Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: speeding

11 Safety Practices among Bus Operators during Wee Hour Operations

Authors: M.R. Osman, F. Abas, M.S. Noh, A. Mohamad Suffian, O. Ilhamah, H.Z. Zarir, A.B. Wahida, P. Noor Faradila, M.F. Siti Atiqah

Abstract:

Safety Health and Environment Code of Practice (SHE COP) was developed to help road transportation operators to manage its operation in a systematic and safe manner. A study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of SHE COP implementation during non-OPS period. The objective of the study is to evaluate the implementations of SHE COP among bus operators during wee hour operations. The data was collected by completing a set of checklist after observing the activities during pre departure, during the trip, and upon arrival. The results show that there are seven widely practiced SHE COP elements. 22% of the buses have average speed exceeding the maximum permissible speed on the highways (90 km/h), with 13% of the buses were travelling at the speed of more than 100 km/h. The statistical analysis shows that there is only one significant association which relates speeding with prior presence of enforcement officers.

Keywords: Safety practices, speeding, wee hour.

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10 Detecting Older Drivers- Stress Level during Real-World Driving Tasks

Authors: Weihong Guo, Dan Brennan, Phil Blythe

Abstract:

This paper presents the effect of driving a motor vehicle on the stress levels of older drivers, indicated by monitoring their hear rate increase whilst completing various everyday driving tasks. Results suggest that whilst older female drivers heart rate varied more significantly than males, the actual age of a participant did not result in a significant change in heart rate due to stress, within the age group tested. The analysis of the results indicates the most stressful manoeuvres undertaken by the older drivers and highlights the tasks which were found difficult with a view to implementing technologies to aid the more senior driver in automotive travel.

Keywords: Driver stress, heart rate, older driver, road safety, speeding.

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9 Theory of Planned Behaviour and Young Romanians’ Self-Reported Speed

Authors: Alexandra Gheorghiu, Marie-Line Félonneau

Abstract:

Speeding represents one of the main concerns for road safety and it still is a subject for research. The need to address this problem and to understand why drivers over speed increases especially in Romania, where in 2011, speed was the main cause of car accidents. This article addresses this problem by using the theory of planned behaviour. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of young Romanian drivers (18 to 25 years) and several path analyses were made in order to verify if the model proposed by the theory of planned behaviour fits the data. One interesting result is that perceived behavioural control does not predict the intention to speed or self-reported driving speed, but subjective norms do. This implies that peers and social environment have a greater impact on young Romanian drivers than we thought.

Keywords: Speed, traffic safety, theory of planned behaviour, young drivers.

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8 The Design of Self-evolving Artificial Immune System II for Permutation Flow-shop Problem

Authors: Meng-Hui Chen, Pei-Chann Chang, Wei-Hsiu Huang

Abstract:

Artificial Immune System is adopted as a Heuristic Algorithm to solve the combinatorial problems for decades. Nevertheless, many of these applications took advantage of the benefit for applications but seldom proposed approaches for enhancing the efficiency. In this paper, we continue the previous research to develop a Self-evolving Artificial Immune System II via coordinating the T and B cell in Immune System and built a block-based artificial chromosome for speeding up the computation time and better performance for different complexities of problems. Through the design of Plasma cell and clonal selection which are relative the function of the Immune Response. The Immune Response will help the AIS have the global and local searching ability and preventing trapped in local optima. From the experimental result, the significant performance validates the SEAIS II is effective when solving the permutation flows-hop problems.

Keywords: Artificial Immune System, Clonal Selection, Immune Response, Permutation Flow-shop Scheduling Problems

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7 Assessing Traffic Calming Measures for Safe and Accessible Emergency Routes in Norrkoping City in Sweden

Authors: Ghazwan Al-Haji

Abstract:

Most accidents occur in urban areas, and the most related casualties are vulnerable road users (pedestrians and cyclists). The traffic calming measures (TCMs) are widely used and considered to be successful in reducing speed and traffic volume. However, TCMs create unwanted effects include: noise, emissions, energy consumption, vehicle delays and emergency response time (ERT). Different vertical and horizontal TCMs have been already applied nationally (Sweden) and internationally with different impacts. It is a big challenge among traffic engineers, planners, and policy-makers to choose and priorities the best TCMs to be implemented. This study will assess the existing guidelines for TCMs in relation to safety and ERT with focus on data from Norrkoping city in Sweden. The expected results will save lives, time, and money on particularly Swedish Roads. The study will also review newly technologies and how they can improve safety and reduce ERT.

