Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 260

Search results for: Wastewater.

260 Treatment of Chrome Tannery Wastewater by Biological Process - A Mini Review

Authors: Supriyo Goswami, Debabrata Mazumder

Abstract:

Chrome tannery wastewater causes serious environmental hazard due to its high pollution potential. As a result, rigorous treatment is necessary for abatement of pollution from this type of wastewater. There are many research studies on chrome tannery wastewater treatment in the field of physical, chemical, and biological methods. In general, biological treatment process is found ineffective for direct application because of adverse effects by toxic chromium, sulphide, chloride etc. However, biological methods were employed mainly for a few sub processes generating significant amount of organic matter and without chromium, chlorides etc. In this context the present paper reviews the characteristics feature and pollution potential of wastewater generated from chrome tannery units and treatment of the same. The different biological processes used earlier and their chronological development for treatment of the chrome tannery wastewater are thoroughly reviewed in this paper. In this regard, the scope of hybrid bioreactor - an advanced technology option has also been explored, as this kind of treatment is well suited for the wastewater having inhibitory substances. 

Keywords: Composite tannery wastewater, biological treatment, Hybrid bioreactor, Organic removal

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259 Energy Production Potential from Co-Digestion between Frozen Seafood Wastewater and Decanter Cake in Thailand

Authors: Thaniya Kaosol, Narumol Sohgrathok

Abstract:

In this paper, a Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) test provides a measure of the energy production potential from codigestion between the frozen seafood wastewater and the decanter cake. The experiments were conducted in laboratory-scale. The suitable ratio of the frozen seafood wastewater and the decanter cake was observed in the BMP test. The ratio of the co-digestion between the frozen seafood wastewater and the decanter cake has impacts on the biogas production and energy production potential. The best performance for energy production potential using BMP test observed from the 180 ml of the frozen seafood wastewater and 10 g of the decanter cake ratio. This ratio provided the maximum methane production at 0.351 l CH4/g TCODremoval. The removal efficiencies are 76.18%, 83.55%, 43.16% and 56.76% at TCOD, SCOD, TS and VS, respectively. The result can be concluded that the decanter cake can improve the energy production potential of the frozen seafood wastewater. The energy provides from co-digestion between frozen seafood wastewater and decanter cake approximately 19x109 MJ/year in Thailand.

Keywords: Frozen seafood wastewater, decanter cake, biogas, methane, BMP test.

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258 Risk Allocation in Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Projects for Wastewater Treatment Plants

Authors: Samuel Capintero, Ole H. Petersen

Abstract:

This paper examines the utilization of public-private partnerships for the building and operation of wastewater treatment plants. Our research focuses on risk allocation in this kind of projects. Our analysis builds on more than hundred wastewater treatment plants built and operated through PPP projects in Aragon (Spain). The paper illustrates the consequences of an inadequate management of construction risk and an unsuitable transfer of demand risk in wastewater treatment plants. It also shows that the involvement of many public bodies at local, regional and national level further increases the complexity of this kind of projects and make time delays more likely.

Keywords: Wastewater, treatment plants, PPP, construction.

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257 Effects of Wastewater Strength and Salt Stress on Microalgal Biomass Production and Lipid Accumulation

Authors: Praepilas Dujjanutat, Pakawadee Kaewkannetra

Abstract:

This work aims to investigate a potential of microalgae for utilizing industrial wastewater as a cheap nutrient for their growth and oil accumulation. Wastewater was collected from the effluent ponds of agro-industrial factories (cassava and ethanol production plants). Only 2 microalgal strains were isolated and identified as Scenedesmus quadricauda and Chlorella sp.. However, only S. quadricauda was selected to cultivate in various wastewater concentrations (10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%). The highest biomass obtained at 6.6×106 and 6.27×106 cells/ml when 60% wastewater was used in flask and photo-bioreactor. The cultures gave the highest lipid content at 18.58 % and 42.86% in cases of S. quadricauda and S. obliquus. In addition, under salt stress (1.0 M NaCl), S. obliquus demonstrated the highest lipid content at 50% which was much more than the case of no NaCl adding. However, the concentration of NaCl does not affect on lipid accumulation in case of S. quadricauda.

