Search results for: Chromium yeast
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 171

Search results for: Chromium yeast

171 Batch and Continuous Packed Column Studies Biosorption by Yeast Supported onto Granular Pozzolana

Authors: A. Djafer, S. Kouadri Moustefai, A. Idou, M. Douani

Abstract:

The removal of chromium by living yeast biomass immobilized onto pozzolana was studied. The results obtained in batch experiments indicate that the immobilized yeast on to pozzolana is a excellent biosorbent of Cr(V) with a good removal rates of 85–90%. The initial concentration solution and agitation speed affected Cr(V) removal. The batch studies data were described using the Freundlich and Langmuir models, but the best fit was obtained with Langmuir model. The breakthrough curve from the continuous flow studies shows that immobilized yeast in the fixed-bed column is capable of decreasing Cr(VI) concentration from 15mg/l to a adequate level. 

Keywords: Biosorption, yeast, chromium, kinetic biosorption, fixed biomass

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3023
170 Effect of Dietary Chromium Yeast on Thigh Meat Quality of Broiler Chicks in Heat Stress Condition

Authors: Majid Toghyani, Abbas Ali Gheisari, Ali Khodami, Mehdi Toghyani, Mohammad Mohammadrezaei, Ramin Bahadoran

Abstract:

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary chromium yeast (Cr-yeast) on thigh meat quality of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition. Two hundred and forty Ross male chickens in heat stress condition (33±3°C) were allocated to five treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments were supplemented with 0 (control), 200, 400, 800 and 1200 μg kg-1 Cr in the form of Cr yeast. Twelve chicks from each treatment were slaughtered at 42 d, to evaluate moisture, protein, lipid, pH and lipid oxidation of thigh meat. Protein, moisture, lipid and pH of thigh meat were not affected by supplemental Cr. Thigh meat lipid tended to decrease in broilers received 1200 μg kg-1. Storage time increased lipid oxidation of meat (P<0.01). Lipid oxidation of thigh muscle for two days of storage were affected by supplemental Cr and decreased (P<0.05). Results of this study showed that dietary Cr-yeast supplementation improved the thigh meat quality of broiler chicks in heat stress condition.

Keywords: Broiler, Heat stress, Chromium yeast, Thigh meat quality.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2237
169 Chromium-Leaching Study of Cements in Various Environments

Authors: Adriana Estokova, Lenka Palascakova, Martina Kovalcikova

Abstract:

Cement is a basic material used for building construction. Chromium as an indelible non-volatile trace element of raw materials occurs in cement clinker in the trivalent or hexavalent form. Hexavalent form of chromium is harmful and allergenic having very high water solubility and thus can easily come into contact with the human skin. The paper is aimed at analyzing the content of total chromium in Portland cements and leaching rate of hexavalent chromium in various leachants: Deionized water, Britton-Robinson buffer, used to simulate the natural environment, and hydrochloric acid (HCl). The concentration of total chromium in Portland cement samples was in a range from 173.2 to 218.5 mg/kg. The content of dissolved hexavalent chromium ranged 0.23-3.19, 2.0-5.78 and 8.88-16.25 mg/kg in deionized water, Britton-Robinson solution and hydrochloric acid, respectively. The calculated leachable fraction of Cr(VI) from cement samples was observed in the range 0.1--7.58 %.

Keywords: Cement, hexavalent chromium, leaching, total chromium.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1305
168 Removal of Chromium from Aqueous Solution using Synthesized Polyaniline in Acetonitrile

Authors: Majid Riahi Samani, Seyed Mehdi Borghei

Abstract:

Absorptive characteristics of polyaniline synthesized in mixture of water and acetonitrile in 50/50 volume ratio was studied. Synthesized polyaniline in powder shape is used as an adsorbent to remove toxic hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions. Experiments were conducted in batch mode with different variables such as agitation time, solution pH and initial concentration of hexavalent chromium. Removal mechanism is the combination of surface adsorption and reduction. The equilibrium time for removal of Cr(T) and Cr(VI) was about 2 and 10 minutes respectively. The optimum pH for total chromium removal occurred at pH 7 and maximum hexavalent chromium removal took place under acidic condition at pH 3. Investigating the isothermal characteristics showed that the equilibrium adsorption data fitted both Freundlich-s and Langmuir-s isotherms. The maximum adsorption of chromium was calculated 36.1 mg/g for polyaniline

Keywords: Polyaniline, Chromium, acetonitrile, Adsorption

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2193
167 Improvement of Monacolin K and Minimizing of Citrinin Content in Korkor 6 (RD 6) Red Yeast Rice

