**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**1614

# Search results for: Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB)

##### 1614 Jeffrey's Prior for Unknown Sinusoidal Noise Model via Cramer-Rao Lower Bound

**Authors:**
Samuel A. Phillips,
Emmanuel A. Ayanlowo,
Rasaki O. Olanrewaju,
Olayode Fatoki

**Abstract:**

This paper employs the Jeffrey's prior technique in the process of estimating the periodograms and frequency of sinusoidal model for unknown noisy time variants or oscillating events (data) in a Bayesian setting. The non-informative Jeffrey's prior was adopted for the posterior trigonometric function of the sinusoidal model such that Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) inference was used in carving-out the minimum variance needed to curb the invariance structure effect for unknown noisy time observational and repeated circular patterns. An average monthly oscillating temperature series measured in degree Celsius (0C) from 1901 to 2014 was subjected to the posterior solution of the unknown noisy events of the sinusoidal model via Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). It was not only deduced that two minutes period is required before completing a cycle of changing temperature from one particular degree Celsius to another but also that the sinusoidal model via the CRLB-Jeffrey's prior for unknown noisy events produced a miniature posterior Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) compare to a known noisy events.

**Keywords:**
Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB),
Jeffrey's prior,
Sinusoidal,
Maximum A Posteriori (MAP),
Markov Chain Monte
Carlo (MCMC),
Periodograms.

##### 1613 New Multisensor Data Fusion Method Based on Probabilistic Grids Representation

**Authors:**
Zhichao Zhao,
Yi Liu,
Shunping Xiao

**Abstract:**

A new data fusion method called joint probability density matrix (JPDM) is proposed, which can associate and fuse measurements from spatially distributed heterogeneous sensors to identify the real target in a surveillance region. Using the probabilistic grids representation, we numerically combine the uncertainty regions of all the measurements in a general framework. The NP-hard multisensor data fusion problem has been converted to a peak picking problem in the grids map. Unlike most of the existing data fusion method, the JPDM method dose not need association processing, and will not lead to combinatorial explosion. Its convergence to the CRLB with a diminishing grid size has been proved. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

**Keywords:**
Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB),
data fusion,
probabilistic grids,
joint probability density matrix,
localization,
sensor network.

##### 1612 An Efficient Algorithm for Reliability Lower Bound of Distributed Systems

**Authors:**
Mohamed H. S. Mohamed,
Yang Xiao-zong,
Liu Hong-wei,
Wu Zhi-bo

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Distributed systems,
probabilistic network,
residual
connectedness reliability,
lower bound.

##### 1611 An Implementation of MacMahon's Partition Analysis in Ordering the Lower Bound of Processing Elements for the Algorithm of LU Decomposition

**Authors:**
Halil Snopce,
Ilir Spahiu,
Lavdrim Elmazi

**Abstract:**

A lot of Scientific and Engineering problems require the solution of large systems of linear equations of the form bAx in an effective manner. LU-Decomposition offers good choices for solving this problem. Our approach is to find the lower bound of processing elements needed for this purpose. Here is used the so called Omega calculus, as a computational method for solving problems via their corresponding Diophantine relation. From the corresponding algorithm is formed a system of linear diophantine equalities using the domain of computation which is given by the set of lattice points inside the polyhedron. Then is run the Mathematica program DiophantineGF.m. This program calculates the generating function from which is possible to find the number of solutions to the system of Diophantine equalities, which in fact gives the lower bound for the number of processors needed for the corresponding algorithm. There is given a mathematical explanation of the problem as well. Keywordsgenerating function, lattice points in polyhedron, lower bound of processor elements, system of Diophantine equationsand : calculus.

**Keywords:**
generating function,
lattice points in polyhedron,
lower bound of processor elements,
system of Diophantine equations and calculus.

##### 1610 Lower Bound of Time Span Product for a General Class of Signals in Fractional Fourier Domain

**Authors:**
Sukrit Shankar,
Chetana Shanta Patsa,
Jaydev Sharma

**Abstract:**

Fractional Fourier Transform is a generalization of the classical Fourier Transform which is often symbolized as the rotation in time- frequency plane. Similar to the product of time and frequency span which provides the Uncertainty Principle for the classical Fourier domain, there has not been till date an Uncertainty Principle for the Fractional Fourier domain for a generalized class of finite energy signals. Though the lower bound for the product of time and Fractional Fourier span is derived for the real signals, a tighter lower bound for a general class of signals is of practical importance, especially for the analysis of signals containing chirps. We hence formulate a mathematical derivation that gives the lower bound of time and Fractional Fourier span product. The relation proves to be utmost importance in taking the Fractional Fourier Transform with adaptive time and Fractional span resolutions for a varied class of complex signals.