Keywords: Traffic safety, traffic calming measures, speeding, emergency response time.

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6 Fuzzy Clustering of Locations for Degree of Accident Proneness based on Vehicle User Perceptions

Authors: Jayanth Jacob, C. V. Hariharakrishnan, Suganthi L.

Abstract:

The rapid urbanization of cities has a bane in the form road accidents that cause extensive damage to life and limbs. A number of location based factors are enablers of road accidents in the city. The speed of travel of vehicles is non-uniform among locations within a city. In this study, the perception of vehicle users is captured on a 10-point rating scale regarding the degree of variation in speed of travel at chosen locations in the city. The average rating is used to cluster locations using fuzzy c-means clustering and classify them as low, moderate and high speed of travel locations. The high speed of travel locations can be classified proactively to ensure that accidents do not occur due to the speeding of vehicles at such locations. The advantage of fuzzy c-means clustering is that a location may be a part of more than one cluster to a varying degree and this gives a better picture about the location with respect to the characteristic (speed of travel) being studied.

Keywords: C-means clustering, Location Specific, Road Accidents.

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5 On Speeding Up Support Vector Machines: Proximity Graphs Versus Random Sampling for Pre-Selection Condensation

Authors: Xiaohua Liu, Juan F. Beltran, Nishant Mohanchandra, Godfried T. Toussaint

Abstract:

Support vector machines (SVMs) are considered to be the best machine learning algorithms for minimizing the predictive probability of misclassification. However, their drawback is that for large data sets the computation of the optimal decision boundary is a time consuming function of the size of the training set. Hence several methods have been proposed to speed up the SVM algorithm. Here three methods used to speed up the computation of the SVM classifiers are compared experimentally using a musical genre classification problem. The simplest method pre-selects a random sample of the data before the application of the SVM algorithm. Two additional methods use proximity graphs to pre-select data that are near the decision boundary. One uses k-Nearest Neighbor graphs and the other Relative Neighborhood Graphs to accomplish the task.

Keywords: Machine learning, data mining, support vector machines, proximity graphs, relative-neighborhood graphs, k-nearestneighbor graphs, random sampling, training data condensation.

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4 Speeding up Nonlinear Time History Analysis of Base-Isolated Structures Using a Nonlinear Exponential Model

Authors: Nicolò Vaiana, Giorgio Serino

Abstract:

The nonlinear time history analysis of seismically base-isolated structures can require a significant computational effort when the behavior of each seismic isolator is predicted by adopting the widely used differential equation Bouc-Wen model. In this paper, a nonlinear exponential model, able to simulate the response of seismic isolation bearings within a relatively large displacements range, is described and adopted in order to reduce the numerical computations and speed up the nonlinear dynamic analysis. Compared to the Bouc-Wen model, the proposed one does not require the numerical solution of a nonlinear differential equation for each time step of the analysis. The seismic response of a 3d base-isolated structure with a lead rubber bearing system subjected to harmonic earthquake excitation is simulated by modeling each isolator using the proposed analytical model. The comparison of the numerical results and computational time with those obtained by modeling the lead rubber bearings using the Bouc-Wen model demonstrates the good accuracy of the proposed model and its capability to reduce significantly the computational effort of the analysis.

Keywords: Base isolation, computational efficiency, nonlinear exponential model, nonlinear time history analysis.

