Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Wastewater by Use of Scrap Iron
Hexavalent chromium is highly toxic to most living organisms and a known human carcinogen by the inhalation route of exposure. Therefore, treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated wastewater is essential before their discharge to the natural water bodies. Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) can be beneficial because a more mobile and more toxic chromium species is converted to a less mobile and less toxic form. Zero-valence-state metals, such as scrap iron, can serve as electron donors for reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The influence of pH on scrap iron capacity to reduce Cr(VI) was investigated in this study. Maximum reduction capacity of scrap iron was observed at the beginning of the column experiments; the lower the pH, the greater the experiment duration with maximum scrap iron reduction capacity. The experimental results showed that highest maximum reduction capacity of scrap iron was 12.5 mg Cr(VI)/g scrap iron, at pH 2.0, and decreased with increasing pH up to 1.9 mg Cr(VI)/g scrap iron at pH = 7.3.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1328908Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1852
 J. Barnhart, "Occurrences, uses and properties of chromium," Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol., vol. 26, 1997, pp. s3-s7.
 D. E. Kimbrough, Y. Cohen, and A. M. Winer, "A critical assessment of chromium in the environment," Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. vol. 29, 1999, pp. 1-46.
 M. Costa, "Potential hazards of hexavalent chromate in our drinking water," Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., vol. 188, 2003, pp.1-5.
 R. Shrivastava, R. K. Upreti, P. K. Seth, and U. C. Chaturvedi, "Effects of chromium on the immune system," FEMS Immun.Medical Microbiol., vol. 34, 2002, pp. 1-7.
 T. J. Naimo, "A review of the effects of heavy metals on freshwater mussels," Ecotoxicol., vol. 4, 1995, pp. 341-362.
 D. Bagchi, S. J. Stohs, and B. W. Downs, "Cytotoxicity and oxidative mechanisms of different forms of chromium," Toxicol., vol 180, 2002, pp. 5-22.
 M. Cieslak-Golonka, "Toxic and mutagenic effects of chromium(VI). A review," Polyhedron, vol. 15, 1995, pp. 3667-3689.
 M. D. Cohen, B. Kargacin, and C. B. Klein, "Mechanisms of chromium carcinogenicity and toxicity," Crit. Rev. Toxicol., vol. 23, 1993, pp. 255- 281.
 F. C. Richard, and A. C. M. Bourg, "Aqueous geochemistry of chromium: a review," Wat. Res., vol. 25, 1991, pp. 807-816.
 D. Rai, B. M. Sass, and D. A. Moore, "Chromium(III) hydrolysis constants and solubility of chromium(III) hydroxide," Inorg. Chem., vol. 26, 1987, pp. 345-349.
 J. Cerulli, D. W. Grabe, I. Gauthier, M. Malone, and M. D. McGoldrick, "Chromium picolinate toxicity," Ann. Pharmacother., vol. 32, 1998, pp. 428-431.
 M. D. Stearns, M. S. Silveira, and K. K. Wolf, "Chromium(III) tris(picolinate) is mutagenic at the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyltransferase locus in Chinese hamster ovary cells," Mutat.Res., vol. 513, 2002, pp. 135-142.
 S. A. Kareus, C. Kelley, H. S. Walton, and P. R. Sinclair, "Release of Cr(III) from Cr(III) picolinate upon metabolic activation," J. Hazard. Mater., vol. 84, 2001, pp. 163-174.
 M. Gheju, Chromium and the environment, Timisoara: Politehnica Publishing House, 2005, pp.99-234.
 L. E. Eary, and D. Rai, "Chromate removal from aqueous wastes by reduction with ferrous iron," Environ. Sci.Technol., vol. 22, 1988, pp. 972-977.
 R. W. Puls, D. W. Blowes, and R. W. Gillham, "Long-term performance monitoring for a permeable reactive barrier at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center, Elizabeth City, North Carolina," J. Hazard. Mater., vol 68, 1999, pp. 109-124.
 D. W. Blowes, C. J. Ptacek, S. G. Benner, C. W. T. McRae, T. A. Bennett, and R. W. Puls, "Treatment of inorganic contaminants using permeable reactive barriers," J. Contam. Hydrol., vol. 45, 2000, pp. 123- 137.
 R. M. Powell, R. W. Puls, S. K. Hightower, and D. A. Sabatini, "Coupled iron corrosion and chromate reduction: Mechanisms for subsurface remediation," Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 29, 1995, pp. 1913- 1922.
 M. Mullet, S. Boursiquot, J. J. Ehrhardt, "Removal of hexavalent chromium from solutions by mackinawite, tetragonal FeS," Coll. Surf. A: Physicochem. Engineer. Aspects, vol. 244, 2004, pp. 77-85.
 R. R. Patterson, S. Fendorf, and M. Fendorf, "Reduction of hexavalent chromium by amorphous iron sulfide," Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 31, 1997, pp. 2039-2044.
 J. Kim, P. K. Jung, H. S. Moon, and C. M. Chon, "Reduction of hexavalent chromium by pyrite-rich andesite in different anionic solutions," Environ. Geol., vol. 42, 2002, pp. 642-648.
 L. E. Eary, and D. Rai, "Kinetics of chromate reduction by ferrous ions derived from hematite and biotite at 25o C," Am. J. Sci., vol. 289, 1989, pp. 180-213.
 J. N. Anderson, B. A. Bolto, and L. A. Pawlowski, "A method for chromate removal from cooling tower blowdown water," Nucl.Chem. Waste Manag., vol. 5, 1984, pp. 125-129.
 T. Kendelewicz, P. Liu, C. S. Doyle, and G. E. Brown Jr., "Spectroscopic study of the interaction of aqueous Cr(VI) with Fe3O4(111) surfaces," Surf. Sci., vol. 469, 2000, pp. 144-163.
 APHA, AWWA, WEF, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 19th Edition, Baltimore: United Book Press, Inc., 1995, pp. 3.59-3.60.
 A. Ozer, H. S. Altundogan, M. Erdem, and F. Tumen, "A study on the Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solutions by steel wool," Env. Pollution., vol. 97, 1997, pp. 107-112.
 S. S. Chen, B. C. Hsu, and L. W. Hung, "Chromate reduction by waste iron from electroplating wastewater using plug flow reactor," J. Hazard. Mater., vol. 152, 2008, pp. 1092-1097.