Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 76

Search results for: A. Siti Rohana

76 Effect of Chemical Modifier on the Properties of Polypropylene (PP) / Coconut Fiber (CF) in Automotive Application

Authors: K. Shahril, A. Nizam, M. Sabri, A. Siti Rohana, H. Salmah

Abstract:

Chemical modifier (Acrylic Acid) is used as filler treatment to improve mechanical properties and swelling behavior of polypropylene/coconut fiber (PP/CF) composites by creating more adherent bonding between CF filler and PP Matrix. Treated (with chemical modifier) and untreated (without chemical modifier) composites were prepared in the formulation of 10 wt%, 20 wt%, 30 wt%, and 40 wt%. The mechanical testing indicates that composite with 10 wt% of untreated composite has the optimum value of tensile strength, and the composite with chemical modifier shows the tensile strength was increased. By increasing of filler loading, elastic modulus was increased while the elongation at brake was decreased. Meanwhile, the swelling test discerned that the increase of filler loading increased the water absorption of composites and the presence of chemical modifier reduced the equilibrium water absorption percentage.

Keywords: Coconut fiber, polypropylene, acid acrylic, ethanol, chemical modifier, composites.

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75 Design and Implementation of a 10-bit SAR ADC

Authors: Hasmayadi Abdul Majid, Rohana Musa

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of a 38.5 kS/s 10-bit low power SAR ADC which is realized in MIMOS’s 0.35 µm CMOS process. The design uses a resistive DAC, a dynamic comparator with pre-amplifier and SAR digital logic to create 10 effective bits while consuming less than 7.8 mW with a 3.3 V power supply.

Keywords: Successive Approximation Register Analog-to- Digital Converter, SAR ADC, Resistive DAC.

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74 Knowledge and Attitude among Women and Men in Decision Making on Pap Smear Screening in Kelantan, Malaysia

Authors: Siti Waringin Oon, Rashidah Shuib, Siti Hawa Ali, Nik Hazlina Nik Hussain, Juwita Shaaban, Harmy Mohd Yusoff

Abstract:

This paper explores the knowledge and attitude of women and men in decision making on pap smear screening. This qualitative study recruited 52 respondents with 44 women and 8 men, using the purposive sampling with snowballing technique through indepth interviews. This study demonstrates several key findings: Female respondents have better knowledge compared to male. Most of the women perceived that pap smear screening is beneficial and important, but to proceed with the test is still doubtful. Male respondents were supportive in terms of sending their spouses to the health facilities or give more freedom to their wives to choose and making decision on their own health due to prominent reason that women know best on their own health. It is expected that the results from this study will provide useful guideline for healthcare providers to prepare any action/intervention to provide an extensive education to improve people-s knowledge and attitude towards pap smear.

Keywords: Attitude, decision making, knowledge, pap smearscreening..

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73 Study on the Characteristics and Utilization of Sewage Sludge at Indah Water Konsortium (IWK) Sungai Udang, Melaka

Authors: Siti Noorain Roslan, Siti Salmi Ghazali, Norfadhlina Muhamed Asli

Abstract:

The volume of biosolids produced in Malaysia nowadays had increased proportionally to its population size. The end products from the waste treatments were mounting, thus inevitable that in the end the environment will be surrounded by the waste. This study was conducted to investigate the suitability of biosolids to be reused as fertilizer for non-food crop. By varying the concentration of biosolids applied onto the soil, growth of five ornamental plant samples were tested for eight consecutive weeks. The results show that the pH of the soil after the addition of biosolids ranges from 6.45 to 6.56 which is suitable for the plant growth. The soil samples that contains biosolid also show higher amount of macronutrients (N, P, K) and the heavy metals content are significantly increased in the plant however it does not exceed the guidelines drawn by the Environmental Protection Agency. It is also proven that there was only small significant different in the performance of plant growth between biosolids and commercial fertilizer. It can be seen that biosolids was able to perform just as well as commercial fertilizer.

