Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 580

Search results for: Medical Informatics

580 Goal-Based Request Cloud Resource Broker in Medical Application

Authors: Mohamad Izuddin Nordin, Azween Abdullah, Mahamat Issa Hassan

Abstract:

In this paper, cloud resource broker using goalbased request in medical application is proposed. To handle recent huge production of digital images and data in medical informatics application, the cloud resource broker could be used by medical practitioner for proper process in discovering and selecting correct information and application. This paper summarizes several reviewed articles to relate medical informatics application with current broker technology and presents a research work in applying goal-based request in cloud resource broker to optimize the use of resources in cloud environment. The objective of proposing a new kind of resource broker is to enhance the current resource scheduling, discovery, and selection procedures. We believed that it could help to maximize resources allocation in medical informatics application.

Keywords: Broker, Cloud Computing, Medical Informatics, Resources Discovery, Resource Selection.

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579 Telemedicine and Medical Informatics: The Global Approach

Authors: F. Lievens, M. Jordanova

Abstract:

Telemedicine is brought to life by contemporary changes of our world and summarizes the entire range of services that are at the crossroad of traditional healthcare and information technology. It is believed that eHealth can help in solving critical issues of rising costs, care for ageing and housebound population, staff shortage. It is a feasible tool to provide routine as well as specialized health service as it has the potential to improve both the access to and the standard of care. eHealth is no more an optional choice. It has already made quite a way but it still remains a fantastic challenge for the future requiring cooperation and coordination at all possible levels. The strategic objectives of this paper are: 1. To start with an attempt to clarify the mass of terms used nowadays; 2. To answer the question “Who needs eHealth"; 3. To focus on the necessity of bridging telemedicine and medical (health) informatics as well as on the dual relationship between them; as well as 4. To underline the need of networking in understanding, developing and implementing eHealth.

Keywords: E-Health/telemedicine, networking, medical informatics.

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578 Case Based Reasoning Technology for Medical Diagnosis

Authors: Abdel-Badeeh M. Salem

Abstract:

Case based reasoning (CBR) methodology presents a foundation for a new technology of building intelligent computeraided diagnoses systems. This Technology directly addresses the problems found in the traditional Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques, e.g. the problems of knowledge acquisition, remembering, robust and maintenance. This paper discusses the CBR methodology, the research issues and technical aspects of implementing intelligent medical diagnoses systems. Successful applications in cancer and heart diseases developed by Medical Informatics Research Group at Ain Shams University are also discussed.

Keywords: Medical Informatics, Computer-Aided MedicalDiagnoses, AI in Medicine, Case-Based Reasoning.

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577 The Conceptualization of Integrated Consumer Health Informatics Utilization Framework

Authors: Norfadzila, S.W.A., Balakrishnan, V., A. Abrizah

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to propose an integrated consumer health informatics utilization framework that can be used to gauge the online health information needs and usage patterns among Malaysian women. The proposed framework was developed based on four different theories/models: Use and Gratification Theory, Technology Acceptance 3 Model, Health Belief Model, and Multi-level Model of Information Seeking. The relevant constructs and research hypotheses are also presented in this paper. The framework will be tested in order for it to be used successfully to identify Malaysian women-s preferences of online health information resources and health information seeking activities.

Keywords: Consumer Health Informatics, Consumer Preferences, Information Needs and Usage Patterns, Online Health Information, Women Studies

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576 Potential and Challenges for Better Life in Rural Communities

Authors: Shishir Kumar, Chhaya Gangwal, Seema Raj

Abstract:

Public health informatics (PHI) which has seen successful implementation in the developed world, become the buzzword in the developing countries in providing improved healthcare with enhanced access. In rural areas especially, where a huge gap exists between demand and supply of healthcare facilities, PHI is being seen as a major solution. There are factors such as growing network infrastructure and the technological adoption by the health fraternity which provide support to these claims. Public health informatics has opportunities in healthcare by providing opportunities to diagnose patients, provide intra-operative assistance and consultation from a remote site. It also has certain barriers in the awareness, adaptation, network infrastructure, funding and policy related areas. There are certain medico-legal aspects involving all the stakeholders which need to be standardized to enable a working system. This paper aims to analyze the potential and challenges of Public health informatics services in rural communities.

Keywords: PHI, e-health, Public health.