Keywords: Cassava wastewater, cultivation, lipid accumulation, microalgae

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256 Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal from Livestock Wastewater by Zeolite Ion Exchange and Ionizing Radiation

Authors: Tak-Hyun Kim, Youn-Ku Nam, Myunjoo Lee

Abstract:

The ionizing radiation of livestock wastewater for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus was studied in the presence of a natural zeolite. The feasibility of a combined process of zeolite ion exchange and electron beam irradiation of livestock wastewater was also investigated. The removal efficiencies of NH4 +-N, T-N and T-P were significantly enhanced by electron beam irradiation after zeolite ion exchange as a pre-treatment. The presence of silica zeolite accelerated the decomposition rate of livestock wastewater in the electron beam irradiation process. These results indicate that the combined process of zeolite ion exchange and electron beam irradiation has the potential for the treatment of livestock wastewater

Keywords: Zeolite, electron beam, livestock wastewater, ammonia nitrogen, phosphorus.

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255 Treatment of Wastewater from Wet Scrubbers in Secondary Lead Smelters for Recycling and Lead Recovery

Authors: Mahmoud A. Rabah

Abstract:

The present study shows a method to recover lead metal from wastewater of wet scrubber in secondary lead smelter. The wastewater is loaded with 42,000 ppm of insoluble lead compounds (TSP) submicron in diameter. The technical background benefits the use of cationic polyfloc solution to flocculate these colloidal solids before press filtration. The polymer solution is injected in the wastewater stream in a countercurrent flow design. The study demonstrates the effect of polymer dose, temperature, pH, flow velocity of the wastewater and different filtration media on the filtration extent. Results indicated that filtration rate (¦r), quality of purified water, purifying efficiency (¦e) and floc diameter decrease regularly with increase in mass flow rate and velocity up to turbulence of 0.5 m.sec-1. Laminar flow is in favor of flocculation. Polyfloc concentration of 0.75 – 1.25 g/m3 wastewater is convenient. Increasing temperature of the wastewater and pneumatic pressure of filtration enhances ¦r. High pH value deforms floc formation and assists degradation of the filtration fabric. The overall efficiency of the method amounts to 93.2 %. Lead metal was recovered from the filtrate cake using carbon as a reducing agent at 900°C.

Keywords: Wastewater, wet scrubbers, filtration, secondary lead.

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254 A Study of the Garbage Enzyme's Effects in Domestic Wastewater

Authors: Fu E. Tang, Chung W. Tong

Abstract:

“Garbage enzyme", a fermentation product of kitchen waste, water and brown sugar, is claimed in the media as a multipurpose solution for household and agricultural uses. This study assesses the effects of dilutions (5% to 75%) of garbage enzyme in reducing pollutants in domestic wastewater. The pH of the garbage enzyme was found to be 3.5, BOD concentration about 150 mg/L. Test results showed that the garbage enzyme raised the wastewater-s BOD in proportion to its dilution due to its high organic content. For mixtures with more than 10% garbage enzyme, its pH remained acidic after the 5-day digestion period. However, it seems that ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus could be removed by the addition of the garbage enzyme. The most economic solution for removal of ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus was found to be 9%. Further tests are required to understand the removal mechanisms of the ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus.

Keywords: Wastewater treatment, garbage enzyme, wastewater additives, ammonia nitrogen, phosphorus.

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253 A Condition Rating System for Wastewater Treatment Plants Infrastructures

Authors: Altayeb Qasem, Tarek Zayed, Zhi Chen

Abstract:

Statistics Canada stated that the wastewater treatment facilities in most provinces are aging and passes 63% of their useful life in 2007 the highest ratio among public infrastructure assets. Currently, there is no standard condition rating system for wastewater treatment plants that give a specific rating index that describe the physical integrity of different infrastructure elements in the treatment plant and its environmental performance. The main objective of this study is to develop a condition-rating index for wastewater treatment plants mainly activated sludge systems. The proposed WWTP CRI, is based on dividing the treatment plant into its three treatment phases; primary phase, secondary phase and the tertiary phase. The condition-rating index will reflect the infrastructures state for each phase, mainly tanks, pipes, blowers and pumps.

Keywords: Condition rating index, Wastewater treatment plants, AHP- MUAT.

