**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**222

# Search results for: mixture velocity

##### 222 Gas Pressure Evaluation through Radial Velocity Measurement of Fluid Flow Modeled by Drift Flux Model

**Authors:**
Aicha Rima Cheniti,
Hatem Besbes,
Joseph Haggege,
Christophe Sintes

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we consider a drift flux mixture model of the blood flow. The mixture consists of gas phase which is carbon dioxide and liquid phase which is an aqueous carbon dioxide solution. This model was used to determine the distributions of the mixture velocity, the mixture pressure, and the carbon dioxide pressure. These theoretical data are used to determine a measurement method of mean gas pressure through the determination of radial velocity distribution. This method can be applicable in experimental domain.

**Keywords:**
Mean carbon dioxide pressure,
mean mixture pressure,
mixture velocity,
radial velocity.

##### 221 The Effect of Mixture Velocity and Droplet Diameter on Oil-water Separator using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

**Authors:**
M. Abdulkadir,
V. Hernandez-Perez

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
CFD,
droplet diameter,
mixture velocity

##### 220 Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Pressure through Radial Velocity Difference in Arterial Blood Modeled by Drift Flux Model

**Authors:**
Aicha Rima Cheniti,
Hatem Besbes,
Joseph Haggege,
Christophe Sintes

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Mean carbon dioxide pressure,
mean mixture pressure,
mixture velocity,
radial velocity difference.

##### 219 Non-Destructive Evaluation of 2-Mercapto Substituted Pyrimidine Derivatives in Different Concentration and Different Percentages in Dioxane-Water Mixture

**Authors:**
Pravin S. Bodke,
Shradha S. Binani,
Ravi V. Joat

**Abstract:**

Science and technology of ultrasonic is widely used in recent years for industrial and medicinal application. The acoustical properties of 2-mercapto substituted pyrimidines viz.,2- Mercapto-4- (2’,4’ –dichloro phenyl) – 6-(2’ – hydroxyl -4’ –methyl-5’ – chlorophenyl) pyrimidine and 2 –Mercapto – 4-(4’ –chloro phenyl) – 6-(2’ – hydroxyl -4’ –methyl-5’ –chlorophenyl) pyrimidine have been investigated from the ultrasonic velocity and density measurements at different concentration and different % in dioxane-water mixture at 305K. The adiabatic compressibility (βs), acoustic impedance (Z), intermolecular free length (Lf), apparent molar volume(ϕv) and relative association (RA) values have been calculated from the experimental data of velocity and density measurement at concentration range of 0.01- 0.000625 mol/lit and 70%,75% and 80% dioxane water mixture. These above parameters are used to discuss the structural and molecular interactions.

**Keywords:**
Acoustical parameters,
Density,
Dioxane-water
mixture,
Ultrasonic velocity.

##### 218 Effects of Injection Velocity and Entrance Airflow Velocity on Droplets Sizing in a Duct

**Authors:**
M. M. Doustdar ,
M. Mojtahedpoor

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Ramjet,
droplet sizing,
injection velocity,
air flow
velocity,
efficient mass fraction.

##### 217 Self Organizing Mixture Network in Mixture Discriminant Analysis: An Experimental Study

**Authors:**
Nazif Çalış,
Murat Erişoğlu,
Hamza Erol,
Tayfun Servi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Self Organizing Mixture Network,
MixtureDiscriminant Analysis,
Waveform Datasets,
Glass Identification,
Mixture of Multivariate Normal Distributions

##### 216 Minimum Fluidization Velocities of Binary-Solid Mixtures: Model Comparison

**Authors:**
Mohammad Asif

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bed void fraction,
Binary solid mixture,
Minimumfluidization velocity,
Packing models

