Human Health Risk Assessment from Metals Present in a Soil Contaminated by Crude Oil
The main sources of soil pollution due to petroleum contaminants are industrial processes involve crude oil. Soil polluted with crude oil is toxic for plants, animals, and humans. Human exposure to the contaminated soil occurs through different exposure pathways: Soil ingestion, diet, inhalation, and dermal contact. The present study research is focused on soil contamination with heavy metals as a consequence of soil pollution with petroleum products. Human exposure pathways considered are: Accidentally ingestion of contaminated soil and dermal contact. The purpose of the paper is to identify the human health risk (carcinogenic risk) from soil contaminated with heavy metals. The human exposure and risk were evaluated for five contaminants of concern of the eleven which were identified in soil. Two soil samples were collected from a bioremediation platform from Muntenia Region of Romania. The soil deposited on the bioremediation platform was contaminated through extraction and oil processing. For the research work, two average soil samples from two different plots were analyzed: The first one was slightly contaminated with petroleum products (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil was 1420 mg/kgd.w.), while the second one was highly contaminated (TPH in soil was 24306 mg/kgd.w.). In order to evaluate risks posed by heavy metals due soil pollution with petroleum products, five metals known as carcinogenic were investigated: Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), ChromiumVI (CrVI), Nickel (Ni), and Lead (Pb). Results of the chemical analysis performed on samples collected from the contaminated soil evidence soil contamination with heavy metals as following: As in Site 1 = 6.96 mg/kgd.w; As in Site 2 = 11.62 mg/kgd.w, Cd in Site 1 = 0.9 mg/kgd.w; Cd in Site 2 = 1 mg/kgd.w; CrVI was 0.1 mg/kgd.w for both sites; Ni in Site 1 = 37.00 mg/kgd.w; Ni in Site 2 = 42.46 mg/kgd.w; Pb in Site 1 = 34.67 mg/kgd.w; Pb in Site 2 = 120.44 mg/kgd.w. The concentrations for these metals exceed the normal values established in the Romanian regulation, but are smaller than the alert level for a less sensitive use of soil (industrial). Although, the concentrations do not exceed the thresholds, the next step was to assess the human health risk posed by soil contamination with these heavy metals. Results for risk were compared with the acceptable one (10-6, according to World Human Organization). As, expected, the highest risk was identified for the soil with a higher degree of contamination: Individual Risk (IR) was 1.11×10-5 compared with 8.61×10-6.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1131898Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 769
 EEA, “Progress in management of contaminated sites”, European Environment Agency, Sep. 2015.
 C. Cojocaru, D.M. Cocârţă, I.A. Istrate, and I. Crețescu, “Graphical Methodology of Global Pollution Index for the Environmental Impact Assessment Using Two Environmental Components”, Sustenability, vol. 9 (4), Apr. 2017.
 J.Pinedo, R. Ibanez, J.P.A. Lijzen, and A. Irabien, “Assessment of soil pollution based on total petroleum hydrocarbons and individual oil substances”, Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 130, pp. 72-79, Nov. 2013.
 T. Joy, and Ch. VanCantfort, “User Guide for Risk Assessment of Petroleum Releases”, West Virginia Division of Environmental Protection Office of Environmental Remediation, Nov. 1999.
 D.M. Cocârţă, S. Neamțu, and A.M. Reșetar Deac, “Carcinogenic risk evaluation for human health risk assessment from soils contaminated with heavy metals”, International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 13 (8), pp. 2025-2036, Aug. 2016.
 U.S. EPA, “Risk Assessment - Human Health Risk Assessment”, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Oct. 2016.
 U.S. EPA, “Risk Assessment - Conducting a Human Health Risk Assessment”, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Jul. 2016.
 S. Gupta, P. Pandotra, A.P. Gupta, J.K. Dhar, G. Sharma, G. Ram, M.K. Husain, and Y.S. Bedi, “Volatile (As and Hg) and non-volatile (Pb and Cd) toxic heavy metals analysis in rhizome of Zingiber officinale collected from different locations of North Western Himalayas by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy”, Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 48 (10), Jul. 2010.
 H.H. Li, L.J. Chen, l. Yu, Z.b. Guo, C.Q. Shan, J.Q. Lin, Y.g. Gu, Z.B. Yang, Y.X. Yang, J.R. Shao, X.M. Zhu, and Z. Cheng, “Pollution characteristics and risk assessment of human exposure to oral bioaccessibility of heavy metals via urban street dusts from different functional areas in Chengdu, China”, The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 586, pp. 1076-1084 Feb. 2017.
 S. Ata1, S. Tayyab1 and A. Rasool1, “Analysis Of Non-Volatile Toxic Heavy Metals (Cd, Pb, Cu,Cr And Zn) In ALLIUM SATIVUM (Garlic) And Soil Samples ,Collected From Different Locations Of Punjab, Pakistan By Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy”, EDP Science, vol. 1, Apr. 2013.
 R. Goyer, and M. Golub, “Issue Paper on the Human Health Effects of Metals”, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Risk Assessment Forum, Draft, Aug. 2003.
 National Toxicology Program, “Report of Carcinogens”, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Twelfth Edition, 2011.
 M.O. 1997, “Ministry Order No. 756 from November 3, 1997 for approval of Regulation concerning environmental pollution assessment”, Official Monitor, No. 303/6, Nov.1997.
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund”, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, vol. I Human Health Evaluation Manual, part A, Dec.1989.
 ATSDR, “Glossary of Terms”, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Jan. 2016.
 T.K. Boguski, “Human Health Risk Assessment”, Environmental Science and Technology Briefs for Citizens, 1999.
 European Commission, “Introduction to Risk Assessment - Children's Health and the Environment”, DG Health and Food Safety, 2003.
 NJDEP, “Toxicity Factors”, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Sep. 2009.
 Health Canada, “Slope Factors for Carcinogens”, Federal Contaminated Site Risk Assessment in Canada, part I and II, 2008.
 U.S. EPA, “Slope Factors for Carcinogens”, United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2007.
 R. Blaisdell, J.F. Collins, D.E. Dodge, G. Harris, and M.A. Marty, “The Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Guidance Manual for Preparation of Health Risk Assessment”, Office of Environmental Hazard Assessment, Aug. 2003.
 J. Anderson, A. Levine, J. Peterson, M. Poulsen, P. Seidel, and S. Turnblom, “Human Health Risk Assessment Guidance”, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, May 2010.