed ceramic crowns with and without zirconia framework by means of finite element analysis. 3D models of maxillary central incisor, prepared for full ceramic crowns with different depths of the chamfer margin (between 0.8 and 1.2 mm) and 6-degree tapered walls together with the overlying crowns were generated using literature data (Fig. 1, 2). The crowns were designed with and without a zirconia framework with a thickness of 0.4 mm. For all preparations and crowns, stresses in the pressed ceramic crown, zirconia framework, pressed ceramic veneer, and dentin were evaluated separately. The highest stresses were registered in the dentin. The depth of the preparations had no significant influence on the stress values of the teeth and pressed ceramics for the studied cases, only for the zirconia framework. The zirconia framework decreases the stress values in the veneer.
Keywords: Finite element analysis, full ceramic crown, zirconia framework, stresses.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1504
778 Material Defects Identification in Metal Ceramic Fixed Partial Dentures by En-Face Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography
Authors: C. Sinescu, M. Negrutiu, R. Negru, M. Romînu, A.G. Podoleanu
Abstract:The fixed partial dentures are mainly used in the frontal part of the dental arch because of their great esthetics. There are several factors that are associated with the stress state created in ceramic restorations, including: thickness of ceramic layers, mechanical properties of the materials, elastic modulus of the supporting substrate material, direction, magnitude and frequency of applied load, size and location of occlusal contact areas, residual stresses induced by processing or pores, restoration-cement interfacial defects and environmental defects. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the capability of Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PSOCT) in detection and analysis of possible material defects in metal-ceramic and integral ceramic fixed partial dentures. As a conclusion, it is important to have a non invasive method to investigate fixed partial prostheses before their insertion in the oral cavity in order to satisfy the high stress requirements and the esthetic function.
Keywords: Ceramic Fixed Partial Dentures, Material Defects, Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography, Numerical SimulationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1670
777 Using of Cavitation Disperser, for Porous Ceramic and Concrete Material Preparation
Authors: A. Shishkin, A. Korjakins, V. Mironovs
Present paper describes method of obtaining clay ceramic foam (CCF) and foam concrete (FC), by direct foaming with high speed mixer-disperser (HSMD). Three foaming agents (FA) are compared for the FC and CCF production: SCHÄUMUNGSMITTEL W 53 FLÜSSIG (Zschimmer & Schwarz Gmbh, Germany), SCF- 1245 (Sika, test sample, Latvia) and FAB-12 (Elade, Latvija). CCF were obtained at 950, 1000°C, 1150°C and 1150°C firing temperature and have mechanical compressive strength 1.2, 2.55 and 4.3 MPa and porosity 79.4, 75.1, 71.6%, respectively. Obtained FC has 6-14 MPa compressive strength and porosity 44-55%. The goal of this work was development of a sustainable and durable ceramic cellular structures using HSMD.
Keywords: Ceramic foam, foam concrete, clay foam, open cell, close cell, direct foaming.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2288
776 Testing of DISAL D240 and D420 Ceramic Tool Materials with an Interrupted Cut Simulator
Authors: Robert Cep, Marek Sadilek, Lenka Ocenasova, Josef Brychta, Michal Hatala, Branimir Barisic
This paper presents a solution for ceramic cutting tools availability in interrupted machining. Experiments were performed on a special fixture – the interrupted cut simulator. This fixture was constructed at our Department of Machining and Assembly within the scope of a project by the Czech Science Foundation. The goals of the tests were to contribute to the wider usage of these cutting materials in machining, especially in interrupted machining. Through the centuries, producers of ceramic cutting tools have taken big steps forward. Namely, increasing durability in maintaining high levels of strength and hardness lends an advantage. Some producers of these materials advise cutting inserts for interrupted machining at the present time [1, 2].