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252 Role of Lemna minor Lin. in Treating the Textile Industry Wastewater

Authors: D. Sivakumar

Abstract:

Textile industry processes are among the most environmentally unfriendly industrial processes; because, they produce color wastewater that is heavily polluted the environment. Therefore, textile industry wastewater has to be treated before being discharged into the environment. In this study, experiments were conducted for different process parameters like nutrient dosage and dilution ratio against the pH and contact time to remove COD and color in a textile industrial wastewater using aquatic macrophytes Lemna minor L. The experimental results showed that the maximum percentage reduction of COD and color in a textile industry wastewater by Lemna minor L. was obtained at an optimum nutrient dosage of 50g, dilution ratio of 8, pH of 8 and contact time of 4 days. Similarly, the results of validation experiments showed that the experiments were able to reproduce the obtained optimum process parameters. The maximum removal percentage of color in an aqueous solution (86.35%) is higher than the removal of color in a textile industry wastewater (82.85). Further, the first order kinetic model was fitted well with the experimental data of this present study. Finally, this study concluded that Lemna minor L. may be used for removing all types of parameters in any type of textile industry wastewater.

Keywords: Aquatic Macrophyte, Process Parameters, Textile Industry Wastewater.

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251 Treatment of Petroleum Refinery Wastewater by using UASB Reactors

Authors: H.A. Gasim, S.R.M. Kutty, M.H. Isa, M.P.M. Isa

Abstract:

Petroleum refineries discharged large amount of wastewater -during the refining process- that contains hazardous constituents that is hard to degrade. Anaerobic treatment process is well known as an efficient method to degrade high strength wastewaters. Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanker (UASB) is a common process used for various wastewater treatments. Two UASB reactors were set up and operated in parallel to evaluate the treatment efficiency of petroleum refinery wastewater. In this study four organic volumetric loading rates were applied (i.e. 0.58, 0.89, 1.21 and 2.34 kg/m3·d), two loads to each reactor. Each load was applied for a period of 60 days for the reactor to acclimatize and reach steady state, and then the second load applied. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals were satisfactory with the removal efficiencies at the loadings applied were 78, 82, 83 and 81 % respectively.

Keywords: Petroleum refinery wastewater, anaerobic treatment, UASB, organic volumetric loading rate

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250 A Study of Performance of Wastewater Treatment Systems for Small Sites

Authors: Fu E. Tang, Vun J. Ngu

Abstract:

The pollutant removal efficiency of the Intermittently Decanted Extended Aeration (IDEA) wastewater treatment system at Curtin University Sarawak Campus, and conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment system at a local resort, Resort A, is monitored. The influent and effluent characteristics are tested during wet and dry weather conditions, and peak and off peak periods. For the wastewater treatment systems at Curtin Sarawak and Resort A, during dry weather and peak season, it was found that the BOD5 concentration in the influent is 121.7mg/L and 80.0mg/L respectively, and in the effluent, 18.7mg/L and and 18.0mg/L respectively. Analysis of the performance of the IDEA treatment system showed that the operational costs can be minimized by 3%, by decreasing the number of operating cycles. As for the treatment system in Resort A, by utilizing a smaller capacity air blower, a saving of 12% could be made in the operational costs.

Keywords: Conventional Activated Sludge, IDEA, Performance Monitoring, Wastewater Treatment

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249 A Study on the Introduction of Wastewater Reuse Facility in Military Barracks by Cost-Benefit Analysis

Authors: D. G. Jung, J. B. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. J. Kim

Abstract:

The international society focuses on the environment protection and natural energy sources control for the global cooperation against weather change and sustainable growth. The study presents the overview of the water shortage status and the necessity of wastewater reuse facility in military facilities and for the possibility of the introduction, compares the economics by means of cost-benefit analysis. The military features such as the number of users of military barracks and the water use were surveyed by the design principles by facility types, the application method of wastewater reuse facility was selected, the feed water, its application and the volume of reuse volume were defined and the expectation was estimated, confirming the possibility of introducing a wastewater reuse possibility by means of cost-benefit analysis.