##### 215 Spectral Mixture Model Applied to Cannabis Parcel Determination

**Authors:**
Levent Basayigit,
Sinan Demir,
Yusuf Ucar,
Burhan Kara

**Abstract:**

Many research projects require accurate delineation of the different land cover type of the agricultural area. Especially it is critically important for the definition of specific plants like cannabis. However, the complexity of vegetation stands structure, abundant vegetation species, and the smooth transition between different seconder section stages make vegetation classification difficult when using traditional approaches such as the maximum likelihood classifier. Most of the time, classification distinguishes only between trees/annual or grain. It has been difficult to accurately determine the cannabis mixed with other plants. In this paper, a mixed distribution models approach is applied to classify pure and mix cannabis parcels using Worldview-2 imagery in the Lakes region of Turkey. Five different land use types (i.e. sunflower, maize, bare soil, and cannabis) were identified in the image. A constrained Gaussian mixture discriminant analysis (GMDA) was used to unmix the image. In the study, 255 reflectance ratios derived from spectral signatures of seven bands (Blue-Green-Yellow-Red-Rededge-NIR1-NIR2) were randomly arranged as 80% for training and 20% for test data. Gaussian mixed distribution model approach is proved to be an effective and convenient way to combine very high spatial resolution imagery for distinguishing cannabis vegetation. Based on the overall accuracies of the classification, the Gaussian mixed distribution model was found to be very successful to achieve image classification tasks. This approach is sensitive to capture the illegal cannabis planting areas in the large plain. This approach can also be used for monitoring and determination with spectral reflections in illegal cannabis planting areas.

**Keywords:**
Gaussian mixture discriminant analysis,
spectral mixture model,
World View-2,
land parcels.

##### 214 Photocatalytic Cleaning Performance of Air Filters for a Binary Mixture

**Authors:**
Lexuan Zhong,
Chang-Seo Lee,
Fariborz Haghighat,
Stuart Batterman,
John C. Little

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
By-products,
inhibitory effect,
mixture,
photocatalytic oxidation.

##### 213 Mean Velocity Modeling of Open-Channel Flow with Submerged Rigid Vegetation

**Authors:**
M. Morri,
A. Soualmia,
P. Belleudy

**Abstract:**

Vegetation affects the mean and turbulent flow structure. It may increase flood risks and sediment transport. Therefore, it is important to develop analytical approaches for the bed shear stress on vegetated bed, to predict resistance caused by vegetation. In the recent years, experimental and numerical models have both been developed to model the effects of submerged vegetation on open-channel flow. In this paper, different analytic models are compared and tested using the criteria of deviation, to explore their capacity for predicting the mean velocity and select the suitable one that will be applied in real case of rivers. The comparison between the measured data in vegetated flume and simulated mean velocities indicated, a good performance, in the case of rigid vegetation, whereas, Huthoff model shows the best agreement with a high coefficient of determination (R2=80%) and the smallest error in the prediction of the average velocities.

**Keywords:**
Analytic Models,
Comparison,
Mean Velocity,
Vegetation.

##### 212 Characteristics of Turbulent Round Jets in its Potential-Core Region

**Authors:**
S. Sivakumar,
Ravikiran Sangras,
Vasudevan Raghavan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Contoured nozzle,
hot-wire anemometer,
Reynolds
number,
velocity fluctuations,
velocity spectra.

##### 211 An Exact Solution to Support Vector Mixture

**Authors:**
Monjed Ezzeddinne,
Nicolas Lefebvre,
Régis Lengellé

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Identification,
Learning systems,
Mixture ofExperts,
Support Vector Machines.

##### 210 Vehicle Velocity Estimation for Traffic Surveillance System

**Authors:**
H. A. Rahim,
U. U. Sheikh,
R. B. Ahmad,
A. S. M. Zain

**Abstract:**

This paper describes an algorithm to estimate realtime vehicle velocity using image processing technique from the known camera calibration parameters. The presented algorithm involves several main steps. First, the moving object is extracted by utilizing frame differencing technique. Second, the object tracking method is applied and the speed is estimated based on the displacement of the object-s centroid. Several assumptions are listed to simplify the transformation of 2D images from 3D real-world images. The results obtained from the experiment have been compared to the estimated ground truth. From this experiment, it exhibits that the proposed algorithm has achieved the velocity accuracy estimation of about ± 1.7 km/h.