Keywords: Ceramic cutting tool, cutting tool tests, interrupted cutting, machining.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1398
775 Different Formula of Mixed Bacteria as a Bio-Treatment for Sewage Wastewater
Authors: E. Marei, A. Hammad, S. Ismail, A. El-Gindy
This study aims to investigate the ability of different formula of mixed bacteria as a biological treatments of wastewater after primary treatment as a bio-treatment and bio-removal and bio-adsorbent of different heavy metals in natural circumstances. The wastewater was collected from Sarpium forest site-Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. These treatments were mixture of free cells and mixture of immobilized cells of different bacteria. These different formulas of mixed bacteria were prepared under Lab. condition. The obtained data indicated that, as a result of wastewater bio-treatment, the removal rate was found to be 76.92 and 76.70% for biological oxygen demand, 79.78 and 71.07% for chemical oxygen demand, 32.45 and 36.84 % for ammonia nitrogen as well as 91.67 and 50.0% for phosphate after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively. Moreover, the bio-removals of different heavy metals were found to reach 90.0 and 50. 0% for Cu ion, 98.0 and 98.5% for Fe ion, 97.0 and 99.3% for Mn ion, 90.0 and 90.0% Pb, 80.0% and 75.0% for Zn ion after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively. The results indicated that 13.86 and 17.43% of removal efficiency and reduction of total dissolved solids were achieved after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively.
Keywords: Biological desalination, bio-sorption heavy metals, free cell bacteria, immobilized bacteria, wastewater bio-treatment.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 704
774 En-Face Optical Coherence Tomography Combined with Fluorescence in Material Defects Investigations for Ceramic Fixed Partial Dentures
Authors: C. Sinescu, M. Negrutiu, M. Romînu, C. Haiduc, E. Petrescu, M. Leretter, A.G. Podoleanu
Abstract:Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) combined with the Confocal Microscopy, as a noninvasive method, permits the determinations of materials defects in the ceramic layers depth. For this study 256 anterior and posterior metal and integral ceramic fixed partial dentures were used, made with Empress (Ivoclar), Wollceram and CAD/CAM (Wieland) technology. For each investigate area 350 slices were obtain and a 3D reconstruction was perform from each stuck. The Optical Coherent Tomography, as a noninvasive method, can be used as a control technique in integral ceramic technology, before placing those fixed partial dentures in the oral cavity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the capability of En face Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) combined with a fluorescent method in detection and analysis of possible material defects in metalceramic and integral ceramic fixed partial dentures. As a conclusion, it is important to have a non invasive method to investigate fixed partial prostheses before their insertion in the oral cavity in order to satisfy the high stress requirements and the esthetic function.
Keywords: Ceramic Fixed Partial Dentures, Material Defects, En face Optical Coherence Tomography, Fluorescence.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1378
773 Numerical Analysis of Laminar Mixed Convection within a Complex Geometry
Authors: Y. Lasbet, A. L. Boukhalkhal, K. Loubar
Abstract:The study of mixed convection is, usually, focused on the straight channels in which the onset of the mixed convection is well defined as function of the ratio between Grashof number and Reynolds number, Gr/Re. This is not the case for a complex channel wherein the mixed convection is not sufficiently examined in the literature. Our paper focuses on the study of the mixed convection in a complex geometry in which our main contribution reveals that the critical value of the ratio Gr/Re for the onset of the mixed convection increases highly in the type of geometry contrary to the straight channel. Furthermore, the accentuated secondary flow in this geometry prevents the thermal stratification in the flow and consequently the buoyancy driven becomes negligible. To perform these objectives, a numerical study in complex geometry for several values of the ratio Gr/Re with prescribed wall heat flux (H2), was realized by using the CFD code.