Authors: Em-on Chairote, Panatda Jannoey, Griangsak Chairote

Abstract:

A strain of Monascus purpureus CMU001 was used to prepare red yeast rice from Thai glutinous rice Korkor 6 (RD 6). Adding of different amounts of histidine (156, 312, 625 and 1250 mg in 100 g of rice grains)) under aerobic and air limitation (air-lock) condition were used in solid fermentation. Determination of the yield as well as monacolin K content was done. Citrinin content was also determined in order to confirm the safety use of prepared red yeast rice. It was found that under air-lock condition with 1250 mg of histidine addition gave the highest yield of 37.40 g of dried red yeast rice prepared from 100 g of rice. Highest 5.72 mg content of monacolin K was obtained under air-lock condition with 312 mg histidine addition. In the other hand, citrinin content was found to be less than 24462 ng/g of all dried red yeast rice samples under the experimental methods used in this work.

Keywords: Citrinin, Glutinous rice, Monacolin K, Red yeast rice.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2496
166 Chromium Adsorption by Modified Wood

Authors: I. Domingos, B. Esteves, A. Figueirinha, Luísa P. Cruz-Lopes, J. Ferreira, H. Pereira

Abstract:

Chromium is one of the most common heavy metals which exist in very high concentrations in wastewater. The removal is very expensive due to the high cost of normal adsorbents. Lignocellulosic materials and mainly treated materials have proven to be a good solution for this problem.

Adsorption tests were performed at different pH, different times and with varying concentrations.

Results show that is at pH 3 that treated wood absorbs more chromium ranging from 70% (2h treatment) to almost 100% (12 h treatment) much more than untreated wood with less than 40%. Most of the adsorption is made in the first 2-3 hours for untreated and heat treated wood. Modified wood adsorbs more chromium throughout the time. For all the samples, adsorption fitted relatively well the Langmuir model with correlation coefficient ranging from 0.85 to 0.97.

The results show that heat treated wood is a good adsorbent ant that this might be a good utilization for sawdust from treating companies.

Keywords: Adsorption, chromium, heat treatment, wood modification.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2363
165 Adsorption of Chromium Ions from Aqueous Solution by Carbon Adsorbent

Authors: S. Heydari, H. Sharififard, M. Nabavinia, H. Kiani, M. Parvizi

Abstract:

Rapid industrialization has led to increased disposal of heavy metals into the environment. Activated carbon adsorption has proven to be an effective process for the removal of trace metal contaminants from aqueous media. This paper was investigated chromium adsorption efficiency by commercial activated carbon. The sorption studied as a function of activated carbon particle size, dose of activated carbon and initial pH of solution. Adsorption tests for the effects of these factors were designed with Taguchi approach. According to the Taguchi parameter design methodology, L9 orthogonal array was used. Analysis of experimental results showed that, the most influential factor was initial pH of solution. The optimum conditions for chromium adsorption by activated carbons were found to be as follows: initial feed pH 6, adsorbent particle size 0.412 mm and activated carbon dose 6 g/l. Under these conditions, nearly %100 of chromium ions was adsorbed by activated carbon after 2 hours.

Keywords: Chromium, Adsorption, Taguchi method, Activated carbon.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2887
164 Phytoremediation Potential of Tomato for Cd and Cr Removal from Polluted Soils

Authors: Jahanshah Saleh, Hossein Ghasemi, Ali Shahriari, Faezeh Alizadeh, Yaaghoob Hosseini

Abstract:

Cadmium and chromium are toxic to most organisms and different mechanisms have been developed for overcoming with the toxic effects of these heavy metals. We studied the uptake and distribution of cadmium and chromium in different organs of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) plants in nine heavy metal polluted soils in western Hormozgan province, Iran. The accumulation of chromium was in increasing pattern of fruit peel

Keywords: Cadmium, chromium, phytoextraction, phytostabilization, tomato.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1788
163 Production of 3-Methyl-1-Butanol by Yeast Wild Strain

Authors: R. Nor Azah, A. R. Roshanida, N. Norzita

Abstract:

The biomass-based fuels have become great concern in order to replace the petroleum-based fuels. Biofuels are a wide range of fuels referred to liquid, gas and solid fuels produced from biomass. Recently, higher chain alcohols such as 3-methyl-1-butanol and isobutanol have become a better candidate compared to bioethanol in order to replace gasoline as transportation fuel. Therefore, in this study, 3-methyl-1-butanol was produced through a fermentation process by yeast. Several types of yeast involved in this research including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces lactis GG799 and Pichia pastoris (KM71H, GS115 and X33). The result obtained showed that K. lactis GG799 gave the highest concentration of 3-methyl-1-butanol at 274 mg/l followed by S. cerevisiae, P. pastoris GS115, P. pastoris KM71H and P. pastoris X33 at 265 mg/l, 190 mg/l, 182 mg/l and 174 mg/l respectively. Based on the result, it proved that yeast have a potential in producing 3-methyl-1-butanol naturally.