**Keywords:**
camera calibration,
object tracking,
velocity estimation,
video image processing

##### 209 An ICA Algorithm for Separation of Convolutive Mixture of Speech Signals

**Authors:**
Rajkishore Prasad,
Hiroshi Saruwatari,
Kiyohiro Shikano

**Abstract:**

This paper describes Independent Component Analysis (ICA) based fixed-point algorithm for the blind separation of the convolutive mixture of speech, picked-up by a linear microphone array. The proposed algorithm extracts independent sources by non- Gaussianizing the Time-Frequency Series of Speech (TFSS) in a deflationary way. The degree of non-Gaussianization is measured by negentropy. The relative performances of algorithm under random initialization and Null beamformer (NBF) based initialization are studied. It has been found that an NBF based initial value gives speedy convergence as well as better separation performance

**Keywords:**
Blind signal separation,
independent component
analysis,
negentropy,
convolutive mixture.

##### 208 Ultrasonic Investigation of Molecular Interaction in Binary Liquid Mixture of Polyethylene Glycol with Ethanol

**Authors:**
S. Grace Sahaya Sheba,
R. Omegala Priakumari

**Abstract:**

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a condensation polymer of ethylene oxide and water. It is soluble in water and in many organic solvents. PEG is used to make emulsifying agents, detergents, soaps, plasticizers, ointments etc. Ethanol (C_{2}H_{5}OH) also known as ethyl alcohol is a well-known organic compound and has wide applications in chemical industry as it is used as a solvent for paint, varnish, in preserving biological specimens, used as a fuel mixed with petrol etc. Though their chemical and physical properties are already studied, still because of their uses in day to day life the authors thought it is better to study some more of their physical properties like ultrasonic velocity and hence adiabatic compressibility, free length, etc. A detailed study of such properties and some excess parameters like excess adiabatic compressibility, excess free volume and few more in the liquid mixtures of these two compounds with PEG as a solute and Ethanol as a solvent at various mole fractions may throw some light on deeper understanding of molecular interaction between the solute and the solvent supported by NMR, IR etc. Hence the present research work is on ultrasonics/allied studies on these two liquid mixtures. Ultrasonic velocity (U), density (ρ) and viscosity (η) at room temperature and at different mole fraction from 0 to 0.055 of ethanol in PEG have been experimentally carried out by the authors. Acoustical parameters such as adiabatic compressibility (β), free volume (V_{f}), acoustic impedance (Z), internal pressure (π_{i}), intermolecular free length (L_{f}) and relaxation time (τ) were calculated from the experimental data. We have calculated excess parameters like excess adiabatic compressibility (β^{E}), excess internal pressure (π_{i}^{E}) free length (L_{f}^{E}) and excess acoustic impedance (Z^{E}) etc for these two chosen liquid mixtures. The excess compressibility is positive and maximum around a mole fraction 0.007 and excess internal pressure is negative and maximum at the same mole fraction and longer free length. The results are analyzed and it may be concluded that the molecular interactions between the solute and the solvent is not strong and it may be weak. Appropriate graphs are drawn.

**Keywords:**
Adiabatic Compressibility,
Binary mixture,
Induce dipole,
Polarizability,
Ultrasonic.

##### 207 Terminal Velocity of a Bubble Rise in a Liquid Column

**Authors:**
Mário A. R. Talaia

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bubbles,
terminal velocity,
two phase-flow,
vertical
column.

##### 206 Velocity Distribution in Open Channels with Sand: An Experimental Study

**Authors:**
E. Keramaris

**Abstract:**

In this study, laboratory experiments in open channel flows over a sand bed were conducted. A porous bed (sand bed) with porosity of ε=0.70 and porous thickness of s΄=3 cm was tested. Vertical distributions of velocity were evaluated by using a two-dimensional (2D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Velocity profiles are measured above the impermeable bed and above the sand bed for the same different total water heights (h= 6, 8, 10 and 12 cm) and for the same slope S=1.5. Measurements of mean velocity indicate the effects of the bed material used (sand bed) on the flow characteristics (Velocity distribution and Reynolds number) in comparison with those above the impermeable bed.

**Keywords:**
Particle image velocimetry,
sand bed,
velocity distribution,
Reynolds number.

##### 205 Measuring Pressure Wave Velocity in a Hydraulic System

**Authors:**
Lari Kela,
Pekka Vähäoja

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bulk modulus,
pressure wave,
sound velocity.