Keywords: Complex geometry, heat transfer, laminar flow, mixed convection, Nusselt number.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1276
772 Influence of Milled Waste Glass to Clay Ceramic Foam Properties Made by Direct Foaming Route
Authors: A. Shishkin, V. Mironovs, D. Goljandin, A. Korjakins
The goal of this work is to develop sustainable and durable ceramic cellular structures using widely available natural resources- clay and milled waste glass. Present paper describes method of obtaining clay ceramic foam (CCF) with addition of milled waste glass in 5, 7 and 10 wt% by direct foaming with high speed mixer-disperser (HSMD). For more efficient clay and waste glass milling and mixing, the high velocity disintegrator was used. The CCF with 5, 7, and 10 wt% were obtained at 900, 950, 1000 and 1050 °C firing temperature and they have demonstrated mechanical compressive strength for all 12 samples ranging from 3.8 to 14.3 MPa and porosity 76-65%. Obtained CCF has compressive strength 14.3 MPa and porosity 65.3%.
Keywords: Ceramic foam, waste glass, clay foam, glass foam, open cell, direct foaming.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1092
771 Preconditioned Mixed-Type Splitting Iterative Method For Z-Matrices
Authors: Li Jiang, Baoguang Tian
Abstract:In this paper, we present the preconditioned mixed-type splitting iterative method for solving the linear systems, Ax = b, where A is a Z-matrix. And we give some comparison theorems to show that the convergence rate of the preconditioned mixed-type splitting iterative method is faster than that of the mixed-type splitting iterative method. Finally, we give a numerical example to illustrate our results.
Keywords: Z-matrix, mixed-type splitting iterative method, precondition, comparison theorem, linear system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1084
770 Stress Analysis of the Ceramics Heads with Different Sizes under the Destruction Tests
Authors: V. Fuis, P. Janicek, T. Navrat
The global solved problem is the calculation of the parameters of ceramic material from a set of destruction tests of ceramic heads of total hip joint endoprosthesis. The standard way of calculation of the material parameters consists in carrying out a set of 3 or 4 point bending tests of specimens cut out from parts of the ceramic material to be analysed. In case of ceramic heads, it is not possible to cut out specimens of required dimensions because the heads are too small (if the cut out specimens were smaller than the normalised ones, the material parameters derived from them would exhibit higher strength values than those which the given ceramic material really has). A special destruction device for heads destruction was designed and the solved local problem is the modification of this destructive device based on the analysis of tensile stress in the head for two different values of the depth of the conical hole in the head. The goal of device modification is a shift of the location with extreme value of σ1max from the region of head’s hole bottom to its opening. This modification will increase the credibility of the obtained material properties of bioceramics, which will be determined from a set of head destructions using the Weibull weakest link theory.
Keywords: Ceramic heads, depth of the conical hole, destruction test, material parameters, principal stress, total hip joint endoprosthesis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1736
769 Energy Saving Stove for Stew Coconut Sugar
Authors: Ruedee Niyomrath
The purposes of this research is aim to build the energy saving stove for stew coconut sugar. The research started from explores ceramic raw materials in local area, create the appropriate mixture of ceramic raw materials for construction material of stove, and make it by ceramic process. It includes design and build the energy saving stove, experiment the efficiency of energy saving stove as to thermal efficiency, energy saving, performance of time, and energy cost efficiency, transfer the knowledge for community, stove manufacturers, and technicians. The findings must be useful to the coconut sugar enterprises producing, to reduce the cost of production, preserve natural resources, and environments.
Keywords: Ceramic raw material, Energy saving stove, Stove design, Performance of stove, Stove for stew coconut sugar.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1523
768 Sintering of Composite Ceramic based on Corundum with Additive in the Al2O3-TiO2-MnO System
Authors: Aung Kyaw Moe, Lukin Evgeny Stepanovich, Popova Nelya Alexandrovna
Abstract:In this paper, the effect of the additive content in the Al2O3-TiO2-MnO system on the sintering of composite ceramics based on corundum was studied. The samples were pressed by uniaxial semi-dry pressing under 100 MPa and sintered at 1500 °С and 1550 °С. The properties of composite ceramics for porosity and flexural strength were studied. When the amount of additives increases, the properties of composite ceramic samples are better than samples without additives.