Keywords: Biosolids, fertilizer, R. chinensis, waste sludge.

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72 A Hybrid Technology for a Multiagent Consultation System in Obesity Domain

Authors: Rohana Mahmud, Hairul Aysa Abdul Halim Sithiq, Haryuna Mohd Taharim

Abstract:

In this paper, the authors present architecture of a multi agent consultation system for obesity related problems, which hybrid the technology of an expert system (ES) and an intelligent agent (IA). The strength of the ES which is capable of pulling the expert knowledge is consulted and presented to the end user via the autonomous and friendly pushing environment of the intelligent agent.

Keywords: Expert System, Hybrid Technology, Intelligent Agent, Medical Informatics, Multi Agent Consultation System.

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71 Forensic Implications of Blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies (Calliphoridae: Diptera) Development Rates Affected by Ketum Extract

Authors: A. R. Rashid, A. S. Siti, F. R. Siti, A. R. Reena, H. S. S. Sharifah, F. Z. Nurul, W. A. Nazni

Abstract:

This study was conducted to examine the effects of ketum extract on development of Chrysomya rufifacies and to analyze the presence of mitragynine in the larvae samples. 110 newly emerged first instar larvae of C. rufifacies were introduced on ketum extract-mixed cow liver at doses of 0, 20, 40 and 60g. Blowfly development rate was determined with 12 hour intervals and mitragynine in larvae was extracted and quantitated. C. rufifacies in control group took about 192 hours to complete their development from first instar larvae to adult blowfly; meanwhile blowfly form from the highest dose of ketum was 264 hours. Mitragynine was detected in all groups of treatment, except for control. In conclusion, the presence of mitragynine in C. rufifacies is affected in delaying development rates of the blowfly for up to 62 hours or 3 days. Chemical analysis of mitragynine from larvae samples showed that this alkaloid present in all specimens analyzed. 

Keywords: Chrysomya rufifacies, Ketum, Mitragynine, Postmortem Interval (PMI).

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70 Visual Text Analytics Technologies for Real-Time Big Data: Chronological Evolution and Issues

Authors: Siti Azrina B. A. Aziz, Siti Hafizah A. Hamid

Abstract:

New approaches to analyze and visualize data stream in real-time basis is important in making a prompt decision by the decision maker. Financial market trading and surveillance, large-scale emergency response and crowd control are some example scenarios that require real-time analytic and data visualization. This situation has led to the development of techniques and tools that support humans in analyzing the source data. With the emergence of Big Data and social media, new techniques and tools are required in order to process the streaming data. Today, ranges of tools which implement some of these functionalities are available. In this paper, we present chronological evolution evaluation of technologies for supporting of real-time analytic and visualization of the data stream. Based on the past research papers published from 2002 to 2014, we gathered the general information, main techniques, challenges and open issues. The techniques for streaming text visualization are identified based on Text Visualization Browser in chronological order. This paper aims to review the evolution of streaming text visualization techniques and tools, as well as to discuss the problems and challenges for each of identified tools.

Keywords: Information visualization, visual analytics, text mining, visual text analytics tools, big data visualization.

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69 Design and Characterization of a CMOS Process Sensor Utilizing Vth Extractor Circuit

Authors: Rohana Musa, Yuzman Yusoff, Chia Chieu Yin, Hanif Che Lah

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and characterization of a low power Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) process sensor. The design is targeted for implementation using Silterra’s 180 nm CMOS process technology. The proposed process sensor employs a voltage threshold (Vth) extractor architecture for detection of variations in the fabrication process. The process sensor generates output voltages in the range of 401 mV (fast-fast corner) to 443 mV (slow-slow corner) at nominal condition. The power dissipation for this process sensor is 6.3 µW with a supply voltage of 1.8V with a silicon area of 190 µm X 60 µm. The preliminary result of this process sensor that was fabricated indicates a close resemblance between test and simulated results.

Keywords: CMOS Process sensor, Process, Voltage and Temperature (PVT) sensor, threshold extractor circuit, Vth extractor circuit.