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575 Good Practices in the Development of the Erasmus Mundus Master program in Color in Informatics and Media Technology

Authors: J. Hardeberg, J. Hernandez-Andrès, J. L. Nieves, M. Hauta-Kasari, J. Parkkinen, A. Trémeau

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is to identify and disseminate good practice in quality assurance and enhancement as well as in teaching and learning at master level. This paper focuses on the experience of the Erasmus Mundus Master program CIMET (Color in Informatics and Media Technology). Amongst topics covered, we discuss the adjustments necessary to a curriculum designed for excellent international students and their preparation for a global labor market.

Keywords: Good practice, internal quality systems, innovationsin curriculum design, challenges of internationalization

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574 Ubiquitous Life People Informatics Engine (U-Life PIE): Wearable Health Promotion System

Authors: Yi-Ping Lo, Shi-Yao Wei, Chih-Chun Ma

Abstract:

Since Google launched Google Glass in 2012, numbers of commercial wearable devices were released, such as smart belt, smart band, smart shoes, smart clothes ... etc. However, most of these devices perform as sensors to show the readings of measurements and few of them provide the interactive feedback to the user. Furthermore, these devices are single task devices which are not able to communicate with each other. In this paper a new health promotion system, Ubiquitous Life People Informatics Engine (U-Life PIE), will be presented. This engine consists of People Informatics Engine (PIE) and the interactive user interface. PIE collects all the data from the compatible devices, analyzes this data comprehensively and communicates between devices via various application programming interfaces. All the data and informations are stored on the PIE unit, therefore, the user is able to view the instant and historical data on their mobile devices any time. It also provides the real-time hands-free feedback and instructions through the user interface visually, acoustically and tactilely. These feedback and instructions suggest the user to adjust their posture or habits in order to avoid the physical injuries and prevent illness.

Keywords: Machine learning, user interface, user experience, Internet of things, health promotion.

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573 Steps towards the Development of National Health Data Standards in Developing Countries: An Exploratory Qualitative Study in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Abdullah I. Alkraiji, Thomas W. Jackson, Ian R. Murray

Abstract:

The proliferation of health data standards today is somewhat overlapping and conflicting, resulting in market confusion and leading to increasing proprietary interests. The government role and support in standardization for health data are thought to be crucial in order to establish credible standards for the next decade, to maximize interoperability across the health sector, and to decrease the risks associated with the implementation of non-standard systems. The normative literature missed out the exploration of the different steps required to be undertaken by the government towards the development of national health data standards. Based on the lessons learned from a qualitative study investigating the different issues to the adoption of health data standards in the major tertiary hospitals in Saudi Arabia and the opinions and feedback from different experts in the areas of data exchange and standards and medical informatics in Saudi Arabia and UK, a list of steps required towards the development of national health data standards was constructed. Main steps are the existence of: a national formal reference for health data standards, an agreed national strategic direction for medical data exchange, a national medical information management plan and a national accreditation body, and more important is the change management at the national and organizational level. The outcome of this study can be used by academics and practitioners to develop the planning of health data standards, and in particular those in developing countries.

Keywords: Interoperability, Case Study, Health Data Standards, Medical Data Exchange, Saudi Arabia.

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572 Medical Imaging Techniques in Clinical Medicine

Authors: Sharan Badiger, Prema T. Akkasaligar

Abstract:

Medical imaging technology has experienced a dramatic change in the last few years. Medical imaging refers to the techniques and processes used to create images of the human body (or parts thereof) for various clinical purposes such as medical procedures and diagnosis or medical science including the study of normal anatomy and function. With the growth of computers and image technology, medical imaging has greatly influenced the medical field. The diagnosis of a health problem is now highly dependent on the quality and the credibility of the image analysis. This paper deals with the various aspects and types of medical imaging.

Keywords: Computed Tomography, Echocardiography, Medical Imaging, Magnetic Resonance, Ultrasound Imaging.

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571 A Hybrid Technology for a Multiagent Consultation System in Obesity Domain

Authors: Rohana Mahmud, Hairul Aysa Abdul Halim Sithiq, Haryuna Mohd Taharim

Abstract:

In this paper, the authors present architecture of a multi agent consultation system for obesity related problems, which hybrid the technology of an expert system (ES) and an intelligent agent (IA). The strength of the ES which is capable of pulling the expert knowledge is consulted and presented to the end user via the autonomous and friendly pushing environment of the intelligent agent.

Keywords: Expert System, Hybrid Technology, Intelligent Agent, Medical Informatics, Multi Agent Consultation System.