Keywords: Biofuel, fermentation, 3-methyl-1-butanol, yeast.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2653
162 Selection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Tolerant to Lead and Cadmium Toxicity

Authors: Nadia R. A. Nassar, Yehia A. Heikal, Mahmoud A. M. Abou Donia, Mohamed Fadel, Gomaa N. Abdel-Rahman

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to select the best strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae able to resist lead and cadmium. Ten strains were screened on the basis of their resistance at different concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 ppm for Pb and 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 ppm for Cd. The properties of baker's yeast quality were decreased by the increase of Pb or Cd in growth medium. The slope values of yield, total viable cells and gassing power of produced baker's yeast were investigated as an indicator of metal resistant. In addition, concentrations of Pb and Cd in produced baker's yeast were determined. The strain of S. cerevisiae FH-620 had the highest resistance against Pb and Cd and had the minimum levels of both two investigated metals in produced baker's yeast.

Keywords: Cadmium, lead, S. cerevisiae, tolerant.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2790
161 Integrated Cultivation Technique for Microbial Lipid Production by Photosynthetic Microalgae and Locally Oleaginous Yeast

Authors: Mutiyaporn Puangbut, Ratanaporn Leesing

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to study of microbial lipid production by locally photosynthetic microalgae and oleaginous yeast via integrated cultivation technique using CO2 emissions from yeast fermentation. A maximum specific growth rate of Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 of 0.284 (1/d) was obtained under an integrated cultivation and a maximum lipid yield of 1.339g/L was found after cultivation for 5 days, while 0.969g/L of lipid yield was obtained after day 6 of cultivation time by using CO2 from air. A high value of volumetric lipid production rate (QP, 0.223 g/L/d), specific product yield (YP/X, 0.194), volumetric cell mass production rate (QX, 1.153 g/L/d) were found by using ambient air CO2 coupled with CO2 emissions from yeast fermentation. Overall lipid yield of 8.33 g/L was obtained (1.339 g/L of Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 and 7.06g/L of T. maleeae Y30) while low lipid yield of 0.969g/L was found using non-integrated cultivation technique. To our knowledge this is the unique report about the lipid production from locally microalgae Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 and yeast T. maleeae Y30 in an integrated technique to improve the biomass and lipid yield by using CO2 emissions from yeast fermentation.

Keywords: Microbial lipid, Chlorella sp. KKU-S2, Torulaspora maleeae Y30, oleaginous yeast, biodiesel, CO2 emissions

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2217
160 Application of Genetic Engineering for Chromium Removal from Industrial Wastewater

Authors: N. K. Srivastava, M. K. Jha, I. D. Mall, Davinder Singh

Abstract:

The treatment of the industrial wastewater can be particularly difficult in the presence of toxic compounds. Excessive concentration of Chromium in soluble form is toxic to a wide variety of living organisms. Biological removal of heavy metals using natural and genetically engineered microorganisms has aroused great interest because of its lower impact on the environment. Ralston metallidurans, formerly known as Alcaligenes eutrophus is a LProteobacterium colonizing industrial wastewater with a high content of heavy metals. Tris-buffered mineral salt medium was used for growing Alcaligenes eutrophus AE104 (pEBZ141). The cells were cultivated for 18 h at 30 oC in Tris-buffered mineral salt medium containing 3 mM disodium sulphate and 46 mM sodium gluconate as the carbon source. The cells were harvested by centrifugation, washed, and suspended in 10 mM Tris HCl, pH 7.0, containing 46 mM sodium gluconate, and 5 mM Chromium. Interaction among induction of chr resistance determinant, and chromate reduction have been demonstrated. Results of this study show that the above bacteria can be very useful for bioremediation of chromium from industrial wastewater.