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68 High-Resolution 12-Bit Segmented Capacitor DAC in Successive Approximation ADC

Authors: Wee Leong Son, Hasmayadi Abdul Majid, Rohana Musa

Abstract:

This paper study the segmented split capacitor Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) implemented in a differentialtype 12-bit Successive Approximation Analog-to-Digital Converter (SA-ADC). The series capacitance split array method employed as it reduced the total area of the capacitors required for high resolution DACs. A 12-bit regular binary array structure requires 2049 unit capacitors (Cs) while the split array needs 127 unit Cs. These results in the reduction of the total capacitance and power consumption of the series split array architectures as to regular binary-weighted structures. The paper will show the 12-bit DAC series split capacitor with 4-bit thermometer coded DAC architectures as well as the simulation and measured results.

Keywords: Successive Approximation Register Analog-to- Digital Converter, SAR ADC, Low voltage ADC.

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67 Oleate Induces Apoptosis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

Authors: A. Rohana, A. M., Fadzilah Adibah, M. S. Muhammad Roji

Abstract:

Oleic acid (C18:1) play an important role in proliferation of fat cells. In this study, the effect of oleate on cells viability in 3T3-L1 cells (fat cells) was investigated. The 3T3-L1 cells were treated with various concentrations of oleate in the presence of 23 mM glucose. Oleate was added to adipogenic media (day 0) to investigate the influence of oleate on proliferation of postconfluent preadipocytes after 24 h induction. 0.1 mM oleate promoted cell division by increasing 33.9% number of cells from basal control in postconfluent preadipocytes. However, there were no significantly different in cells viability with control cells when oleate concentrations were increased up to 0.5 mM. When added to differentiated adipocytes (day 12) for 48 h, the number of cells decreased as oleate concentrations increased. 92.7% of cells lost demonstrated apoptosis and necrosis after 48 h with 0.5 mM oleate. The fluorochrome staining was examined under fluorescence microscopy using acridine orange and ethidium bromide double staining. Furthermore, the presence of high lactate (60.6% increased from basal control) released into plasma has shown the direct cytotoxicity of 0.5 mM oleate on adipocytes.

Keywords: adipocytes, apoptosis, oleate, postconfluentpreadipocytes

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66 Islamic Corporate Social Responsibility, Corporate Reputation and Performance

Authors: Roshayani Arshad, Suaini Othman, Rohana Othman

Abstract:

This study examines the effect of Islamic Corporate Social Responsibility disclosure and on corporate reputation as well as performance. These relationships are examined based on content analysis of of annual reports of 17 Islamic banks in Malaysia for 2008, 2009 and 2010. Results of this study provide evidence that CSR activities communicated in corporate annual reports are significantly positively related with corporate reputation as well as firm performance. These results indicate that CSR activities and disclosure from Islamic perspectives are equally important business strategies in creating continuous superior performance for organisations. In addition, it also highlights that organisations need to develop a stakeholder orientation particularly in an environment of increasing pressure from jurisdictions dominated by Islamic stakeholders on organisations engaging in Islamic products to increase their social responsibilities from the Islamic perspectives.

Keywords: Islamic Corporate Social Responsibility, Corporate Reputation, Firm Performance, Islamic Banks

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65 Big Data: Big Challenges to Privacy and Data Protection

Authors: Abu Bakar Munir, Siti Hajar Mohd Yasin, Firdaus Muhammad-Sukki

Abstract:

This paper seeks to analyse the benefits of big data and more importantly the challenges it pose to the subject of privacy and data protection. First, the nature of big data will be briefly deliberated before presenting the potential of big data in the present days. Afterwards, the issue of privacy and data protection is highlighted before discussing the challenges of implementing this issue in big data. In conclusion, the paper will put forward the debate on the adequacy of the existing legal framework in protecting personal data in the era of big data.

Keywords: Big data, data protection, information, privacy.