Keywords: military barracks, wastewater reuse facility, cost-benefit analysis

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248 Effect of Real Wastewater on Biotransformation of 17α-ethynylestradiol by Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria in Nitrifying Activated Sludge

Authors: Natthawan Likitmongkonsakun, Tawan Limpiyakorn

Abstract:

17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) is a synthetic estrogen used as a key ingredient in an oral contraceptives pill. EE2 is an endocrine disrupting compound, high in estrogenic potency. Although EE2 exhibits low degree of biodegradability with common microorganisms in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), this compound can be biotransformed by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) via a co-metabolism mechanism in WWTPs. This study aimed to investigate the effect of real wastewater on biotransformation of EE2 by AOB. A preliminary experiment on the effect of nitrite and pH levels on abiotic transformation of EE2 suggested that the abiotic transformation occurred at only pH <6.8. Biotransformation of EE2 under the presence of municipal or industrial wastewater demonstrated that different types of wastewater affect EE2 biotransformation differently. Organic matters in wastewater were believed to deteriorate EE2 biotransformation via the competition effect. At a lower initial ammonium concentration, EE2 biotransformation can be retarded and the extent of the deterioration was COD-concentration dependent. However, when an initial ammonium concentration was elevated, thisphenomena disappeared. This is because when increasing the amount of the primary substrate, more AMO enzymes can be produced resulting in unlimited transformation of all compounds in the tests reducing the competitive effect of organic matters on EE2.

Keywords: 17α-ethynylestradiol, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, nitrifying activated sludge, wastewater.

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247 Treatment of Simulated Textile Wastewater Containing Reactive Azo Dyes Using Laboratory Scale Trickling Filter

Authors: A. Irum, S. Mumtaz, A. Rehman, I. Naz, S. Ahmed

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential applicability of biological trickling filter system for the treatment of simulated textile wastewater containing reactive azo dyes with bacterial consortium under non-sterile conditions. The percentage decolorization for the treatment of wastewater containing structurally different dyes was found to be higher than 95% in all trials. The stable bacterial count of the biofilm on stone media of the trickling filter during the treatment confirmed the presence, proliferation, dominance and involvement of the added microbial consortium in the treatment of textile wastewater. Results of physicochemical parameters revealed the reduction in chemical oxygen demand (58.5-75.1%), sulphates (18.9-36.5%), and phosphates (63.6-73.0%). UV-Visible and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed decolorization of dye containing wastewater was ultimate consequence of biodegradation. Toxicological studies revealed the nontoxic nature of degradative metabolites.

Keywords: Biodegradation, textile dyes, waste water, trickling filters.

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246 Anaerobic Treatment of Petroleum Refinery Wastewater

Authors: H. A. Gasim, S. R. M. Kutty, M. Hasnain Isa

Abstract:

Anaerobic treatment has many advantages over other biological method particularly when used to treat complex wastewater such as petroleum refinery wastewater. In this study two Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors were operated in parallel to treat six volumetric organic loads (0.58, 1.21, 0.89, 2.34, 1.47 and 4.14 kg COD/m3·d) to evaluate the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency. The reactors were continuously adapting to the changing of operation condition with increase in the removal efficiency or slight decrease until the last load which was more than two times the load, at which the reactor stressed and the removal efficiency decreased to 75% with effluent concentration of 1746 mg COD/L. Other parameters were also monitored such as pH, alkalinity, volatile fatty acid and gas production rate. The UASB reactor was suitable to treat petroleum refinery wastewater and the highest COD removal rate was 83% at 1215 kg/m3·d with COD concentration about 356 mg/L in the effluent.

Keywords: Petroleum refinery wastewater, anaerobic digestion, UASB, organic volumetric loading rate

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245 Photovoltaic Small-Scale Wastewater Treatment Project for Rural and New-Cultivated Areas in Egypt

Authors: Fadia M. A. Ghali

Abstract:

The problem of wastewater treatment in Egypt is a two-fold problem; the first part concerning the existing rural areas, the second one dealing with new industrial/domestic areas. In Egypt several agricultural projects have been initiated by the government and the private sector as well, in order to change its infrastructure. As a reliable energy source, photovoltaic pumping systems have contributed to supply water for local rural communities worldwide; they can also be implemented to solve the problem “wastewater environment pollution". The solution of this problem can be categorised as recycle process. In addition, because of regional conditions past technologies are being reexamined to select a smallscale treatment system requiring low construction and maintenance costs. This paper gives the design guidelines of a Photovoltaic Small- Scale Wastewater Treatment Plant (PVSSWTP) based on technologies that can be transferred.

Keywords: Renewable energy sources, Photovoltaic, small-scale projects, wastewater treatment.