**Keywords:**
Fractional Fourier Transform,
uncertainty principle,
Fractional Fourier Span,
amplitude,
phase.

##### 1609 Some New Inequalities for Eigenvalues of the Hadamard Product and the Fan Product of Matrices

**Authors:**
Jing Li,
Guang Zhou

**Abstract:**

Let A and B be nonnegative matrices. A new upper bound on the spectral radius ρ(A◦B) is obtained. Meanwhile, a new lower bound on the smallest eigenvalue q(AB) for the Fan product, and a new lower bound on the minimum eigenvalue q(B ◦A−1) for the Hadamard product of B and A−1 of two nonsingular M-matrices A and B are given. Some results of comparison are also given in theory. To illustrate our results, numerical examples are considered.

**Keywords:**
Hadamard product,
Fan product; nonnegative matrix,
M-matrix,
Spectral radius,
Minimum eigenvalue,
1-path cover.

##### 1608 Lower Bounds of Some Small Ramsey Numbers

**Authors:**
Decha Samana,
Vites Longani

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Lower bound,
Ramsey numbers,
Graphs,
Distance line.

##### 1607 Computing the Loop Bound in Iterative Data Flow Graphs Using Natural Token Flow

**Authors:**
Ali Shatnawi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Data flow graph,
Iteration period bound,
Rateoptimalscheduling,
Recursive DSP algorithms.

##### 1606 Limit Analysis of FGM Circular Plates Subjected to Arbitrary Rotational Symmetric Loads

**Authors:**
Kargarnovin M.H.,
Faghidian S. A,
Arghavani J.

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Circular plate,
FGM circular plate,
Limit analysis,
Lower and Upper bound theorems.

##### 1605 An Adversarial Construction of Instability Bounds in LIS Networks

**Authors:**
Dimitrios Koukopoulos

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Network stability,
quality of service,
adversarial
queueing theory,
greedy scheduling protocols.

##### 1604 A Systematic Construction of Instability Bounds in LIS Networks

**Authors:**
Dimitrios Koukopoulos

**Abstract:**

In this work, we study the impact of dynamically changing link slowdowns on the stability properties of packetswitched networks under the Adversarial Queueing Theory framework. Especially, we consider the Adversarial, Quasi-Static Slowdown Queueing Theory model, where each link slowdown may take on values in the two-valued set of integers {1, D} with D > 1 which remain fixed for a long time, under a (w, *p*)-adversary. In this framework, we present an innovative systematic construction for the estimation of adversarial injection rate lower bounds, which, if exceeded, cause instability in networks that use the LIS (Longest-in- System) protocol for contention-resolution. In addition, we show that a network that uses the LIS protocol for contention-resolution may result in dropping its instability bound at injection rates *p* > 0 when the network size and the high slowdown D take large values. This is the best ever known instability lower bound for LIS networks.

**Keywords:**
Parallel computing,
network stability,
adversarial queuing theory,
greedy scheduling protocols.

##### 1603 Performance Analysis of MUSIC, Root-MUSIC and ESPRIT DOA Estimation Algorithm

**Authors:**
N. P. Waweru,
D. B. O. Konditi,
P. K. Langat

**Abstract:**

Direction of Arrival estimation refers to defining a mathematical function called a pseudospectrum that gives an indication of the angle a signal is impinging on the antenna array. This estimation is an efficient method of improving the quality of service in a communication system by focusing the reception and transmission only in the estimated direction thereby increasing fidelity with a provision to suppress interferers. This improvement is largely dependent on the performance of the algorithm employed in the estimation. Many DOA algorithms exists amongst which are MUSIC, Root-MUSIC and ESPRIT. In this paper, performance of these three algorithms is analyzed in terms of complexity, accuracy as assessed and characterized by the CRLB and memory requirements in various environments and array sizes. It is found that the three algorithms are high resolution and dependent on the operating environment and the array size.

**Keywords:**
Direction of Arrival,
Autocorrelation matrix,
Eigenvalue decomposition,
MUSIC,
ESPRIT,
CRLB.

##### 1602 Concept of a Pseudo-Lower Bound Solution for Reinforced Concrete Slabs

**Authors:**
M. De Filippo,
J. S. Kuang

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Computational mechanics,
lower bound method,
reinforced concrete slabs,
yield-line.