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64 The Effects of RCA Clean Variables on Particle Removal Efficiency

Authors: Siti Kudnie Sahari, Jane Chai Hai Sing, Khairuddin Ab. Hamid

Abstract:

Shrunken patterning for integrated device manufacturing requires surface cleanliness and surface smoothness in wet chemical processing [1]. It is necessary to control all process parameters perfectly especially for the common cleaning technique RCA clean (SC-1 and SC-2) [2]. In this paper the characteristic and effect of surface preparation parameters are discussed. The properties of RCA wet chemical processing in silicon technology is based on processing time, temperature, concentration and megasonic power of SC-1 and QDR. An improvement of wafer surface preparation by the enhanced variables of the wet cleaning chemical process is proposed.

Keywords: RCA, SC-1, SC-2, QDR

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63 Assessment Methods for Surgical Skill

Authors: Siti Nor Zawani Ahmmad, Eileen Su Lee Ming, Yeong Che Fai, Fauzan Khairi bin Che Harun

Abstract:

The increasingly sophisticated technologies have now been able to provide assistance for surgeons to improve surgical performance through various training programs. Equally important to learning skills is the assessment method as it determines the learning and technical proficiency of a trainee. A consistent and rigorous assessment system will ensure that trainees acquire the specific level of competency prior to certification. This paper reviews the methods currently in use for assessment of surgical skill and some modern techniques using computer-based measurements and virtual reality systems for more quantitative measurements

Keywords: assessment, surgical skill, checklist, global rating, virtual reality

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62 A Genetic Algorithm Approach for Solving Fuzzy Linear and Quadratic Equations

Authors: M. Hadi Mashinchi, M. Reza Mashinchi, Siti Mariyam H. J. Shamsuddin

Abstract:

In this paper a genetic algorithms approach for solving the linear and quadratic fuzzy equations Ãx̃=B̃ and Ãx̃2 + B̃x̃=C̃ , where Ã, B̃, C̃ and x̃ are fuzzy numbers is proposed by genetic algorithms. Our genetic based method initially starts with a set of random fuzzy solutions. Then in each generation of genetic algorithms, the solution candidates converge more to better fuzzy solution x̃b . In this proposed method the final reached x̃b is not only restricted to fuzzy triangular and it can be fuzzy number.

Keywords: Fuzzy coefficient, fuzzy equation, genetic algorithms.

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61 Metaheuristics Methods (GA and ACO) for Minimizing the Length of Freeman Chain Code from Handwritten Isolated Characters

Authors: Dewi Nasien, Habibollah Haron, Siti SophiayatiYuhaniz

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparison of metaheuristic algorithms, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), in producing freeman chain code (FCC). The main problem in representing characters using FCC is the length of the FCC depends on the starting points. Isolated characters, especially the upper-case characters, usually have branches that make the traversing process difficult. The study in FCC construction using one continuous route has not been widely explored. This is our motivation to use the population-based metaheuristics. The experimental result shows that the route length using GA is better than ACO, however, ACO is better in computation time than GA.

Keywords: Handwriting Recognition, Feature Extraction, Freeman Chain Code, Genetic Algorithm and Ant ColonyOptimization.

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60 Effects of Dust on the Performance of PV Panels

Authors: Shaharin A. Sulaiman, Haizatul H. Hussain, Nik Siti H. Nik Leh, Mohd S. I. Razali

Abstract:

Accumulation of dust from the outdoor environment on the panels of solar photovoltaic (PV) system is natural. There were studies that showed that the accumulated dust can reduce the performance of solar panels, but the results were not clearly quantified. The objective of this research was to study the effects of dust accumulation on the performance of solar PV panels. Experiments were conducted using dust particles on solar panels with a constant-power light source, to determine the resulting electrical power generated and efficiency. It was found from the study that the accumulated dust on the surface of photovoltaic solar panel can reduce the system-s efficiency by up to 50%.

Keywords: Dust, Photovoltaic, Solar Energy.