Keywords: Chromium, Genetic Engineering, IndustrialWastewater, Plasmid

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2302
159 Production of Composite Materials by Mixing Chromium-Rich Ash and Soda-Lime Glass Powder: Mechanical Properties and Microstructure

Authors: Savvas Varitis, Panagiotis Kavouras, George Vourlias, Eleni Pavlidou, Theodoros Karakostas, Philomela Komninou

Abstract:

A chromium-loaded ash originating from incineration of tannery sludge under anoxic conditions was mixed with low grade soda-lime glass powder coming from commercial glass bottles. The relative weight proportions of ash over glass powder tested were 30/70, 40/60 and 50/50. The solid mixtures, formed in green state compacts, were sintered at the temperature range of 800o C up to 1200o C. The resulting products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXS) and micro-indentation. The above methods were employed to characterize the various phases, microstructure and hardness of the produced materials. Thermal treatment at 800o C and 1000o C produced opaque ceramic products composed of a variety of chromium-containing and chromium-free crystalline phases. Thermal treatment at 1200o C gave rise to composite products, where only chromium-containing crystalline phases were detected. Hardness results suggest that specific products are serious candidates for structural applications.

Keywords: Chromium-rich tannery residues, glass-ceramic materials, mechanical properties, microstructure

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1832
158 Statistical Modeling for Permeabilization of a Novel Yeast Isolate for β-Galactosidase Activity Using Organic Solvents

Authors: Shweta Kumari, Parmjit S. Panesar, Manab B. Bera

Abstract:

The hydrolysis of lactose using β-galactosidase is one of the most promising biotechnological applications, which has wide range of potential applications in food processing industries. However, due to intracellular location of the yeast enzyme, and expensive extraction methods, the industrial applications of enzymatic hydrolysis processes are being hampered. The use of permeabilization technique can help to overcome the problems associated with enzyme extraction and purification of yeast cells and to develop the economically viable process for the utilization of whole cell biocatalysts in food industries. In the present investigation, standardization of permeabilization process of novel yeast isolate was carried out using a statistical model approach known as Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to achieve maximal b-galactosidase activity. The optimum operating conditions for permeabilization process for optimal β-galactosidase activity obtained by RSM were 1:1 ratio of toluene (25%, v/v) and ethanol (50%, v/v), 25.0 oC temperature and treatment time of 12 min, which displayed enzyme activity of 1.71 IU /mg DW.

Keywords: β-galactosidase, optimization, permeabilization, response surface methodology, yeast.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4104
157 Mechanism and Kinetic of Layers Growth: Application to Nitriding of 32CrMoV13 Steel

Authors: L. Torchane

Abstract:

In this work, our goal is to optimize the nitriding treatment at a low-temperature of the steel 32CrMoV13 using gas mixtures of ammonia, nitrogen and hydrogen to improve the mechanical properties of the surface (good wear resistance, friction and corrosion), and of the diffusion layer of the nitrogen (good resistance to fatigue and good tenacity with heart). By limiting our work to the pure iron and to the alloys iron-chromium and iron-chromium-carbon, we have studied the various parameters which manage the nitriding: flow rate and composition of the gaseous phase, the interaction chromium-nitrogen and chromium-carbon by the help of experiments of nitriding realized in the laboratory by thermogravimetry. The acquired knowledge has been applied by the mastery of the growth of the γ' combination layer on the α diffusion layer in the case of the industrial steel 32CrMoV13.

Keywords: Diffusion of nitrogen, Gaseous nitriding, Layer growth kinetic.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1546
156 Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Wastewater by Use of Scrap Iron

Authors: Marius Gheju, Rodica Pode

Abstract:

Hexavalent chromium is highly toxic to most living organisms and a known human carcinogen by the inhalation route of exposure. Therefore, treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated wastewater is essential before their discharge to the natural water bodies. Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) can be beneficial because a more mobile and more toxic chromium species is converted to a less mobile and less toxic form. Zero-valence-state metals, such as scrap iron, can serve as electron donors for reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The influence of pH on scrap iron capacity to reduce Cr(VI) was investigated in this study. Maximum reduction capacity of scrap iron was observed at the beginning of the column experiments; the lower the pH, the greater the experiment duration with maximum scrap iron reduction capacity. The experimental results showed that highest maximum reduction capacity of scrap iron was 12.5 mg Cr(VI)/g scrap iron, at pH 2.0, and decreased with increasing pH up to 1.9 mg Cr(VI)/g scrap iron at pH = 7.3.