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570 Learning Based On Computer Science Unplugged in Computer Science Education: Design, Development, and Assessment

Authors: Eiko Takaoka, Yoshiyuki Fukushima, Koichiro Hirose, Tadashi Hasegawa

Abstract:

Although, all high school students in Japan are required to learn informatics, many of them do not learn this topic sufficiently. In response to this situation, we propose a support package for high school informatics classes. To examine what students learned and if they sufficiently understood the context of the lessons, a questionnaire survey was distributed to 186 students. We analyzed the results of the questionnaire and determined the weakest units, which were “basic computer configuration” and “memory and secondary storage”. We then developed a package for teaching these units. We propose that our package be applied in high school classrooms.

Keywords: Computer Science Unplugged, computer science outreach, high school curriculum, experimental evaluation.

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569 Computer Based Medicine: I - The Future

Authors: Essam Abd-Elrazek

Abstract:

With the rapid growth in business size, today-s businesses orient Throughout thirty years local, national and international experience in medicine as a medical student, junior doctor and eventually Consultant and Professor in Anaesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Management, I note significant generalised dissatisfaction among medical students and doctors regarding their medical education and practice. We repeatedly hear complaints from patients about the dysfunctional health care system they are dealing with and subsequently the poor medical service that they are receiving. Medical students are bombarded with lectures, tutorials, clinical rounds and various exams. Clinicians are weighed down with a never-ending array of competing duties. Patients are extremely unhappy about the long waiting lists, loss of their records and the continuous deterioration of the health care service. This problem has been reported in different countries by several authors [1,2,3]. In a trial to solve this dilemma, a genuine idea has been suggested implementing computer technology in medicine [2,3]. Computers in medicine are a medium of international communication of the revolutionary advances being made in the application of the computer to the fields of bioscience and medicine [4,5]. The awareness about using computers in medicine has recently increased all over the world. In Misr University for Science & Technology (MUST), Egypt, medical students are now given hand-held computers (Laptop) with Internet facility making their medical education accessible, convenient and up to date. However, this trial still needs to be validated. Helping the readers to catch up with the on going fast development in this interesting field, the author has decided to continue reviewing the literature, exploring the state-of-art in computer based medicine and up dating the medical professionals especially the local trainee Doctors in Egypt. In part I of this review article we will give a general background discussing the potential use of computer technology in the various aspects of the medical field including education, research, clinical practice and the health care service given to patients. Hope this will help starting changing the culture, promoting the awareness about the importance of implementing information technology (IT) in medicine, which is a field in which such help is needed. An international collaboration is recommended supporting the emerging countries achieving this target.

Keywords: Medical Informatics, telemedicine, e-health systems.

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568 The Role of the Ethnos of Intellect in Legal and Informatical Observation of “Information Society“

Authors: Guranda Tevdoradze

Abstract:

By the end of XX century in the structure of humanity some changes have been provoked: a new ethnos - Ethnos of Intellect is formed and is still being formed, beside the historical types of ethnoses: open ethnos, closed ethnos, wandering ethnos, dead ethnos, - and this event was caused by the technical progress, development of informational and transport communications, especially - by creation of Internet. The Ethnos of Intellect is something very close to the ÔÇ×Information Society“ described by J. Ellule and Y. Masuda that was regarded as the culture of XXI century, being an antithesis for technical and technicistical civilizations, but it-s necessary to indicate also the essential difference between these concepts: the Ethnos of Intellect is the antithesis of Socium. The existence of such an ethnos within human society that has already become an Information Society itself is extremely important in observing legally and informatically a new kind of reins in the hands of the political power, revealing every attempt to violate the human rights of simple citizens. A concrete example of some conjunction points of legal informatics and informatical law in a certain kind of ambiental studies of the project ''State Registre of Population'' in Russia is very eloquent.

Keywords: Culturology, Legal Informatics, Sociology of Groups.

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567 Exploring the Medical Tourism Development Barriers and Participation Willingness in Taiwan: An Example of Mainland Tourist

Authors: Pei-Ti Chen, Ren-Hua Kung, Ming –Yi Huang , Fuu-Diing Chen, Lei Pei

Abstract:

Medical Tourism is a new development in Taiwan recently. The willingness and barriers of potential tourists from China to participate medical tourism are studied. A questionnaire survey is conducted and the SPSS software is used to analyze data. The results show that under one fifth of respondents express full medical tourism participation willingness. Among travel barriers toward medical tourism, “insufficient information of medical tourism trip", “not enough time", “no companion", “worrying about unsatisfied itinerary." are perceived the most important barriers.