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59 Determinants of Enterprise Risk Management Adoption: An Empirical Analysis of Malaysian Public Listed Firms

Authors: Nargess Mottaghi Golshan, Siti Zaleha Abdul Rasid

Abstract:

Purpose:This paper aims to gain insights to the influential factors of ERM adoptions by public listed firms in Malaysia. Findings:The two factors of financial leverage and auditor type were found to be significant influential factors for ERM adoption. In other words the findings indicated that firms with higher financial leverage and with a Big Four auditor are more likely to have a form of ERM framework in place. Originality/Value:Since there are relatively few studies conducted in this area and specially in developing economies like Malaysia, this study will broaden the scope of literature by providing novel empirical evidence.

Keywords: Enterprise risk management, risk, public listed company.

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58 Safety Practices among Bus Operators during Wee Hour Operations

Authors: M.R. Osman, F. Abas, M.S. Noh, A. Mohamad Suffian, O. Ilhamah, H.Z. Zarir, A.B. Wahida, P. Noor Faradila, M.F. Siti Atiqah

Abstract:

Safety Health and Environment Code of Practice (SHE COP) was developed to help road transportation operators to manage its operation in a systematic and safe manner. A study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of SHE COP implementation during non-OPS period. The objective of the study is to evaluate the implementations of SHE COP among bus operators during wee hour operations. The data was collected by completing a set of checklist after observing the activities during pre departure, during the trip, and upon arrival. The results show that there are seven widely practiced SHE COP elements. 22% of the buses have average speed exceeding the maximum permissible speed on the highways (90 km/h), with 13% of the buses were travelling at the speed of more than 100 km/h. The statistical analysis shows that there is only one significant association which relates speeding with prior presence of enforcement officers.

Keywords: Safety practices, speeding, wee hour.

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57 Proposal of Design Method in the Semi-Acausal System Model

Authors: Junji Kaneko, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Ken Kaminishi, Tadayuki Kyoutani, Siti Ruhana Omar, Oke Oktavianty

Abstract:

This study is used as a definition method to the value and function in manufacturing sector. In concurrence of discussion about present condition of modeling method, until now definition of 1D-CAE is ambiguity and not conceptual. Across all the physic fields, those methods are defined with the formulation of differential algebraic equation which only applied time derivation and simulation. At the same time, we propose semi-acausal modeling concept and differential algebraic equation method as a newly modeling method which the efficiency has been verified through the comparison of numerical analysis result between the semi-acausal modeling calculation and FEM theory calculation.

Keywords: System Model, Physical Models, Empirical Models, Conservation Law, Differential Algebraic Equation, Object-Oriented.

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56 Bio-Inspired Generalized Global Shape Approach for Writer Identification

Authors: Azah Kamilah Muda, Siti Mariyam Shamsuddin, Maslina Darus

Abstract:

Writer identification is one of the areas in pattern recognition that attract many researchers to work in, particularly in forensic and biometric application, where the writing style can be used as biometric features for authenticating an identity. The challenging task in writer identification is the extraction of unique features, in which the individualistic of such handwriting styles can be adopted into bio-inspired generalized global shape for writer identification. In this paper, the feasibility of generalized global shape concept of complimentary binding in Artificial Immune System (AIS) for writer identification is explored. An experiment based on the proposed framework has been conducted to proof the validity and feasibility of the proposed approach for off-line writer identification.

Keywords: Writer identification, generalized global shape, individualistic, pattern recognition.

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55 Recognition of Isolated Handwritten Latin Characters using One Continuous Route of Freeman Chain Code Representation and Feedforward Neural Network Classifier

Authors: Dewi Nasien, Siti S. Yuhaniz, Habibollah Haron

Abstract:

In a handwriting recognition problem, characters can be represented using chain codes. The main problem in representing characters using chain code is optimizing the length of the chain code. This paper proposes to use randomized algorithm to minimize the length of Freeman Chain Codes (FCC) generated from isolated handwritten characters. Feedforward neural network is used in the classification stage to recognize the image characters. Our test results show that by applying the proposed model, we reached a relatively high accuracy for the problem of isolated handwritten when tested on NIST database.