Keywords: hexavalent chromium, heavy metals, scrap iron, reduction capacity, wastewater treatment.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2049
155 Molecular Evolutionary Analysis of Yeast Protein Interaction Network

Authors: Soichi Ogishima, Takeshi Hase, So Nakagawa, Yasuhiro Suzuki, Hiroshi Tanaka

Abstract:

To understand life as biological system, evolutionary understanding is indispensable. Protein interactions data are rapidly accumulating and are suitable for system-level evolutionary analysis. We have analyzed yeast protein interaction network by both mathematical and biological approaches. In this poster presentation, we inferred the evolutionary birth periods of yeast proteins by reconstructing phylogenetic profile. It has been thought that hub proteins that have high connection degree are evolutionary old. But our analysis showed that hub proteins are entirely evolutionary new. We also examined evolutionary processes of protein complexes. It showed that member proteins of complexes were tend to have appeared in the same evolutionary period. Our results suggested that protein interaction network evolved by modules that form the functional unit. We also reconstructed standardized phylogenetic trees and calculated evolutionary rates of yeast proteins. It showed that there is no obvious correlation between evolutionary rates and connection degrees of yeast proteins.

Keywords: Protein interaction network, evolution, modularity, evolutionary rate, connection degrees.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1329
154 Recovery of Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr from Plating Sludge by Combined Sulfidation and Oxidation Treatment

Authors: D. Kuchar, T. Fukuta, M. Kubota, H. Matsuda

Abstract:

The selective recovery of heavy metals of Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr from a mixed plating sludge by sulfidation and oxidation treatment was targeted in this study. At first, the mixed plating sludge was simultaneously subjected to an extraction and Cu sulfidation process at pH=1.5 to dissolve heavy metals and to precipitate Cu2+ as CuS. In the next step, the sulfidation treatment of Zn was carried out at pH=4.5 and the residual solution was subjected to an oxidation treatment of chromium with H2O2 at pH=10.0. After the experiments, the selectivity of metal precipitation and the chromium oxidation ratio were evaluated. As results, it was found that the filter cake obtained after selective sulfidation of Cu was composed of 96.6% of Cu (100% equals to the sum of Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr contents). Such findings confirmed that almost complete extraction of heavy metals was achieved at pH=1.5 and also that Cu could be selectively recovered as CuS. Further, the filter cake obtained at pH=4.5 was composed of 91.5% Zn and 6.83% of Cr. Regarding the chromium oxidation step, the chromium oxidation ratio was found to increase with temperature and the addition of oxidation agent of H2O2, but only oxidation ratio of 59% was achieved at a temperature of 60°C and H2O2 to Cr3+ equivalent ratio of 180.

Keywords: Chromium recovery, oxidation, plating sludge, sulfidation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2603
153 Synthesis and Characterization of Chromium (III) Complexes with L-Glutamic Acid, Glycine and LCysteine

Authors: Kun Sri Budiasih, Chairil Anwar, Sri Juari Santosa, Hilda Ismail

Abstract:

Some Chromium (III) complexes were synthesized with three amino acids: L Glutamic Acid, Glycine, and L-cysteine as the ligands, in order to provide a new supplement containing Cr(III) for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The complexes have been prepared by refluxing a mixture of Chromium(III) chloride in aqueous solution with L-glutamic acid, Glycine, and L-cysteine after pH adjustment by sodium hydroxide. These complexes were characterized by Infrared and Uv-Vis spectrophotometer and Elemental analyzer. The product yields of four products were 87.50 and 56.76% for Cr-Glu complexes, 46.70% for Cr-Gly complex and 40.08% for Cr-Cys complex respectively. The predicted structure of the complexes are [Cr(glu)2(H2O)2].xH2O, Cr(gly)3..xH2O and Cr(cys)3.xH2O., respectively.

Keywords: Cr(III), L-Cysteine L-glutamic Acid, Glycine, complexation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5111
152 Decontamination of Chromium Containing Ground Water by Adsorption Using Chemically Modified Activated Carbon Fabric

Authors: J. R. Mudakavi, K. Puttanna

Abstract:

Chromium in the environment is considered as one of the most toxic elements probably next only to mercury and arsenic. It is acutely toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic in the environment. Chromium contamination of soil and underground water due to industrial activities is a very serious problem in several parts of India covering Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh etc. Functionally modified Activated Carbon Fabrics (ACF) offer targeted chromium removal from drinking water and industrial effluents. Activated carbon fabric is a light weight adsorbing material with high surface area and low resistance to fluid flow. We have investigated surface modification of ACF using various acids in the laboratory through batch as well as through continuous flow column experiments with a view to develop the optimum conditions for chromium removal. Among the various acids investigated, phosphoric acid modified ACF gave best results with a removal efficiency of 95% under optimum conditions. Optimum pH was around 2 – 4 with 2 hours contact time. Continuous column experiments with an effective bed contact time (EBCT) of 5 minutes indicated that breakthrough occurred after 300 bed volumes. Adsorption data followed a Freundlich isotherm pattern. Nickel adsorbs preferentially and sulphate reduces chromium adsorption by 50%. The ACF could be regenerated up to 52.3% using 3 M NaOH under optimal conditions. The process is simple, economical, energy efficient and applicable to industrial effluents and drinking water.