Keywords: Ceramic, composite material, sintering, corundum.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 632
767 Tool Condition Monitoring of Ceramic Inserted Tools in High Speed Machining through Image Processing
Authors: Javier A. Dominguez Caballero, Graeme A. Manson, Matthew B. Marshall
Abstract:Cutting tools with ceramic inserts are often used in the process of machining many types of superalloy, mainly due to their high strength and thermal resistance. Nevertheless, during the cutting process, the plastic flow wear generated in these inserts enhances and propagates cracks due to high temperature and high mechanical stress. This leads to a very variable failure of the cutting tool. This article explores the relationship between the continuous wear that ceramic SiAlON (solid solutions based on the Si3N4 structure) inserts experience during a high-speed machining process and the evolution of sparks created during the same process. These sparks were analysed through pictures of the cutting process recorded using an SLR camera. Features relating to the intensity and area of the cutting sparks were extracted from the individual pictures using image processing techniques. These features were then related to the ceramic insert’s crater wear area.
Keywords: Ceramic cutting tools, high speed machining, image processing, tool condition monitoring, tool wear.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1399
766 Efficacy and Stability of Ceramic Powder to Inactivate Avian Influenza Virus
Authors: Chanathip Thammakarn, Misato Tsujimura, Keisuke Satoh, Tomomi Hasegawa, Miho Tamura, Akinobu Kawamura, Yuki Ishida, Atsushi Suguro, Hakimullah Hakim, Sakchai Ruenphet, , Kazuaki Takehara
This experiment aims to demonstrate the efficacy of ceramic powder derived from various sources to inactivate avian influenza virus and its possibility to use in the environment. The ceramics used in the present experiment were derived from chicken feces (CF), scallop shell (SS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and soybean (SB). All ceramics were mixed with low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) H7N1, and then kept at room temperature. The recovered virus was titrated onto Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. All ceramics were assessed the inactivation stability in the environment by keeping under sunlight and under wet-dry condition until reached 7 week or 7 resuspension times respectively. The results indicate that all ceramics have excellent efficacy to inactivate LPAIV. This efficacy can be maintained under the simulated condition. The ceramics are expected to be the good materials for application in the biosecurity system at farms.
Keywords: Avian Influenza, Ceramics, Efficacy, Stability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1710
765 Design A Situated Learning Environment Using Mixed Reality Technology - A Case Study
Authors: Rasimah Che Mohd Yusoff, Halimah Badioze Zaman, Azlina Ahmad
Abstract:Mixed Reality (MR) is one of the newest technologies explored in education. It promises the potential to promote teaching and learning and making learners- experience more “engaging". However, there still lack of research on designing a virtual learning environment using MR technology. In this paper, we describe the Mixed Reality technology, the characteristics of situated learning as instructional design for virtual environment using mixed reality technology. We also explain a case study that implemented those design and also the system overview.
Keywords: authentic activity. authentic context, mixed reality, situated learningProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2213
764 Experimental Testing of Ceramic Cutting Tool Inserts at Irregular Interrupted Cut
Authors: Robert Cep, Jana Petru, Lenka Cepova, Tomas Zlamal
Paper is dealing by testing of IN23 ceramic cutting tools at irregular shocks at special fixture - interrupted cut simulator. Standard tests provided at fixture were at regular interrupted cut at 4 slats by 90°. These new tests will be at irregular cut for 1 slat, 2 slats against each other, 2 slats side by side, 3 slats and 4 slats. The main goal is check if irregular shocks have influence at mechanical and thermal shock at tool life of cutting inserts.
Keywords: Test, Ceramic Cutting Tool, Irregular Interrupted Cut.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1325
763 Sandvik Ceramic Cutting Tool Tests with an Interrupted Cut Simulator
Authors: Robert Cep, Adam Janasek, Lenka Cepova, Josef Prochazka
Abstract:The paper is dealing by testing of ceramic cutting tools with an interrupted machining. Tests will be provided on fixture – interrupted cut simulator. This simulator has 4 mouldings on circumference and cutting edge is put a shocks during 1 revolution. Criteria of tool wear are destruction of cutting tool or 6000 shocks. Like testing cutting tool material will be products of Sandvik Coromant 6190, 620, 650 and 670. Machined materials was be steels 15 128 (13MoCrV6). Cutting speed (408 m.min-1 and 580 m.min-1) and cutting feed (0,15 mm; 0,2 mm; 0,25 mm and 0,3 mm) were variable parameters and cutting depth was constant parameter.