Keywords: Handwriting Recognition, Freeman Chain Code andFeedforward Backpropagation Neural Networks.

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54 Effects of pH, Temperature, Enzyme and Substrate Concentration on Xylooligosaccharides Production

Authors: M. D. S. Siti-Normah, S. Sabiha-Hanim, A. Noraishah

Abstract:

Agricultural residue such as oil palm fronds (OPF) is cheap, widespread and available throughout the year. Hemicelluloses extracted from OPF can be hydrolyzed to their monomers and used in production of xylooligosaccharides (XOs). The objective of the present study was to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis process of OPF hemicellulose by varying pH, temperature, enzyme and substrate concentration for production of XOs. Hemicelluloses was extracted from OPF by using 3 M potassium hydroxide (KOH) at temperature of 40°C for 4 hrs and stirred at 400 rpm. The hemicellulose was then hydrolyzed using Trichoderma longibrachiatum xylanase at different pH, temperature, enzyme and substrate concentration. XOs were characterized based on reducing sugar determination. The optimum conditions to produced XOs from OPF hemicellulose was obtained at pH 4.6, temperature of 40°C , enzyme concentration of 2 U/mL and 2% substrate concentration. The results established the suitability of oil palm fronds as raw material for production of XOs.

Keywords: Hemicellulose, oil palm fronds, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, xylooligosaccharides.

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53 Free Fatty Acid Assessment of Crude Palm Oil Using a Non-Destructive Approach

Authors: Siti Nurhidayah Naqiah Abdull Rani, Herlina Abdul Rahim, Rashidah Ghazali, Noramli Abdul Razak

Abstract:

Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has always been of great interest in the food and agriculture industries. The development of prediction models has facilitated the estimation process in recent years. In this study, 110 crude palm oil (CPO) samples were used to build a free fatty acid (FFA) prediction model. 60% of the collected data were used for training purposes and the remaining 40% used for testing. The visible peaks on the NIR spectrum were at 1725 nm and 1760 nm, indicating the existence of the first overtone of C-H bands. Principal component regression (PCR) was applied to the data in order to build this mathematical prediction model. The optimal number of principal components was 10. The results showed R2=0.7147 for the training set and R2=0.6404 for the testing set.

Keywords: Palm oil, fatty acid, NIRS, regression.

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52 Development of Extended Trapezoidal Method for Numerical Solution of Volterra Integro-Differential Equations

Authors: Fuziyah Ishak, Siti Norazura Ahmad

Abstract:

Volterra integro-differential equations appear in many models for real life phenomena. Since analytical solutions for this type of differential equations are hard and at times impossible to attain, engineers and scientists resort to numerical solutions that can be made as accurately as possible. Conventionally, numerical methods for ordinary differential equations are adapted to solve Volterra integro-differential equations. In this paper, numerical solution for solving Volterra integro-differential equation using extended trapezoidal method is described. Formulae for the integral and differential parts of the equation are presented. Numerical results show that the extended method is suitable for solving first order Volterra integro-differential equations.

Keywords: Accuracy, extended trapezoidal method, numerical solution, Volterra integro-differential equations.

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51 The Effectiveness of Bismuth Addition to Retard the Intermetallic Compound Formation

Authors: I. Siti Rabiatull Aisha, A. Ourdjini, O. Saliza Azlina

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to study the effectiveness of bismuth addition in the solder alloy to retard the intermetallic compound formation and growth. In this study, three categories of solders such as Sn-4Ag-xCu (x = 0.5, 0.7, 1.0) and Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu-xBi (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.4) were used. Ni/Au surface finish substrates were dipped into the molten solder at a temperature of 180-190 oC and allowed to cool at room temperature. The intermetallic compound (IMCs) were subjected to the characterization in terms of composition and morphology. The IMC phases were identified by energy dispersive x-ray (EDX), whereas the optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to observe microstructure evolution of the solder joint. The results clearly showed that copper concentration dependency was high during the reflow stage. Besides, only Ni3Sn4 and Ni3Sn2 were detected for all copper concentrations. The addition of Bi was found to have no significant effect on the type of IMCs formed, but yet the grain became further refined.