Keywords: Activated carbon fabric, adsorption, drinking water, hexavalent chromium.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1008
151 Antimicrobial Agents Produced by Yeasts

Authors: T. Buyuksirit, H. Kuleasan

Abstract:

Natural antimicrobials are used to preserve foods that can be found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. Antimicrobial substances are natural or artificial agents that produced by microorganisms or obtained semi/total chemical synthesis are used at low concentrations to inhibit the growth of other microorganisms. Food borne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms are inactivated by the use of antagonistic microorganisms and their metabolites. Yeasts can produce toxic proteins or glycoproteins (toxins) that cause inhibition of sensitive bacteria and yeast species. Antimicrobial substance producing phenotypes belonging different yeast genus were isolated from different sources. Toxins secreted by many yeast strains inhibiting the growth of other yeast strains. These strains show antimicrobial activity, inhibiting the growth of mold and bacteria. The effect of antimicrobial agents produced by yeasts can be extremely fast, and therefore may be used in various treatment procedures. Rapid inhibition of microorganisms is possibly caused by microbial cell membrane lipopolysaccharide binding and in activation (neutralization) effect. Antimicrobial agents inhibit the target cells via different mechanisms of action.

Keywords: Antimicrobial agents, Glycoprotein, Toxic protein, Yeast.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4509
150 Utilization of Whey for the Production of β-Galactosidase Using Yeast and Fungal Culture

Authors: Rupinder Kaur, Parmjit S. Panesar, Ram S. Singh

Abstract:

Whey is the lactose rich by-product of the dairy industry, having good amount of nutrient reservoir. Most abundant nutrients are lactose, soluble proteins, lipids and mineral salts. Disposing of whey by most of milk plants which do not have proper pre-treatment system is the major issue. As a result of which, there can be significant loss of potential food and energy source. Thus, whey has been explored as the substrate for the synthesis of different value added products such as enzymes. β-galactosidase is one of the important enzymes and has become the major focus of research due to its ability to catalyze both hydrolytic as well as transgalactosylation reaction simultaneously. The enzyme is widely used in dairy industry as it catalyzes the transformation of lactose to glucose and galactose, making it suitable for the lactose intolerant people. The enzyme is intracellular in both bacteria and yeast, whereas for molds, it has an extracellular location. The present work was carried to utilize the whey for the production of β-galactosidase enzyme using both yeast and fungal cultures. The yeast isolate Kluyveromyces marxianus WIG2 and various fungal strains have been used in the present study. Different disruption techniques have also been investigated for the extraction of the enzyme produced intracellularly from yeast cells. Among the different methods tested for the disruption of yeast cells, SDS-chloroform showed the maximum β-galactosidase activity. In case of the tested fungal cultures, Aureobasidium pullulans NCIM 1050 was observed to be the maximum extracellular enzyme producer.

Keywords: β-galactosidase, fungus, yeast, whey.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5542
149 Rice cDNA Encoding PROLM is Capable of Rescuing Salt Sensitive Yeast Phenotypes G19 and Axt3K from Salt Stress

Authors: Prasad Senadheera, Younousse Saidi, Frans JM Maathuis

Abstract:

Rice seed expression (cDNA) library in the Lambda Zap 11® phage constructed from the developing grain 10-20 days after flowering was transformed into yeast for functional complementation assays in three salt sensitive yeast mutants S. cerevisiae strain CY162, G19 and Axt3K. Transformed cells of G19 and Axt3K with pYES vector with cDNA inserts showed enhance tolerance than those with empty pYes vector. Sequencing of the cDNA inserts revealed that they encode for the putative proteins with the sequence homologous to rice putative protein PROLM24 (Os06g31070), a prolamin precursor. Expression of this cDNA did not affect yeast growth in absence of salt. Axt3k and G19 strains expressing the PROLM24 were able to grow upto 400 mM and 600 mM of NaCl respectively. Similarly, Axt3k mutant with PROLM24 expression showed comparatively higher growth rate in the medium with excess LiCl (50 mM). The observation that expression of PROLM24 rescued the salt sensitive phenotypes of G19 and Axt3k indicates the existence of a regulatory system that ameliorates the effect of salt stress in the transformed yeast mutants. However, the exact function of the cDNA sequence, which shows partial sequence homology to yeast UTR1 is not clear. Although UTR1 involved in ferrous uptake and iron homeostasis in yeast cells, there is no evidence to prove its role in Na+ homeostasis in yeast cells. Absence of transmembrane regions in Os06g31070 protein indicates that salt tolerance is achieved not through the direct functional complementation of the mutant genes but through an alternative mechanism.