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244 Analysis of Pharmaceuticals in Influents of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants in Jordan

Authors: O. A. Al-Mashaqbeh, A. M. Ghrair, D. Alsafadi, S. S. Dalahmeh, S. L. Bartelt-Hunt, D. D. Snow

Abstract:

Grab samples were collected in the summer to characterize selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the influent of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Jordan. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) was utilized to determine the concentrations of 18 compounds of PPCPs. Among all of the PPCPs analyzed, eight compounds were detected in the influent samples (1,7-dimethylxanthine, acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, cotinine, morphine, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim). However, five compounds (amphetamine, cimetidine, diphenhydramine, methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and sulfachloropyridazine) were not detected in collected samples (below the detection limits <0.005 ng/l). Moreover, the results indicated that the highest concentration levels detected in collected samples were caffeine, acetaminophen, 1,7-dimethylxanthine, cotinine and carbamazepine at concentration of 182.5 µg/L, 28.7 µg/l, 7.47 µg/l, 4.67 µg/l and 1.54 µg/L, respectively. In general, most of compounds concentrations measured in wastewater in Jordan are within the range for wastewater previously reported in India wastewater except caffeine.

Keywords: Pharmaceuticals and personal care products, wastewater, Jordan.

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243 Bio-Electrochemical Process Coupled with MnO2 Nanowires for Wastewater Treatment

Authors: A. Giwa, S. M. Jung, W. Fang, J. Kong, S. W. Hasan

Abstract:

MnO2 nanowires were developed as filtration media for wastewater treatment that uniquely combines several advantages. The resulting material demonstrated strong capability to remove the pollution of heavy metal ions and organic contents in water. In addition, the manufacture process of such material is practical and economical. In this work, MnO2 nanowires were integrated with the state-of-art bio-electrochemical system for wastewater treatment, to overcome problems currently encountered with organic, inorganic, heavy metal, and microbe removal, and to minimize the unit footprint (land/space occupation) at low cost. Results showed that coupling the bio-electrochemical with MnO2 resulted in very encouraging results with higher removal efficiencies of such pollutants.

Keywords: Bio-electrochemical, nanowires, wastewater, treatment.

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242 Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater by Adsorption and Membrane Processes: a Comparative Study

Authors: Nermen N. Maximous, George F. Nakhla, W. K. Wan

Abstract:

This research aimed at investigating the Cr (III), Cd (II) and Pb (II) removal efficiencies by using the newly synthesized metal oxides/ polyethersulfone (PES), Al2O3/PES and ZrO2/PES, membranes from synthetic wastewater and exploring fouling mechanisms. A Comparative study between the removal efficiencies of Cr (III), Cd (II) and Pb (II) from synthetic and natural wastewater by using adsorption onto agricultural by products and the newly synthesized Al2O3/PES and ZrO2/PES membranes was conducted to assess the advantages and limitations of using the metal oxides/PES membranes for heavy metals removal. The results showed that about 99 % and 88 % removal efficiencies were achieved by the tested membranes for Pb (II) and Cr (III), respectively.

Keywords: Adsorption, metals removal, ultrafiltrationmembranes, wastewater

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241 Kinetics Studies on Biological Treatment of Tannery Wastewater Using Mixed Culture

Authors: G.Durai, N.Rajamohan, C.Karthikeyan, M.Rajasimman

Abstract:

In this study, aerobic digestion of tannery industry wastewater was carried out using mixed culture obtained from common effluent treatment plant treating tannery wastewater. The effect of pH, temperature, inoculum concentration, agitation speed and initial substrate concentration on the reduction of organic matters were found. The optimum conditions for COD reduction was found to be pH - 7 (60%), temperature - 30ÔùªC (61%), inoculum concentration - 2% (61%), agitation speed - 150rpm (65%) and initial substrate concentration - 1560 mg COD/L (74%). Kinetics studies were carried by using Monod model, First order, Diffusional model and Singh model. From the results it was found that the Monod model suits well for the degradation of tannery wastewater using mixed microbial consortium.

Keywords: Tannery, Wastewater, Biological treatment, Aerobic, Mixed culture, Kinetics.