Keywords: Bismuth addition, intermetallic compound, composition, morphology.

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50 Developing OMS in IHL

Authors: Suzana Basaruddin, Haryani Haron, Siti Arpah Noodin

Abstract:

Managing knowledge of research is one way to ensure just in time information and knowledge to support research strategist and activities. Unfortunately researcher found the vital research knowledge in IHL (Institutions of Higher Learning) are scattered, unstructured and unorganized. Aiming on lay aside conceptual foundations for understanding and developing OMS (Organizational Memory System) to facilitate research in IHL, this research revealed ten factors contributed to the needs of research in the IHL and seven internal challenges of IHL in promoting research to their academic members. This study then suggested a comprehensive support of managing research knowledge using Organizational Memory System (OMS). Eight OMS characteristics to support research were identified. Finally the initial work in designing OMS was projected using knowledge taxonomy. All analysis is derived from pertinent research paper related to research in IHL and OMS. Further study can be conducted to validate and verify results presented.

Keywords: corporate memory, Institutions of Higher Learning, organizational memory system, research

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49 Towards Good Accountability: The Role of Accounting in Islamic Religious Organisations

Authors: Hasan Basri Afifuddin, A.K Siti-Nabiha

Abstract:

Non-profit organizations, especially religious-based institutions, have long played a very important role in society. Nevertheless, scandals such as inefficient management and the use of unlawful fundraising activities have raised questions regarding the governance and accountability of these organizations. As such, the issues have attracted considerable research interest. However, there is still limited research on accountability in religious based organizations, especially in the context of Islamic religious organizations. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the issues of accounting and accountability in religious organizations, specifically in Islamic religious establishments. The paper starts by looking at the conventional meaning and concept of accountability. This is followed by a discussion of the principles of accountability within the Islamic framework. In so doing, the history of the role of accounting within Muslim society and also the differences between the Islamic and conventional view of accountability are reviewed. Insights gained from previous research on accountability in faith based organizations are also discussed

Keywords: Accountability, accounting, Islam, religiousorganization.

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48 Uneven Development: Structural Changes and Income Outcomes across States in Malaysia

Authors: Siti Aiysyah Tumin

Abstract:

This paper looks at the nature of structural changes—the transition of employment from agriculture, to manufacturing, then to different types of services—in different states in Malaysia and links it to income outcomes for households and workers. Specifically, this paper investigates the conditional association between the concentration of different economic activities and income outcomes (household incomes and employee wages) in almost four decades. Using publicly available state-level employment and income data, we found that significant wage premium was associated with “modern” services (finance, real estate, professional, information and communication), which are urban-based services sectors that employ a larger proportion of skilled and educated workers. However, employment in manufacturing and other services subsectors was significantly associated with a lower income dispersion and inequality, alluding to their importance in welfare improvements.

Keywords: Employment, labour market, structural change, wages.

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47 Multi-threshold Approach for License Plate Recognition System

Authors: Siti Norul Huda Sheikh Abdullah, Farshid Pirahan Siah, Nor Hanisah Haji Zainal Abidin, Shahnorbanun Sahran

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to propose an adaptive multi threshold for image segmentation precisely in object detection. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic LPR is rather different for each country. The proposed technique is applied on Malaysian LPR application. It is based on Multi Layer Perceptron trained by back propagation. The proposed adaptive threshold is introduced to find the optimum threshold values. The technique relies on the peak value from the graph of the number object versus specific range of threshold values. The proposed approach has improved the overall performance compared to current optimal threshold techniques. Further improvement on this method is in progress to accommodate real time system specification.

Keywords: Multi-threshold approach, license plate recognition system.

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