##### 204 Investigation on Nanoparticle Velocity in Two Phase Approach

**Authors:**
E. Mat Tokit,
Yusoff M. Z,
Mohammed H.

**Abstract:**

Numerical investigation on the generality of nanoparticle velocity equation had been done on the previous published work. The three dimensional governing equations (continuity, momentum and energy) were solved using finite volume method (FVM). Parametric study of thermal performance between pure water-cooled and nanofluid-cooled are evaluated for volume fraction in the range of 1% to 4%, and nanofluid type of gamma-Al_{2}O_{3 }at Reynolds number range of 67.41 to 286.77. The nanofluid is modeled using single and two phase approach. Three different existing Brownian motion velocities are applied in comparing the generality of the equation for a wide parametric condition. Deviation in between the Brownian motion velocity is identified to be due to the different means of mean free path and constant value used in diffusion equation.

**Keywords:**
Brownian nanoparticle velocity,
heat transfer enhancement,
nanofluid,
two phase model.

##### 203 The Mutated Distance between Two Mixture Trees

**Authors:**
Wan Chian Li,
Justie Su-Tzu Juan,
Yi-Chun Wang,
Shu-Chuan Chen

**Abstract:**

The evolutionary tree is an important topic in bioinformation. In 2006, Chen and Lindsay proposed a new method to build the mixture tree from DNA sequences. Mixture tree is a new type evolutionary tree, and it has two additional information besides the information of ordinary evolutionary tree. One of the information is time parameter, and the other is the set of mutated sites. In 2008, Lin and Juan proposed an algorithm to compute the distance between two mixture trees. Their algorithm computes the distance with only considering the time parameter between two mixture trees. In this paper, we proposes a method to measure the similarity of two mixture trees with considering the set of mutated sites and develops two algorithm to compute the distance between two mixture trees. The time complexity of these two proposed algorithms are O(n2 × max{h(T1), h(T2)}) and O(n2), respectively

**Keywords:**
evolutionary tree,
mixture tree,
mutated site,
distance.

##### 202 Adaptive Gaussian Mixture Model for Skin Color Segmentation

**Authors:**
Reza Hassanpour,
Asadollah Shahbahrami,
Stephan Wong

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Face detection,
Segmentation,
Tracking,
Gaussian
Mixture Model,
Adaptation.

##### 201 Mixture Design Experiment on Flow Behaviour of O/W Emulsions as Affected by Polysaccharide Interactions

**Authors:**
Nor Hayati Ibrahim,
Yaakob B. Che Man,
Chin Ping Tan,
Nor Aini Idris

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
O/W emulsions,
flow behavior,
polysaccharideinteraction,
mixture design.

##### 200 Finite Element Analysis of Low-Velocity Impact Damage on Stiffened Composite Panels

**Authors:**
Xuan Sun,
Mingbo Tong

**Abstract:**

To understand the factors which affect impact damage on composite structures, particularly the effects of impact position and ribs. In this paper, a finite element model (FEM) of low-velocity impact damage on the composite structure was established via the nonlinear finite element method, combined with the user-defined materials subroutine (VUMAT) of the ABAQUS software. The structural elements chosen for the investigation comprised a series of stiffened composite panels, representative of real aircraft structure. By impacting the panels at different positions relative to the ribs, the effect of relative position of ribs was found out. Then the simulation results and the experiments data were compared. Finally, the factors which affect impact damage on the structures were discussed. The paper was helpful for the design of stiffened composite structures.

**Keywords:**
Stiffened,
Low-velocity,
Impact,
Abaqus,
Impact Energy.

##### 199 Comparison and Improvement of the Existing Cone Penetration Test Results: Shear Wave Velocity Correlations for Hungarian Soils

**Authors:**
Ákos Wolf,
Richard P. Ray

**Abstract:**

Due to the introduction of Eurocode 8, the structural design for seismic and dynamic effects has become more significant in Hungary. This has emphasized the need for more effort to describe the behavior of structures under these conditions. Soil conditions have a significant effect on the response of structures by modifying the stiffness and damping of the soil-structural system and by modifying the seismic action as it reaches the ground surface. Shear modulus (*G*) and shear wave velocity (*v _{s}*), which are often measured in the field, are the fundamental dynamic soil properties for foundation vibration problems, liquefaction potential and earthquake site response analysis. There are several laboratory and in-situ measurement techniques to evaluate dynamic soil properties, but unfortunately, they are often too expensive for general design practice. However, a significant number of correlations have been proposed to determine shear wave velocity or shear modulus from Cone Penetration Tests (CPT), which are used more and more in geotechnical design practice in Hungary. This allows the designer to analyze and compare CPT and seismic test result in order to select the best correlation equations for Hungarian soils and to improve the recommendations for the Hungarian geologic conditions. Based on a literature review, as well as research experience in Hungary, the influence of various parameters on the accuracy of results will be shown. This study can serve as a basis for selecting and modifying correlation equations for Hungarian soils. Test data are taken from seven locations in Hungary with similar geologic conditions. The shear wave velocity values were measured by seismic CPT. Several factors are analyzed including soil type, behavior index, measurement depth, geologic age etc. for their effect on the accuracy of predictions. The final results show an improved prediction method for Hungarian soils