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3 LOD Exploitation and Fast Silhouette Detection for Shadow Volumes

Authors: Mustafa S. Fawad, Wang Wencheng, Wu Enhua

Abstract:

Shadows add great amount of realism to a scene and many algorithms exists to generate shadows. Recently, Shadow volumes (SVs) have made great achievements to place a valuable position in the gaming industries. Looking at this, we concentrate on simple but valuable initial partial steps for further optimization in SV generation, i.e.; model simplification and silhouette edge detection and tracking. Shadow volumes (SVs) usually takes time in generating boundary silhouettes of the object and if the object is complex then the generation of edges become much harder and slower in process. The challenge gets stiffer when real time shadow generation and rendering is demanded. We investigated a way to use the real time silhouette edge detection method, which takes the advantage of spatial and temporal coherence, and exploit the level-of-details (LOD) technique for reducing silhouette edges of the model to use the simplified version of the model for shadow generation speeding up the running time. These steps highly reduce the execution time of shadow volume generations in real-time and are easily flexible to any of the recently proposed SV techniques. Our main focus is to exploit the LOD and silhouette edge detection technique, adopting them to further enhance the shadow volume generations for real time rendering.

Keywords: LOD, perception, Shadow Volumes, SilhouetteEdge, Spatial and Temporal coherence.

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2 Analysis of Driver Point of Regard Determinations with Eye-Gesture Templates Using Receiver Operating Characteristic

Authors: Siti Nor Hafizah binti Mohd Zaid, Mohamed Abdel-Maguid, Abdel-Hamid Soliman

Abstract:

An Advance Driver Assistance System (ADAS) is a computer system on board a vehicle which is used to reduce the risk of vehicular accidents by monitoring factors relating to the driver, vehicle and environment and taking some action when a risk is identified. Much work has been done on assessing vehicle and environmental state but there is still comparatively little published work that tackles the problem of driver state. Visual attention is one such driver state. In fact, some researchers claim that lack of attention is the main cause of accidents as factors such as fatigue, alcohol or drug use, distraction and speeding all impair the driver-s capacity to pay attention to the vehicle and road conditions [1]. This seems to imply that the main cause of accidents is inappropriate driver behaviour in cases where the driver is not giving full attention while driving. The work presented in this paper proposes an ADAS system which uses an image based template matching algorithm to detect if a driver is failing to observe particular windscreen cells. This is achieved by dividing the windscreen into 24 uniform cells (4 rows of 6 columns) and matching video images of the driver-s left eye with eye-gesture templates drawn from images of the driver looking at the centre of each windscreen cell. The main contribution of this paper is to assess the accuracy of this approach using Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis. The results of our evaluation give a sensitivity value of 84.3% and a specificity value of 85.0% for the eye-gesture template approach indicating that it may be useful for driver point of regard determinations.

Keywords: Advanced Driver Assistance Systems, Eye-Tracking, Hazard Detection.

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1 Security Model of a Unified Communications and Integrated Collaborations System in the Health Sector Environment of Developing Countries: A Case of Uganda

Authors: Excellence Favor, Bakari M. M. Mwinyiwiwa

Abstract:

Access to information holds the key to the empowerment of everybody despite where they are living. This research has been carried out in respect of the people living in developing countries, considering their plight and complex geographical, demographic, social-economic conditions surrounding the areas they live, which hinder access to information and of professionals providing services such as medical workers, which has led to high death rates and development stagnation. Research on Unified Communications and Integrated Collaborations (UCIC) system in the health sector of developing countries aims at creating a possible solution of bridging the digital canyon among the communities. The system is meant to deliver services in a seamless manner to assist health workers situated anywhere to be accessed easily and access information which will enhance service delivery. The proposed UCIC provides the most immersive telepresence experience for one-to-one or many-to-many meetings. Extending to locations anywhere in the world, the transformative platform delivers Ultra-low operating costs through the use of general purpose networks and using special lenses and track systems. The essence of this study is to create a security model for the deployment of the UCIC system in the health sector of developing countries. The model approach used for building the UCIC system security carefully considers the specific requirements for the health sector environment organization such as data centre, national, regional and district hospitals, and health centers IV, III, II and I and then builds the single best possible secure network to meet their needs. The security model demonstrates on how the components of the UCIC system will be protected physically and logically in the health sector environment. The UCIC system once adopted and implemented correctly will bring enhancement to the speed and quality of services offered by health workers. The capacities of UCIC will help health workers shorten decision cycles, accelerate service delivery and save lives by speeding access to information and by making it possible for all health workers and patients to collaborate ubiquitously.

Keywords: Developing Countries, Health Sector Environment, Security, Unified Communications and Integrated Collaborations.

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