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240 Preparation of Heterogeneous Ferrite Catalysts and Their Application for Fenton-Like Oxidation of Radioactive Organic Wastewater

Authors: Hsien T. Hsieh, Chao R. Chen, Li C. Chuang, Chin C. Shen

Abstract:

Fenton oxidation technology is the general strategy for the treatment of organic compounds-contained wastewater. However, a considerable amount of ferric sludge was produced during the Fenton process as secondary wastes, which were needed to be further removed from the effluent and treated. In this study, heterogeneous catalysts based on ferrite oxide (Cu-Fe-Ce-O) were synthesized and characterized, and their application for Fenton-like oxidation of simulated and actual radioactive organic wastewater was investigated. The results of TOC decomposition efficiency around 54% ~ 99% were obtained when the catalyst loading, H2O2 loading, pH, temperature, and reaction time were controlled. In this case, no secondary wastes formed and the given catalysts were able to be separated by magnetic devices and reused again.

Keywords: Fenton, oxidation, heterogeneous catalyst, wastewater.

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239 Analysis of Phosphate in Wastewater Using an Autonomous Microfluidics-Based Analyser

Authors: John Cleary, Conor Slater, Dermot Diamond

Abstract:

A portable sensor for the analysis of phosphate in aqueous samples has been developed. The sensor incorporates microfluidic technology, colorimetric detection, and wireless communications into a compact and rugged portable device. The detection method used is the molybdenum yellow method, in which a phosphate-containing sample is mixed with a reagent containing ammonium metavanadate and ammonium molybdate in an acidic medium. A yellow-coloured compound is generated and the absorption of this compound is measured using a light emitting diode (LED) light source and a photodiode detector. The absorption is directly proportional to the phosphate concentration in the original sample. In this paper we describe the application of this phosphate sensor to the analysis of wastewater at a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Co. Kildare, Ireland.

Keywords: Microfluidic, phosphate, sensor, wastewater.

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238 Use of Carica papaya as a Bio-Sorbent for Removal of Heavy Metals in Wastewater

Authors: W. E. Igwegbe, B. C. Okoro, J. C. Osuagwu

Abstract:

The study assessed the effectiveness of Pawpaw (Carica papaya) wood in reducing the concentrations of heavy metals in wastewater acting as a bio-sorbent. The following heavy metals were considered; Zinc, Cadmium, Lead, Copper, Iron, Selenium, Nickel and Manganese. The physiochemical properties of Carica papaya stem were studied. The experimental sample was sourced from the trunk of a felled matured pawpaw tree. Wastewater for experimental use was prepared by dissolving soil samples collected from a dump site at Owerri, Imo state of Nigeria in water. The concentration of each metal remaining in solution as residual metal after bio-sorption was determined using Atomic absorption Spectrometer. The effects of pH and initial heavy metal concentration were studied in a batch reactor. The results of Spectrometer test showed that there were different functional groups detected in the Carica papaya stem biomass. There was increase in metal removal as the pH increased for all the metals considered except for Nickel and Manganese. Optimum bio-sorption occurred at pH 5.9 with 5g/100ml solution of bio-sorbent. The results of the study showed that the treated wastewater is fit for irrigation purpose based on Canada wastewater quality guideline for the protection of Agricultural standard. This approach thus provides a cost effective and environmentally friendly option for treating wastewater.

Keywords: Biomass, bio-sorption, Carica papaya, heavy metal, wastewater.

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237 A Concept of Rational Water Management at Local Utilities – The Use of RO for Water Supply and Wastewater Treatment/Reuse

Authors: N. Matveev, A. Pervov

Abstract:

Local utilities often face problems of local industrial wastes, storm water disposal due to existing strict regulations. For many local industries, the problem of wastewater treatment and discharge into surface reservoirs can’t be solved through the use of conventional biological treatment techniques. Current discharge standards require very strict removal of a number of impurities such as ammonia, nitrates, phosphate, etc. To reach this level of removal, expensive reagents and sorbents are used. The modern concept of rational water resources management requires the development of new efficient techniques that provide wastewater treatment and reuse. As RO membranes simultaneously reject all dissolved impurities such as BOD, TDS, ammonia, phosphates etc., they become very attractive for the direct treatment of wastewater without biological stage. To treat wastewater, specially designed membrane "open channel" modules are used that do not possess "dead areas" that cause fouling or require pretreatment. A solution to RO concentrate disposal problem is presented that consists of reducing of initial wastewater volume by 100 times. Concentrate is withdrawn from membrane unit as sludge moisture. The efficient use of membrane RO techniques is connected with a salt balance in water system. Thus, to provide high ecological efficiency of developed techniques, all components of water supply and wastewater discharge systems should be accounted for.

