{"title":"Metaheuristics Methods (GA and ACO) for Minimizing the Length of Freeman Chain Code from Handwritten Isolated Characters","authors":"Dewi Nasien, Habibollah Haron, Siti SophiayatiYuhaniz","volume":38,"journal":"International Journal of Computer and Information Engineering","pagesStart":223,"pagesEnd":229,"ISSN":"1307-6892","URL":"https:\/\/publications.waset.org\/pdf\/13608","abstract":"This paper presents a comparison of metaheuristic\r\nalgorithms, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Ant Colony Optimization\r\n(ACO), in producing freeman chain code (FCC). The main problem\r\nin representing characters using FCC is the length of the FCC\r\ndepends on the starting points. Isolated characters, especially the\r\nupper-case characters, usually have branches that make the traversing\r\nprocess difficult. The study in FCC construction using one\r\ncontinuous route has not been widely explored. This is our\r\nmotivation to use the population-based metaheuristics. The\r\nexperimental result shows that the route length using GA is better\r\nthan ACO, however, ACO is better in computation time than GA.","references":"[1] Shi-Fei Ding; Wei-KuanJia; Chun-Yang Su; Zhong-Zhi Shi; Research of\r\npattern feature extraction and selection. Machine Learning and\r\nCybernetics, 2008 International Conference on Volume 1, 12-15 July\r\n2008 Page(s):466 - 471.\r\n[2] ZhaoqiBian, Xuegong Zhang. Pattern Recognition. 2nd Edition,\r\nTsinghua University Press, Beijing, 2000.\r\n[3] Jixiang Sun, Modern pattern recognition, Defense University of Science\r\nand Technology Publishing House, Changsha, 2002.\r\n[4] Kunaver, M.; Tasic, J.F.; Image feature extraction - an overview.\r\nComputer as a Tool, 2005. EUROCON 2005.The International\r\nConference on Volume 1, 21-24 Nov. 2005 Page(s):183 - 186.\r\n[5] J\u251c\u00f1hne, Bernd; Digital Image Processing: Concepts, Algorithms, and\r\nScientific Applications. Edition: 6, Published by Springer, 2005.\r\n[6] Liu, Y.K., Zalik, B.: An efficient chain code with Huffman coding,\r\nPattern Recognition, 38(4), 2005, 553-557.\r\n[7] S\u251c\u00ednchez-Cruz, Hermilo., Bribiesca, Ernesto., Rodr\u251c\u00a1guez-Dagnino, R.M.\r\nEfficiency of Chain Codes to Represent Binary Objects. Volume 40,\r\nIssue 6, June 2007, Pages 1660-1674.\r\n[8] Wulandhari. L.A., HaronHabibolah. The Evolution and Trend of Chain\r\nCode Scheme. ICGST-GVIP, ISSN 1687-398X, Volume (8), Issue (III),\r\nOctober 2008.\r\n[9] Freeman. H, Techniques for the Digital Computer Analysis of Chain-\r\nEncoded Arbitrary Plane Curves, Proc. Natn. Electron. Conf. 18 (1961)\r\n312-324.\r\n[10] Freeman H, Computer Processing of Line-Drawing Images, ACM\r\nComputing Surveys 6, 1974, 57-97.\r\n[11] Holland, J.H. (1975). Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems.\r\nUniversity of Michigan Press, New York.\r\n[12] Dorigo, M., Di Caro, G.: The ant colony optimization meta-heuristic. In\r\nCorne, D., Dorigo, M., Glover, F., eds.: New Ideas in Optimization.\r\nMcGraw-Hill, London (1999) 11-32.\r\n[13] M. Dorigo and G. Di Caro, \"The Ant Colony Optimization metaheuristic,\"\r\nin New Ideas in Optimization, D. Corne et al., Eds., McGraw\r\nHill, London, UK, pp. 11-32, 1999.\r\n[14] M. Dorigo, G. Di Caro, and L.M. Gambardella, \"Ant algorithms for\r\ndiscrete optimization,\" Artificial Life, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 137-172, 1999.\r\n[15] Dorigo, M., Birattari, M., Stutzle, T., Ant Colony Optimization. IEEE\r\nComputational Intelligence Magazine. November 2006.\r\n[16] Dorigo M (1996) The ant system: optimization by a colony of\r\ncooperating agents. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern Part B 26:1-13.\r\n[17] J.-L. Deneubourg, S. Aron, S. Goss, J.-M. Pasteels, The self-organizing\r\nexploratory pattern of the argentine ant, J. Insect Behav. 3 (1990) 159-\r\n168.\r\n[18] Socha K, Dorigo M (2008) Ant colony optimization for continuous\r\ndomain. Eur J Oper Res 185:1155-1173.\r\n[19] Engkamat, A.A. Enhancement of Parallel Thinning Algorithm for\r\nHandwritten Characters Using Neural Network. MSc Thesis. Universiti\r\nTeknologi Malaysia, 2005.","publisher":"World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology","index":"Open Science Index 38, 2010"}