Keywords: Rice seed expression, salt stress, prolamin, salinitytolerance, Oryza sativa

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1877
148 Preservation of Coconut Toddy Sediments as a Leavening Agent for Bakery Products

Authors: B. R. Madushan, S. B. Navaratne, I. Wickramasinghe

Abstract:

Toddy sediment (TS) was cultured in a PDA medium to determine initial yeast load, and also it was undergone sun, shade, solar, dehumidified cold air (DCA) and hot air oven (at 400, 500 and 60oC) drying with a view to preserve viability of yeast. Thereafter, this study was conducted according to two factor factorial design in order to determine best preservation method. Therein the dried TS from the best drying method was taken and divided into two portions. One portion was mixed with 3: 7 ratio of TS: rice flour and the mixture was divided in to two again. While one portion was kept under in house condition the other was in a refrigerator. Same procedure was followed to the rest portion of TS too but it was at the same ratio of corn flour. All treatments were vacuum packed in triple laminate pouches and the best preservation method was determined in terms of leavening index (LI). The TS obtained from the best preservation method was used to make foods (bread and hopper) and organoleptic properties of it were evaluated against same of ordinary foods using sensory panel with a five point hedonic scale. Results revealed that yeast load or fresh TS was 58×106 CFU/g. The best drying method in preserving viability of yeast was DCA because LI of this treatment (96%) is higher than that of other three treatments. Organoleptic properties of foods prepared from best preservation method are as same as ordinary foods according to Duo trio test.

Keywords: Biological leavening agent, coconut toddy, fermentation, yeast.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2212
147 Microbial Oil Production by Isolated Oleaginous Yeast Torulaspora globosa YU5/2

Authors: Ratanaporn Leesing, Ratanaporn Baojungharn

Abstract:

Microbial oil was produced by soil isolated oleaginous yeast YU5/2 in flask-batch fermentation. The yeast was identified by molecular genetics technique based on sequence analysis of the variable D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA and it was identified as Torulaspora globosa. T. globosa YU5/2 supported maximum values of 0.520 g/L/d, 0.472 g lipid/g cells, 4.16 g/L, and 0.156 g/L/d for volumetric lipid production rate, and specific yield of lipid, lipid concentration, and specific rate of lipid production respectively, when culture was performed in nitrogen-limiting medium supplemented with 80g/L glucose. Among the carbon sources tested, maximum cell yield coefficient (YX/S, g/L), maximum specific yield of lipid (YP/X, g lipid/g cells) and volumetric lipid production rate (QP, g/L/d) were found of 0.728, 0.237, and 0.619, respectively, using sweet potato tubers hydrolysates as carbon source.

Keywords: Microbial oil, oleaginous yeast, Torulasporaglobosa YU5/2, sweet potato tubers, kinetic parameters.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2115
146 Evaluation of Chromium Contamination in the Sediments of Jen-Gen River Mouth, Taiwan

Authors: Chiu-Wen Chen, Chih-Feng Chen, Cheng-Di Dong

Abstract:

This study was conducted using the data collected at the mouth of Jen-Gen River to investigate and analyze chromium (Cr) contained in the sediments, and to evaluate the accumulation of Cr and the degree of its potential risk. The results show that samples collected at all monitoring stations near the mouth of Jen-Gen River contain 92–567 mg/kg of Cr with average of 366±166 mg/kg. The spatial distribution of Cr reveals that the Cr concentration is relatively high in the river mouth region, and gradually diminishes toward the harbor region. This indicates that upstream industrial and municipal wastewater discharges along the river bank are major sources of pollution. The accumulation factor and potential ecological risk index indicate that the sedimentation at Jen-Gen River mouth has the most serious degree of Cr accumulation and the highest ecological potential risk.