Keywords: medical tourism, travel barriers, participation willingness

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566 Research on Applying the Continuity Care Document to Generate a Medical Record with Entry Level

Authors: Hsing-Yi Kao, Der-Ming Liou

Abstract:

Transferring patient information between medical care sites is necessary to deliver better patient care and to reduce medical cost. So developing of electronic medical records is an important trend for the world.The Continuity of Care Document (CCD) is product of collaboration between CDA and CCR standards. In this study, we will develop a system to generate medical records with entry level based on CCD template module.

Keywords: Continuity Care Document, medical record, entrylevel

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565 Q-Map: Clinical Concept Mining from Clinical Documents

Authors: Sheikh Shams Azam, Manoj Raju, Venkatesh Pagidimarri, Vamsi Kasivajjala

Abstract:

Over the past decade, there has been a steep rise in the data-driven analysis in major areas of medicine, such as clinical decision support system, survival analysis, patient similarity analysis, image analytics etc. Most of the data in the field are well-structured and available in numerical or categorical formats which can be used for experiments directly. But on the opposite end of the spectrum, there exists a wide expanse of data that is intractable for direct analysis owing to its unstructured nature which can be found in the form of discharge summaries, clinical notes, procedural notes which are in human written narrative format and neither have any relational model nor any standard grammatical structure. An important step in the utilization of these texts for such studies is to transform and process the data to retrieve structured information from the haystack of irrelevant data using information retrieval and data mining techniques. To address this problem, the authors present Q-Map in this paper, which is a simple yet robust system that can sift through massive datasets with unregulated formats to retrieve structured information aggressively and efficiently. It is backed by an effective mining technique which is based on a string matching algorithm that is indexed on curated knowledge sources, that is both fast and configurable. The authors also briefly examine its comparative performance with MetaMap, one of the most reputed tools for medical concepts retrieval and present the advantages the former displays over the latter.

Keywords: Information retrieval (IR), unified medical language system (UMLS), Syntax Based Analysis, natural language processing (NLP), medical informatics.

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564 A New Failure Analysis for Maintenance Management in Complex Hospitals

Authors: R. Miniati, F. Dori, E. Iadanza, M. Fregonara Medici

Abstract:

management of medical devices in hospitals includes the planning of medical equipment acquisition and maintenance. The presence of critical and non-critical areas together with technological proliferation render the management of medical devices very complex. This study creates an easy and objective methodology for the analysis of medical equipment maintenance, that makes the management of medical devices more feasible. The study has been carried out at Florence Hospital Careggi and it aims to help the clinical engineering department to manage medical equipment by clarifying the hospital situation through a characterization of the different areas, technologies and fault typologies.

Keywords: Clinical Engineering, Maintenance, Medical DevicesManagement, Key Performance Indicators.

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563 Regional Medical Imaging System

Authors: Michal Javornik, Otto Dostal, Karel Slavicek

Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to introduce an advanced system for the support of processing of medical image information, and the terminology related to this system, which can be an important element to a faster transition to a fully digitalized hospital. The core of the system is a set of DICOM compliant applications running over a dedicated computer network. The whole integrated system creates a collaborative platform supporting daily routines in the radiology community, developing communication channels, supporting the exchange of information and special consultations among various medical institutions as well as supporting medical training for practicing radiologists and medical students. It gives the users outside of hospitals the tools to work in almost the same conditions as in the radiology departments.

Keywords: DICOM, Integration, Medical Education, MedicalImaging

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562 Mobile Medical Operation Route Planning

Authors: K. Somprasonk, R. Boondiskulchok

Abstract:

Medical services are usually provided in hospitals; however, in developing country, some rural residences have fewer opportunities to access in healthcare services due to the limitation of transportation communication. Therefore, in Thailand, there are charitable organizations operating to provide medical treatments to these people by shifting the medical services to operation sites; this is commonly known as mobile medical service. Operation routing is important for the organization to reduce its transportation cost in order to focus more on other important activities; for instance, the development of medical apparatus. VRP is applied to solve the problem of high transportation cost of the studied organization with the searching techniques of saving algorithm to find the minimum total distance of operation route and satisfy available time constraints of voluntary medical staffs.

Keywords: Decision Support System, Mobile Medical Service Planning, Saving Algorithm, Vehicle Routing Problem

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561 Automatic Real-Patient Medical Data De-Identification for Research Purposes

Authors: Petr Vcelak, Jana Kleckova

Abstract:

Our Medicine-oriented research is based on a medical data set of real patients. It is a security problem to share patient private data with peoples other than clinician or hospital staff. We have to remove person identification information from medical data. The medical data without private data are available after a de-identification process for any research purposes. In this paper, we introduce an universal automatic rule-based de-identification application to do all this stuff on an heterogeneous medical data. A patient private identification is replaced by an unique identification number, even in burnedin annotation in pixel data. The identical identification is used for all patient medical data, so it keeps relationships in a data. Hospital can take an advantage of a research feedback based on results.