##### 1601 Calculation of Wave Function at the Origin (WFO) for Heavy Mesons by Numerical Solving of the Schrodinger Equation

**Authors:**
M. Momeni Feyli

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Mesons,
Bound states,
Schrodinger equation,
Nonrelativistic
quark model.

##### 1600 Bounds on Reliability of Parallel Computer Interconnection Systems

**Authors:**
Ranjan Kumar Dash,
Chita Ranjan Tripathy

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Parallel computer network,
reliability,
probabilisticgraph,
interconnection networks.

##### 1599 Spin-Dependent Transport Signatures of Bound States: From Finger to Top Gates

**Authors:**
Yun-Hsuan Yu,
Chi-Shung Tang,
Nzar Rauf Abdullah,
Vidar Gudmundsson

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Spin-orbit,
Zeeman,
top-gate,
finger-gate,
bound state.

##### 1598 An Approximation Method for Three Quark Systems in the Hyper-Spherical Approach

**Authors:**
B. Rezaei,
G. R. Boroun,
M. Abdolmaleki

**Abstract:**

The bound state energy of three quark systems is studied in the framework of a non- relativistic spin independent phenomenological model. The hyper- spherical coordinates are considered for the solution this system. According to Jacobi coordinate, we determined the bound state energy for (uud) and (ddu) quark systems, as quarks are flavorless mass, and it is restrict that choice potential at low and high range in nucleon bag for a bound state.

**Keywords:**
Adiabatic expansion,
grand angular momentum,
binding energy,
perturbation,
baryons.

##### 1597 Upper Bound of the Generalize p-Value for the Behrens-Fisher Problem with a Known Ratio of Variances

**Authors:**
Rada Somkhuean,
Suparat Niwitpong,
Sa-aat Niwitpong

**Abstract:**

This paper presents the generalized p-values for testing the Behrens-Fisher problem when a ratio of variance is known. We also derive a closed form expression of the upper bound of the proposed generalized p-value.

**Keywords:**
Generalized p-value,
hypothesis testing,
ratio of variances,
upper bound.

##### 1596 Volatility of Cu, Ni, Cr, Co, Pb, and As in Fluidised-Bed Combustion Chamber in Relation to Their Modes of Occurrence in Coal

**Authors:**
L. Bartoňová,
Z. Klika

**Abstract:**

Modes of occurrence of Pb, As, Cr, Co, Cu, and Ni in bituminous coal and lignite were determined by means of sequential extraction using NH4OAc, HCl, HF and HNO3 extraction solutions. Elemental affinities obtained were then evaluated in relation to volatility of these elements during the combustion of these coals in two circulating fluidised-bed power stations. It was found out that higher percentage of the elements bound in silicates brought about lower volatility, while higher elemental proportion with monosulphides association (or bound as exchangeable ion) resulted in higher volatility. The only exception was the behavior of arsenic, whose volatility depended on amount of limestone added during the combustion process (as desulphurisation additive) rather than to its association in coal.

**Keywords:**
Coal combustion,
sequential extraction,
trace elements,
volatility.

##### 1595 Applying Branch-and-Bound and Petri Net Methods in Solving the Two-Sided Assembly Line Balancing Problem

**Authors:**
Nai-Chieh Wei,
I-Ming Chao,
Chin-Jung Liuand,
Hong Long Chen

**Abstract:**

This paper combines the branch-and-bound method and the petri net to solve the two-sided assembly line balancing problem, thus facilitating effective branching and pruning of tasks. By integrating features of the petri net, such as reachability graph and incidence matrix, the propose method can support the branch-and-bound to effectively reduce poor branches with systematic graphs. Test results suggest that using petri net in the branching process can effectively guide the system trigger process, and thus, lead to consistent results.

**Keywords:**
Branch-and-Bound Method,
Petri Net,
Two-Sided Assembly Line Balancing Problem.

##### 1594 The Relative Efficiency of Parameter Estimation in Linear Weighted Regression

**Authors:**
Baoguang Tian,
Nan Chen

**Abstract:**

A new relative efficiency in linear model in reference is instructed into the linear weighted regression, and its upper and lower bound are proposed. In the linear weighted regression model, for the best linear unbiased estimation of mean matrix respect to the least-squares estimation, two new relative efficiencies are given, and their upper and lower bounds are also studied.