Keywords: chromium, sediment, river mouth, enrichment factor

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1268
145 Tool Wear of Aluminum/Chromium/Tungsten-Based-Coated Cemented Carbide Tools in Cutting Sintered Steel

Authors: Tadahiro Wada, Hiroyuki Hanyu

Abstract:

In this study, to clarify the effectiveness of an aluminum/chromium/tungsten-based-coated tool for cutting sintered steel, tool wear was experimentally investigated. The sintered steel was turned with the (Al60,Cr25,W15)N-, (Al60,Cr25,W15)(C,N)- and (Al64,Cr28,W8)(C,N)-coated cemented carbide tools according to the physical vapor deposition (PVD) method. Moreover, the tool wear of the aluminum/chromium/tungsten-based-coated item was compared with that of the (Al,Cr)N coated tool. Furthermore, to clarify the tool wear mechanism of the aluminum/chromium/tungsten-coating film for cutting sintered steel, Scanning Electron Microscope observation and Energy Dispersive x-ray Spectroscopy mapping analysis were conducted on the abraded surface. The following results were obtained: (1) The wear progress of the (Al64,Cr28,W8)(C,N)-coated tool was the slowest among that of the five coated tools. (2) Adding carbon (C) to the aluminum/chromium/tungsten-based-coating film was effective for improving the wear-resistance. (3) The main wear mechanism of the (Al60,Cr25,W15)N-, the (Al60,Cr25,W15)(C,N)- and the (Al64,Cr28,W8)(C,N)-coating films was abrasive wear.

Keywords: Cutting, physical vapor deposition coating method, tool wear, tool wear mechanism, sintered steel.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1634
144 Decolorization and Phenol Removal of Palm Oil Mill Effluent by Termite-Associated Yeast

Authors: P. Chaijak, M. Lertworapreecha, C. Sukkasem

Abstract:

A huge of dark color palm oil mill effluent (POME) cannot pass the discharge standard. It has been identified as the major contributor to the pollution load into ground water. Here, lignin-degrading yeast isolated from a termite nest was tested to treat the POME. Its lignin-degrading and decolorizing ability was determined. The result illustrated that Galactomyces sp. was successfully grown in POME. The decolorizing test demonstrated that 40% of Galactomyces sp. could reduce the color of POME (50% v/v) about 74-75% in 5 days without nutrient supplement. The result suggested that G. reessii has a potential to apply for decolorizing the dark wastewater like POME and other industrial wastewaters.

Keywords: Decolorization, palm oil mill effluent, ligninolytic enzyme, yeast, termite.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1278
143 Effect of Different Treatments on Heavy Metal Concentration in Sugar Cane Molasses

Authors: Gomaa N. Abdel-Rahman, Nadia R. A. Nassar, Yehia A. Heikal, Mahmoud A. M. Abou-Donia, Mohamed M. Naguib, Mohamed Fadel

Abstract:

Cane molasses is used as a raw material for the production of baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in Egypt. The high levels of heavy metals in molasses cause a critical problem during fermentation and cause various kinds of technological difficulties (yield and quality of yeast become lower). The aim of the present study was to determine heavy metal concentrations (cadmium, nickel, lead, and copper) in crude and treated molasses obtained from the storage tanks of the baker’s yeast factory through four seasons. Also, the effect of crude molasses treatment by different methods (at laboratory scale) on heavy metals reduction and its comparison with factory treated molasses were conducted. The molasses samples obtained at autumn season had the highest values of all the studied heavy metals. The molasses treated by cation exchange resin then sulfuric acid had the lowest concentrations of heavy metals compared with other treatments.

Keywords: Molasses, baker’s yeast, heavy metals, treatment.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2435
142 Influence of Yeast Strains on Microbiological Stability of Wheat Bread

Authors: E. Soboleva, E. Sergachyova, S. G. Davydenko, T. V. Meledina

Abstract:

Problem of food preservation is extremely important for mankind. Viscous damage ("illness") of bread results from development of Bacillus spp. bacteria. High temperature resistant spores of this microorganism are steady against 120°C) and remain in bread during pastries, potentially causing spoilage of the final product. Scientists are interested in further characterization of bread spoiling Bacillus spp. species. Our aim was to find weather yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that are able to produce natural antimicrobial killer factor can preserve bread illness. By diffusion method, we showed yeast antagonistic activity against spore-forming bacteria. Experimental technological parameters were the same as for bakers' yeasts production on the industrial scale. Risograph test during dough fermentation demonstrated gas production. The major finding of the study was a clear indication of the presence of killer yeast strain antagonistic activity against rope in bread causing bacteria. After demonstrating antagonistic effect of S. cerevisiae on bacteria using solid nutrient medium, we tested baked bread under provocative conditions. We also measured formation of carbon dioxide in the dough, dough-making duration and quality of the final products, when using different strains of S. cerevisiae. It is determined that the use of yeast S. cerevisiae RCAM 01730 killer strain inhibits appearance of rope in bread. Thus, natural yeast antimicrobial killer toxin, produced by some S. cerevisiae strains is an anti-rope in bread protector.

Keywords: Bakers' yeasts, rope in bread, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1849