Keywords: DASTA, De-identification, DICOM, Health Level Seven, Medical data, OCR, Personal data

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560 Effectiveness of Dominant Color Descriptor Technique in Medical Image Retrieval Application

Authors: Mohd Kamir Yusof

Abstract:

This paper presents a dominant color descriptor technique for medical image retrieval. The medical image system will collect and store into medical database. The purpose of dominant color descriptor (DCD) technique is to retrieve medical image and to display similar image using queried image. First, this technique will search and retrieve medical image based on keyword entered by user. After image is found, the system will assign this image as a queried image. DCD technique will calculate the image value of dominant color. Then, system will search and retrieve again medical image based on value of dominant color query image. Finally, the system will display similar images with the queried image to user. Simple application has been developed and tested using dominant color descriptor. Result based on experiment indicates this technique is effective and can be used for medical image retrieval.

Keywords: Medical Image Retrieval, Dominant ColorDescriptor.

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559 A Pre-Assessment Questionnaire to Identify Healthcare Professionals’ Perception on Information Technology Implementation

Authors: Y. Atilgan Şengül

Abstract:

Health information technologies promise higher quality, safer care and much more for both patients and professionals. Despite their promise, they are costly to develop and difficult to implement. On the other hand, user acceptance and usage determine the success of implemented information technology in healthcare. This study provides a model to understand health professionals’ perception and expectation of health information technology. Extensive literature review has been conducted to determine the main factors to be measured. A questionnaire has been designed as a measurement model and submitted to the personnel of an in vitro fertilization clinic. The respondents’ degree of agreement according to five-point Likert scale was 72% for convenient access to data and 69.4% for the importance of data security. There was a significant difference in acceptance of electronic data storage for female respondents. Also, other significant differences between professions were obtained.

Keywords: Healthcare, health informatics, medical record system, questionnaire.

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558 Proposition of an Ontology of Diseases and Their Signs from Medical Ontologies Integration

Authors: Adama Sow, Abdoulaye Guiss´e, Oumar Niang

Abstract:

To assist medical diagnosis, we propose a federation of several existing and open medical ontologies and terminologies. The goal is to merge the strengths of all these resources to provide clinicians the access to a variety of shared knowledges that can facilitate identification and association of human diseases and all of their available characteristic signs such as symptoms and clinical signs. This work results to an integration model loaded from target known ontologies of the bioportal platform such as DOID, MESH, and SNOMED for diseases selection, SYMP, and CSSO for all existing signs.

Keywords: Medical decision, medical ontologies, ontologies integration, linked data, knowledge ingeneering, e-health system.

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557 Designing Ontology-Based Knowledge Integration for Preprocessing of Medical Data in Enhancing a Machine Learning System for Coding Assignment of a Multi-Label Medical Text

Authors: Phanu Waraporn

Abstract:

This paper discusses the designing of knowledge integration of clinical information extracted from distributed medical ontologies in order to ameliorate a machine learning-based multilabel coding assignment system. The proposed approach is implemented using a decision tree technique of the machine learning on the university hospital data for patients with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD). The preliminary results obtained show a satisfactory finding that the use of medical ontologies improves the overall system performance.

Keywords: Medical Ontology, Knowledge Integration, Machine Learning, Medical Coding, Text Assignment.

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556 Economic Policy of Tourism and the Development Tendencies of Medical Wellness Resorts in Georgia

Authors: G. Erkomaishvili, E. Kharaishvili, M. Chavleishvili, N. Sagareishvili

Abstract:

This paper discusses the current condition of tourism and its economic policy in Georgia. It analyzes and studies wellness tourism, as one of the directions of tourism; the newest niche in the wellness industry – triggering wellness resorts with medical ideology. The paper discusses the development tendencies of medical wellness resorts in Georgia and its main economic preferences. The main finding of the research is that Georgia is a unique place in the world according to the variety of medical recourses. This makes the opportunity to create and successfully operate medical wellness resorts, as well as develop it as a brand for Georgia in the world. The research represents the development strategies of tourism and its medical wellness resorts in Georgia, and offers recommendations based on the relevant conclusions.

