Removal of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons from Contaminated Soils by Electrochemical Method
Soil contamination phenomena are a wide world issue that has received the important attention in the last decades. The main pollutants that have affected soils are especially those resulted from the oil extraction, transport and processing. This paper presents results obtained in the framework of a research project focused on the management of contaminated sites with petroleum products/ REMPET. One of the specific objectives of the REMPET project was to assess the electrochemical treatment (improved with polarity change respect to the typical approach) as a treatment option for the remediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) from contaminated soils. Petroleum hydrocarbon compounds attach to soil components and are difficult to remove and degrade. Electrochemical treatment is a physicochemical treatment that has gained acceptance as an alternative method, for the remediation of organic contaminated soils comparing with the traditional methods as bioremediation and chemical oxidation. This type of treatment need short time and have high removal efficiency, being usually applied in heterogeneous soils with low permeability. During the experimental tests, the following parameters were monitored: pH, redox potential, humidity, current intensity, energy consumption. The electrochemical method was applied in an experimental setup with the next dimensions: 450 mm x 150 mm x 150 mm (L x l x h). The setup length was devised in three electrochemical cells that were connected at two power supplies. The power supplies configuration was provided in such manner that each cell has a cathode and an anode without overlapping. The initial value of TPH concentration in soil was of 1420.28 mg/kgdw. The remediation method has been applied for only 21 days, when it was already noticed an average removal efficiency of 31 %, with better results in the anode area respect to the cathode one (33% respect to 27%). The energy consumption registered after the development of the experiment was 10.6 kWh for exterior power supply and 16.1 kWh for the interior one. Taking into account that at national level, the most used methods for soil remediation are bioremediation (which needs too much time to be implemented and depends on many factors) and thermal desorption (which involves high costs in order to be implemented), the study of electrochemical treatment will give an alternative to these two methods (and their limitations).
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1131870Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 506
 P. Panagos, M. Van Liedekerke, Y. Yigini, L. Montanarella “Contaminated Sites in Europe: Review of the Current Situation Based on Data Collected through a European Network”, Journal of Environmental and Public Health Volume 2013, Article ID 158764, 11 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/158764.
 J. Stolte, M. Tesfai, L. Øygarden, S. Kværnø, J. Keizer, F. Verheijen P. Panagos, C. Ballabio, R. Hessel, “Soil threats in Europe, Status, methods, drivers and effects on ecosystem services”, JRC Technical report, 2016 (http://digital.csic.es/bitstream/10261/127158/1/Anaya-et-al_2016_JRC-Soil-contamination.pdf).
 I.A. Istrate, M. N. Dincă, M. Ferdeș, D. M. Cocârță, “The use of ozone in combination with electrochemical treatment for the remediation of organic polluted soils”, Proc. 45 Symposium "Actual Tasks on Agricultural Engineering", Croatia, 2017, pp 65-73.
 I.A.Istrate; D.M. Cocârtă; S.Neamtu, S.; T. Cirlioru,”The assessment of an alternative treatment for PCB polluted soils in the romanian context-bench scale tests”, Water Air Soil Pollut. 2013, 224, 1516.
 E.Ferrarese,; G. Andreottola; I.A. Oprea, Remediation of PAH-contaminated sediments by chemical oxidation. J. Hazard. Mater. 2008, 152, pp.128–139.
 M. Pérez‐Corona, Z. Plank, E. Bustos, Chapter 15, The Electrokinetic Treatment of Polluted Soil by Hydrocarbon: From Laboratory to Field- "Soil Contamination - Current Consequences and Further Solutions", book edited by Marcelo L. Larramendy and Sonia Soloneski, ISBN 978-953-51-2816-8, Print ISBN 978-953-51-2815-1,
 D.M. Cocârtă, D.M.; S. Neamtu, S.; A.R. Deac, Carcinogenic risk evaluation for human health risk assessment from soils contaminated with heavy metals. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2016, 13, 2025–2036
 K.R. Reddy, C. Cameselle, Electrochemical Remediation Technologies for Polluted Soils, Sediments and Groundwater., John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2009
 S. Xu, S. Guo, B. Wu, F. Li, T. Li, An assessment of the effectiveness and impact of electrokinetic remediation for pyrene-contaminated soil, Volume 26,2014,Pages 2290-2297.
 A. De Battisti, Electrochemical remediation, Seminar “Dall’Emergenza delle bonifiche ad una gestione consapevole del territorio”, Provincia Autonoma di Trento, 3-4 July 2008.
 D.M. Cocârtă; E.C. Rada, M. Ragazzi, A. Badea, T. Apostol, A contribution for a correct vision of health impact from municipal solid waste treatments. Environ. Technol. 2009, 30, 963–968.
 A.N. Alshawabkeh, T.C. Sheahan, X. Wu, “Coupling of electrochemical and mechanical processes in soils under DC fields”, Mech. Mater., vol.36, 2004, pp. 453-465.
 C. Cojocaru, D. M. Cocârţă, I. A. Istrate, I. Creţescu Graphical Methodology of Global Pollution Index for the Environmental Impact Assessment Using Two Environmental Components, Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 593
 I. Istrate, D. Cocârță, S. Neamțu, T. Cirlioru, The assessment of an alternative treatment for PCB polluted soils in the romanian context - bench scale tests, Water air and soil pollution, vol 224 (4):1516.