Keywords: Reverse osmosis, stormwater treatment, openchannel module, wastewater reuse.

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236 Response of King Abdulla Canal Water to the Upgrade of As Samra WWTP

Authors: Abbas S. Al-Omari, Zain M. Al-Houri

Abstract:

The response of King Abdulla Canal (KAC) water to the upgrade of As Samra Wastewater Treatment Plant which discharges its effluent to the Zarqa River is investigated. Time series quality data that extends between October 2005 and December 2009 obtained by a state of the art telemetric monitoring system were analyzed for COD, EC, TP and TN at two monitoring stations located upstream and downstream of the confluence of the Zarqa River with KAC. The samples- means and the t-test showed that there has been significant improvement in the quality of the KAC water for COD, and TP. However, the improvement in the TN was found statistically insignificant, whereas the EC of the KAC was unaffected by the upgrade. Comparing the selected parameters with the standards and guidelines for using treated wastewater in irrigation showed that the KAC water has improved towards meeting the required standards and guidelines for treated wastewater reuse in irrigation.

Keywords: As Samra wastewater treatment plant, Telemetric monitoring system, Treated wastewater, Water quality monitoring, Zarqa River watershed.

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235 Assessment of Wastewater Reuse Potential for an Enamel Coating Industry

Authors: Guclu Insel, Efe Gumuslu, Gulten Yuksek, Nilay Sayi Ucar, Emine Ubay Cokgor, Tugba Olmez Hanci, Didem Okutman Tas, Fatos Germirli Babuna, Derya Firat Ertem, Okmen Yildirim, Ozge Erturan, Betul Kirci

Abstract:

In order to eliminate water scarcity problems, effective precautions must be taken. Growing competition for water is increasingly forcing facilities to tackle their own water scarcity problems. At this point, application of wastewater reclamation and reuse results in considerable economic advantageous. In this study, an enamel coating facility, which is one of the high water consumed facilities, is evaluated in terms of its wastewater reuse potential. Wastewater reclamation and reuse can be defined as one of the best available techniques for this sector. Hence, process and pollution profiles together with detailed characterization of segregated wastewater sources are appraised in a way to find out the recoverable effluent streams arising from enamel coating operations. Daily, 170 m3 of process water is required and 160 m3 of wastewater is generated. The segregated streams generated by two enamel coating processes are characterized in terms of conventional parameters. Relatively clean segregated wastewater streams (reusable wastewaters) are separately collected and experimental treatability studies are conducted on it. The results reflected that the reusable wastewater fraction has an approximate amount of 110 m3/day that accounts for 68% of the total wastewaters. The need for treatment applicable on reusable wastewaters is determined by considering water quality requirements of various operations and characterization of reusable wastewater streams. Ultra-filtration (UF), Nano-filtration (NF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) membranes are subsequently applied on reusable effluent fraction. Adequate organic matter removal is not obtained with the mentioned treatment sequence.

Keywords: enamel coating, membrane, reuse, wastewater

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234 Effects of Reclaimed Agro-Industrial Wastewater for Long-Term Irrigation of Herbaceous Crops on Soil Chemical Properties

Authors: E. Tarantino, G. Disciglio, G. Gatta, L. Frabboni, A. Libutti, A. Tarantino

Abstract:

Worldwide, about two-thirds of industrial and domestic wastewater effluent is discharged without treatment, which can cause contamination and eutrophication of the water. In particular, for Mediterranean countries, irrigation with treated wastewater would mitigate the water stress and support the agricultural sector. Changing global weather patterns will make the situation worse, due to increased susceptibility to drought, which can cause major environmental, social, and economic problems. The study was carried out in open field in an intensive agricultural area of the Apulian region in Southern Italy where freshwater resources are often scarce. As well as providing a water resource, irrigation with treated wastewater represents a significant source of nutrients for soil–plant systems. However, the use of wastewater might have further effects on soil. This study thus investigated the long-term impact of irrigation with reclaimed agro-industrial wastewater on the chemical characteristics of the soil. Two crops (processing tomato and broccoli) were cultivated in succession in Stornarella (Foggia) over four years from 2012 to 2016 using two types of irrigation water: groundwater and tertiary treated agro-industrial wastewater that had undergone an activated sludge process, sedimentation filtration, and UV radiation. Chemical analyses were performed on the irrigation waters and soil samples. The treated wastewater was characterised by high levels of several chemical parameters including TSS, EC, COD, BOD5, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4-N, PO4-P, K+, SAR and CaCO3, as compared with the groundwater. However, despite these higher levels, the mean content of several chemical parameters in the soil did not show relevant differences between the irrigation treatments, in terms of the chemical features of the soil.