**Keywords:**
CPT correlation,
dynamic soil properties,
seismic CPT,
shear wave velocity.

##### 198 Mechanical Properties of Ordinary Portland Cement Modified Cold Bitumen Emulsion Mixture

**Authors:**
Hayder Kamil Shanbara,
Felicite Ruddock,
William Atherton,
Nassier A. Nassir

**Abstract:**

Cold bitumen emulsion mixture (CBEM) offers a series benefits as compared with hot mix asphalt (HMA); these include environmental factors, energy saving, the resolution of logistical challenges that can characterise hot mix, and the potential to reserve funds. However, this mixture has some problems similar to any bituminous mixtures as it has low early strength, long curing time that needed to obtain the maximum performance, high air voids and considered inferior to HMA. Thus, CBEM has been used in limited applications such as lightly trafficked roads, footways and reinstatements. This laboratory study describes the development of CBEM using ordinary Portland cement (OPC) instead of the traditional mineral filler. Stiffness modulus, moisture damage and temperature sensitivity tests were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the produced mixtures. The study concluded that there is a substantial improvement in the mechanical properties and moisture damage resistance of CBEMs containing OPC. Also, the produced cement modified CBEM shows a considerable lower thermal sensitivity than the conventional CBEM.

**Keywords:**
Cold bitumen emulsion mixture,
moisture damage,
OPC,
stiffness modulus,
temperature sensitivity.

##### 197 Influence of Bentonite Additive on Bitumen and Asphalt Mixture Properties

**Authors:**
Ziari Hassan,
Divandari Hassan,
Babagoli Rezvan,
Akbari Ali

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Asphalt mixture,
Bentonite,
Modified bitumen,
Performance characteristics

##### 196 Entropy Generation Analysis of Heat Recovery Vapor Generator for Ammonia-Water Mixture

**Authors:**
Chul Ho Han,
Kyoung Hoon Kim

**Abstract:**

This paper carries out a performance analysis based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics for heat recovery vapor generator (HRVG) of ammonia-water mixture when the heat source is low-temperature energy in the form of sensible heat. In the analysis, effects of the ammonia mass concentration and mass flow ratio of the binary mixture are investigated on the system performance including the effectiveness of heat transfer, entropy generation, and exergy efficiency. The results show that the ammonia concentration and the mass flow ratio of the mixture have significant effects on the system performance of HRVG.

**Keywords:**
Entropy,
exergy,
ammonia-water mixture,
heat
exchanger.

##### 195 Estimation of Shock Velocity and Pressure of Detonations and Finding Their Flow Parameters

**Authors:**
Mahmoud Zarrini,
R. N. Pralhad

**Abstract:**

In this paper, mathematical modeling of detonation in the ground is studied. Estimation of flow parameters such as velocity, maximum velocity, acceleration, maximum acceleration, shock pressure as a result of an explosion in the ground have been computed in an appropriate dynamic model approach. The variation of these parameters with the diameter of detonation place (L), density of earth or stone (¤ü), time decay of detonation (T), peak pressure (Pm), and time (t) have been analyzed. The model has been developed from the concept of underwater explosions [Refs. [1]-[3]] with appropriate changes to the present model requirements.

**Keywords:**
Shock velocity,
detonation,
shock acceleration,
shock pressure.

##### 194 Velocity Filter Banks using 3-D FFT

**Authors:**
G. Koukiou,
V. Anastassopoulos

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Velocity filters,
filter banks,
3-D FFT.

##### 193 Experimental Study of Steel Slag Used as Aggregate in Asphalt Mixture

**Authors:**
Magdi M. E. Zumrawi,
Faiza O. A. Khalill

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Aggregate,
asphalt mixture,
stability,
steel slag.