Keywords: Economic policy of tourism, medical wellness resorts, tourism, wellness industry.

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555 Towards Medical Device Maintenance Workflow Monitoring

Authors: Beatriz López, Joaquim Meléndez, Heiko Wissel, Henning Haase, Kathleen Laatz, Oliver S. Grosser

Abstract:

Concerning the inpatient care the present situation is characterized by intense charges of medical technology into the clinical daily routine and an ever stronger integration of special techniques into the clinical workflow. Medical technology is by now an integral part of health care according to consisting general accepted standards. Purchase and operation thereby represent an important economic position and both are subject of everyday optimisation attempts. For this purpose by now exists a huge number of tools which conduce more likely to a complexness of the problem by a comprehensive implementation. In this paper the advantages of an integrative information-workflow on the life-cycle-management in the region of medical technology are shown.

Keywords: Medical equipment maintenance, maintenanceworkflow, medical equipment management, optimisation ofworkflow.

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554 Measuring the Efficiency of Medical Equipment

Authors: Panagiotis H. Tsarouhas

Abstract:

the reliability analysis of the medical equipments can help to increase the availability and the efficiency of the systems. In this manuscript we present a simple method of decomposition that could be easily applied on the complex medical systems. Using this method we can easily calculate the effect of the subsystems or components on the reliability of the overall system. Furthermore, to investigate the effect of subsystems or components on system performance, we perform a numerical study varying every time the worst reliability of subsystem or component with another which has higher reliability. It can also be useful to engineers and designers of medical equipment, who wishes to optimize the complex systems.

Keywords: Reliability, Availability, Series-parallel System, medical equipment.

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553 Importance of Knowledge in the Interdisciplinary Production Processes of Innovative Medical Tools

Authors: Katarzyna Mleczko

Abstract:

Processes of production of innovative medical tools have interdisciplinary character. They consist of direct and indirect close cooperation of specialists of different scientific branches. The Knowledge they have seems to be important for undertaken design, construction and manufacturing processes. The Knowledge exchange between participants of these processes is therefore crucial for the final result, which are innovative medical products. The paper draws attention to the necessity of feedback from the end user to the designer / manufacturer of medical tools which will allow for more accurate understanding of user needs. The study describes prerequisites of production processes of innovative medical (surgical) tools including participants and category of knowledge resources occurring in these processes. They are the result of research in selected Polish organizations involved in the production of medical instruments and are the basis for further work on the development of knowledge sharing model in interdisciplinary teams geographically dispersed.

Keywords: Interdisciplinary production processes, knowledge exchange, knowledge sharing, medical tools, user-centered design.

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552 Medical Image Edge Detection Based on Neuro-Fuzzy Approach

Authors: J. Mehena, M. C. Adhikary

Abstract:

Edge detection is one of the most important tasks in image processing. Medical image edge detection plays an important role in segmentation and object recognition of the human organs. It refers to the process of identifying and locating sharp discontinuities in medical images. In this paper, a neuro-fuzzy based approach is introduced to detect the edges for noisy medical images. This approach uses desired number of neuro-fuzzy subdetectors with a postprocessor for detecting the edges of medical images. The internal parameters of the approach are optimized by training pattern using artificial images. The performance of the approach is evaluated on different medical images and compared with popular edge detection algorithm. From the experimental results, it is clear that this approach has better performance than those of other competing edge detection algorithms for noisy medical images.

Keywords: Edge detection, neuro-fuzzy, image segmentation, artificial image, object recognition.

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551 Poor Medical Waste Management (MWM) Practices and Its Risks to Human Health and the Environment: A Literature Review

Authors: Babanyara Y. Y., Ibrahim D. B., Garba T., Bogoro A. G., Abubakar, M. Y.

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Medical care is vital for our life, health and well-being. But the waste generated from medical activities can be hazardous, toxic and even lethal because of their high potential for diseases transmission. The hazardous and toxic parts of waste from healthcare establishments comprising infectious, medical and radioactive material as well as sharps constitute a grave risks to mankind and the environment, if these are not properly treated / disposed or are allowed to be mixed with other municipal waste. In Nigeria, practical information on this aspect is inadequate and research on the public health implications of poor management of medical wastes is few and limited in scope. Findings drawn from Literature particularly in the third world countries highlights financial problems, lack of awareness of risks involved in MWM, lack of appropriate legislation and lack of specialized MWM staff. The paper recommends how MWM practices can be improved in medical facilities.

Keywords: Environmental pollution, infectious, management, medical waste, public health.

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