Keywords: Agro-industrial wastewater, broccoli, long-term re-use, tomato.

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233 Treatment of Olive Mill Wastewater by Electrocoagulation Processes and Water Resources Management

Authors: Walid K. M. Bani Salameh, Hesham Ahmad, Mohammad Al-Shannag

Abstract:

In Jordan having deficit atmospheric precipitation, an increase in water demand occurs during summer months. Jordan can be regarded with a relatively high potential for wastewater recycling and reuse. The main purpose of this paper was to investigate the removal of total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) for olive mill wastewater (OMW) by electrocoagulation (EC) process. In the combination of electrocoagulation by using coupled iron–aluminum electrodes, the optimum working pH was found to be around 6. Results indicated that the electrocoagulation process allowed removal of TSS and COD of about 82.5% and 47.5%, respectively at 45 mA/cm2 after 70 minutes by using coupled iron–aluminum electrodes. It was demonstrated that the maximum TSS and COD removals were obtained at some optimum experimental parameters for current density, pH, and reaction time.

Keywords: Olive Mill Wastewater, Electrode, Electrocoagulation (EC), TSS, COD.

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232 Different Formula of Mixed Bacteria as a Bio-Treatment for Sewage Wastewater

Authors: E. Marei, A. Hammad, S. Ismail, A. El-Gindy

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the ability of different formula of mixed bacteria as a biological treatments of wastewater after primary treatment as a bio-treatment and bio-removal and bio-adsorbent of different heavy metals in natural circumstances. The wastewater was collected from Sarpium forest site-Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. These treatments were mixture of free cells and mixture of immobilized cells of different bacteria. These different formulas of mixed bacteria were prepared under Lab. condition. The obtained data indicated that, as a result of wastewater bio-treatment, the removal rate was found to be 76.92 and 76.70% for biological oxygen demand, 79.78 and 71.07% for chemical oxygen demand, 32.45 and 36.84 % for ammonia nitrogen as well as 91.67 and 50.0% for phosphate after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively. Moreover, the bio-removals of different heavy metals were found to reach 90.0 and 50. 0% for Cu ion, 98.0 and 98.5% for Fe ion, 97.0 and 99.3% for Mn ion, 90.0 and 90.0% Pb, 80.0% and 75.0% for Zn ion after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively. The results indicated that 13.86 and 17.43% of removal efficiency and reduction of total dissolved solids were achieved after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively.

Keywords: Biological desalination, bio-sorption heavy metals, free cell bacteria, immobilized bacteria, wastewater bio-treatment.

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231 Characterization of Brewery Wastewater Composition

Authors: Abimbola M. Enitan, Josiah Adeyemo, Sheena Kumari, Feroz M. Swalaha, Faizal Bux

Abstract:

Industries produce millions of cubic meters of effluent every year and the wastewater produced may be released into the surrounding water bodies, treated on-site or at municipal treatment plants. The determination of organic matter in the wastewater generated is very important to avoid any negative effect on the aquatic ecosystem. The scope of the present work is to assess the physicochemical composition of the wastewater produced from one of the brewery industry in South Africa. This is to estimate the environmental impact of its discharge into the receiving water bodies or the municipal treatment plant. The parameters monitored for the quantitative analysis of brewery wastewater include biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids, volatile suspended solids, ammonia, total oxidized nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorus and alkalinity content. In average, the COD concentration of the brewery effluent was 5340.97 mg/l with average pH values of 4.0 to 6.7. The BOD5 and the solids content of the wastewater from the brewery industry were high. This means that the effluent is very rich in organic content and its discharge into the water bodies or the municipal treatment plant could cause environmental pollution or damage the treatment plant. In addition, there were variations in the wastewater composition throughout the monitoring period. This might be as a result of different activities that take place during the production process, as well as the effects of peak period of beer production on the water usage.

Keywords: Brewery wastewater, environmental pollution, industrial effluents, physicochemical composition.

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