**Keywords:**
Linear weighted regression,
Relative efficiency,
Mean matrix,
Trace.

##### 1593 Evaluation of the ANN Based Nonlinear System Models in the MSE and CRLB Senses

**Authors:**
M.V Rajesh,
Archana R,
A Unnikrishnan,
R Gopikakumari,
Jeevamma Jacob

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Multilayer neural networks,
Radial Basis Functions,
Clustering algorithm,
Back Propagation training,
Extended Kalmanfiltering,
Mean Square Error,
Nonlinear Modeling,
Cramer RaoLower Bound.

##### 1592 Discovering Liouville-Type Problems for p-Energy Minimizing Maps in Closed Half-Ellipsoids by Calculus Variation Method

**Authors:**
Lina Wu,
Jia Liu,
Ye Li

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bochner Formula,
Stokes’ Theorem,
Cauchy-Schwarz
Inequality,
first and second variation formulas,
Hardy-Sobolev type
inequalities,
Liouville-type problem,
p-harmonic map.

##### 1591 Bound State Solutions of the Schrödinger Equation for Hulthen-Yukawa Potential in D-Dimensions

**Authors:**
I. Otete,
A. I. Ejere,
I. S. Okunzuwa

**Abstract:**

In this work, we used the Hulthen-Yukawa potential to obtain the bound state energy eigenvalues of the Schrödinger equation in D-dimensions within the frame work of the Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method. We demonstrated the graphical behaviour of the Hulthen and the Yukawa potential and investigated how the screening parameter and the potential depth affected the structure and the nature of the bound state eigenvalues. The results we obtained showed that increasing the screening parameter lowers the energy eigenvalues. Also, the eigenvalues acted as an inverse function of the potential depth. That is, increasing the potential depth reduces the energy eigenvalues.

**Keywords:**
Schrödinger's equation,
bound state,
Hulthen-Yukawa potential,
Nikiforov-Uvarov,
D-dimensions

##### 1590 All-Pairs Shortest-Paths Problem for Unweighted Graphs in O(n2 log n) Time

**Authors:**
Udaya Kumar Reddy K. R,
K. Viswanathan Iyer

**Abstract:**

Given a simple connected unweighted undirected graph G = (V (G), E(G)) with |V (G)| = n and |E(G)| = m, we present a new algorithm for the all-pairs shortest-path (APSP) problem. The running time of our algorithm is in O(n2 log n). This bound is an improvement over previous best known O(n2.376) time bound of Raimund Seidel (1995) for general graphs. The algorithm presented does not rely on fast matrix multiplication. Our algorithm with slight modifications, enables us to compute the APSP problem for unweighted directed graph in time O(n2 log n), improving a previous best known O(n2.575) time bound of Uri Zwick (2002).

**Keywords:**
Distance in graphs,
Dynamic programming,
Graphalgorithms,
Shortest paths.

##### 1589 Graphs with Metric Dimension Two-A Characterization

**Authors:**
Sudhakara G,
Hemanth Kumar A.R

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we define distance partition of vertex set of a graph G with reference to a vertex in it and with the help of the same, a graph with metric dimension two (i.e. β (G) = 2 ) is characterized. In the process, we develop a polynomial time algorithm that verifies if the metric dimension of a given graph G is two. The same algorithm explores all metric bases of graph G whenever β (G) = 2 . We also find a bound for cardinality of any distance partite set with reference to a given vertex, when ever β (G) = 2 . Also, in a graph G with β (G) = 2 , a bound for cardinality of any distance partite set as well as a bound for number of vertices in any sub graph H of G is obtained in terms of diam H .

**Keywords:**
Metric basis,
Distance partition,
Metric dimension.

##### 1588 Pt(IV) Complexes with Polystrene-bound Schiff Bases as Antimicrobial Agent: Synthesis and Characterization

**Authors:**
Dilek Nartop,
Nurşen Sarı,
Hatice Öğütçü

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Polymer-bound Schiff bases,
polystyrene-A-NH2,
Pt(IV) complexes,
biological activity.

##### 1587 Two New Relative Efficiencies of Linear Weighted Regression

**Authors:**
Shuimiao Wan,
Chao Yuan,
Baoguang Tian

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Linear weighted regression,
Relative efficiency,
Lower bound,
Parameter estimation.

##### 1586 Usage-based Traffic Control for P2P Content Delivery

**Authors:**
Megumi Shibuya,
Tomohiko Ogishi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
P2P,
traffic control,
traffic localization,
ALTO.

##### 1585 A Comparison of SVM-based Criteria in Evolutionary Method for Gene Selection and Classification of Microarray Data

**Authors:**
Rameswar Debnath,
Haruhisa Takahashi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
support vector machine,
generalization error-bound,
feature selection,
evolutionary algorithm,
microarray data