Keywords: Ceramic Cutting Tools, Interrupted Cut, Machining, Cutting Tests.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2260
762 Effect on Surface Temperature Reduction of Asphalt Pavements with Cement–Based Materials Containing Ceramic Waste Powder
Authors: H. Higashiyama, M. Sano, F. Nakanishi, M. Sugiyama, O. Takahashi, S. Tsukuma
Abstract:The heat island phenomenon becomes one of the environmental problems. As countermeasures in the field of road engineering, cool pavements such as water retaining pavements and solar radiation reflective pavements have been developed to reduce the surface temperature of asphalt pavements in the hot summer climate in Japan. The authors have studied on the water retaining pavements with cement–based grouting materials. The cement–based grouting materials consist of cement, ceramic waste powder, and natural zeolite. The ceramic waste powder is collected through the recycling process of electric porcelain insulators. In this study, mixing ratio between the ceramic waste powder and the natural zeolite and a type of cement for the cement–based grouting materials is investigated to measure the surface temperature of asphalt pavements in the outdoor. All of the developed cement–based grouting materials were confirmed to effectively reduce the surface temperature of the asphalt pavements. Especially, the cement–based grouting material using the ultra–rapid hardening cement with the mixing ratio of 0.7:0.3 between the ceramic waste powder and the natural zeolite reduced mostly the surface temperature by 20 °C and more.
Keywords: Ceramic waste powder, natural zeolite, road surface temperature, water retaining pavements.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1366
761 Environmental Impact Assessment of Ceramic Tile Materials Used in Jordan on Indoor Radon Level
Authors: Mefleh S. Hamideen
In this investigation, activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K, of some ceramic tile materials used in the local market of Jordan for interior decoration were determined by making use of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Twenty samples of different country of origin and sizes used in Jordan were analyzed. The concentration values of the last-mentioned radionuclides ranged from 30 Bq.kg-1 (Sample from Jordan) to 98 Bq.kg-1 (Sample from China) for 226Ra, 31 Bq.kg-1 (Sample from Italy) to 98 Bq.kg-1 (Sample from China) for 232Th, and 129 Bq.kg-1 (Sample from Spain) to 679 Bq.kg-1 (Sample from Italy) for 40K. Based on the calculated activity concentrations, some radiological parameters have been calculated to test the radiation hazards in the ceramic tiles. In this work, the following parameters: Total absorbed dose rate (DR), Annual effective dose rate (HR), Radium equivalent activity (Raeq), Radon emanation coefficient F (%) and Radon mass exhalation rate (Em) were calculated for all ceramic tiles and listed in the body of the work. Fortunately, the average calculated values of all parameters are less than the recommended values for each parameter. Consequently, almost all the examined ceramic materials appear to have low radon emanation coefficients. As a result of that investigation, no problems on people can appear by using those ceramic tiles in Jordan.
Keywords: radon emanation coefficient, radon mass exhalation rate, total annual effective dose, radon levelProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 302
760 An Adaptive Least-squares Mixed Finite Element Method for Pseudo-parabolic Integro-differential Equations
Authors: Zilong Feng, Hong Li, Yang Liu, Siriguleng He
In this article, an adaptive least-squares mixed finite element method is studied for pseudo-parabolic integro-differential equations. The solutions of least-squares mixed weak formulation and mixed finite element are proved. A posteriori error estimator is constructed based on the least-squares functional and the posteriori errors are obtained.
Keywords: Pseudo-parabolic integro-differential equation, least squares mixed finite element method, adaptive method, a posteriori error estimates.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1211