**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**1151

# Search results for: Binary mixture diffusion

##### 1151 Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Binary Mixture Diffusion Using Modern Graphics Processors

**Authors:**
Mohammad Amin Safi,
Mahmud Ashrafizaadeh,
Amir Ali Ashrafizaadeh

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Lattice Boltzmann model,
Graphical processing unit,
Binary mixture diffusion,
2D flow simulations,
Optimized algorithm.

##### 1150 Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Binary Mixture of Methyl Acetate with Isopropylbenzene at 97.3 kPa

**Authors:**
Seema Kapoor,
Baljinder K. Gill,
V. K. Rattan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Binary mixture,
Isopropylbenzene,
Methyl acetate,
Vapor-liquid equilibrium.

##### 1149 Structural Properties of Polar Liquids in Binary Mixture Using Microwave Technique

**Authors:**
Shagufta Tabassum,
V. P. Pawar

**Abstract:**

The study of static dielectric properties in a binary mixture of 1,2 dichloroethane (DE) and n,n dimethylformamide (DMF) polar liquids has been carried out in the frequency range of 10 MHz to 30 GHz for 11 different concentration using time domain reflectometry technique at 10ºC temperature. The dielectric relaxation study of solute-solvent mixture at microwave frequencies gives information regarding the creation of monomers and multimers as well as interaction between the molecules of the binary mixture. The least squares fit method is used to determine the values of dielectric parameters such as static dielectric constant (ε_{0}), dielectric constant at high frequency (ε_{∞}) and relaxation time (τ).

**Keywords:**
Excess parameters,
relaxation time,
static dielectric constant,
time domain reflectometry.

##### 1148 Binary Mixture of Copper-Cobalt Ions Uptake by Zeolite using Neural Network

**Authors:**
John Kabuba,
Antoine Mulaba-Bafubiandi,
Kim Battle

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Adsorption isotherm,
binary system,
neural network;
sorption

##### 1147 Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data for Binary Mixture of 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran and Cumene

**Authors:**
V. K. Rattan,
Baljinder K. Gill,
Seema Kapoor

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Binary mixture,
2-Methyltetrahydrofuran,
Cumene,
Vapor-liquid equilibrium,
UNIFAC,
Excess Gibbs free energy.

##### 1146 Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data for Binary Mixtures of n-Butylamine and Triethylamine with Cumene at 97.3 kPa

**Authors:**
Baljinder K. Gill,
V. K. Rattan,
Seema Kapoor

**Abstract:**

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements are reported for the binary mixtures of n-Butylamine and Triethylamine with Cumene at 97.3 kPa. The measurements have been performed using a vapor recirculating type (modified Othmer's) equilibrium still. The binary mixture of n-Butylamine + Cumene shows positive deviation from ideality. Triethylamine + Cumene mixture shows negligible deviation from ideality. None of the systems form an azeotrope. The activity coefficients have been calculated taking into consideration the vapor phase nonideality. The data satisfy the thermodynamic consistency test of Herington. The activity coefficients have been satisfactorily correlated by means of the Margules, NRTL, and Black equations. The activity coefficient values obtained by the UNIFAC model are also reported.

**Keywords:**
Binary mixture,
cumene,
n-butylamine,
triethylamine,
vapor-liquid equilibrium.

##### 1145 Gray Level Image Encryption

**Authors:**
Roza Afarin,
Saeed Mozaffari

**Abstract:**

The aim of this paper is image encryption using Genetic Algorithm (GA). The proposed encryption method consists of two phases. In modification phase, pixels locations are altered to reduce correlation among adjacent pixels. Then, pixels values are changed in the diffusion phase to encrypt the input image. Both phases are performed by GA with binary chromosomes. For modification phase, these binary patterns are generated by Local Binary Pattern (LBP) operator while for diffusion phase binary chromosomes are obtained by Bit Plane Slicing (BPS). Initial population in GA includes rows and columns of the input image. Instead of subjective selection of parents from this initial population, a random generator with predefined key is utilized. It is necessary to decrypt the coded image and reconstruct the initial input image. Fitness function is defined as average of transition from 0 to 1 in LBP image and histogram uniformity in modification and diffusion phases, respectively. Randomness of the encrypted image is measured by entropy, correlation coefficients and histogram analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed method is fast enough and can be used effectively for image encryption.

**Keywords:**
Correlation coefficients,
Genetic algorithm,
Image encryption,
Image entropy.

##### 1144 Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibria of Mesitylene + 1- Heptanol and Mesitylene +1-Octanol at 97.3 kPa

**Authors:**
Seema Kapoor,
Sushil K. Kansal,
Baljinder K. Gill,
Aarti Sharma,
Swati Arora

**Abstract:**

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements are reported for the binary mixtures of Mesitylene + 1-Heptanol and Mesitylene + 1-Octanol at 97.3 kPa. The measurements have been performed using a vapor recirculating type (modified Othmer's) equilibrium still. Both the mixtures show positive deviation from ideality. The Mesitylene + 1-Heptanol mixture forms an azeotrope whereas Mesitylene + 1- Octanol form a non – azeotropic mixture. The activity coefficients have been calculated taking into consideration the vapor phase nonideality. The data satisfy the thermodynamic consistency tests of Herington, and Hirata. The activity coefficients have been satisfactorily correlated by means of the Margules, Redlich-Kister, Wilson, Black, and NRTL equations. The activity coefficient values have also been obtained by UNIFAC method.

**Keywords:**
Binary mixture,
Mesitylene,
Vapor-liquid
equilibrium,
1-Heptanol,
1-Octanol.

##### 1143 Refractive Index, Excess Molar Volume and Viscometric Study of Binary Liquid Mixture of Morpholine with Cumene at 298.15 K, 303.15 K, and 308.15 K

**Authors:**
B. K. Gill,
Himani Sharma,
V. K. Rattan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Cumene,
excess Gibbs free energy,
excess molar volume,
morpholine.

##### 1142 Prediction of Kinematic Viscosity of Binary Mixture of Poly (Ethylene Glycol) in Water using Artificial Neural Networks

**Authors:**
M. Mohagheghian,
A. M. Ghaedi,
A. Vafaei

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Artificial neural network,
kinematic viscosity,
poly
ethylene glycol (PEG)

##### 1141 Minimum Fluidization Velocities of Binary-Solid Mixtures: Model Comparison

**Authors:**
Mohammad Asif

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bed void fraction,
Binary solid mixture,
Minimumfluidization velocity,
Packing models

##### 1140 Formation of Chemical Compound Layer at the Interface of Initial Substances A and B with Dominance of Diffusion of the A Atoms

**Authors:**
Pavlo Selyshchev,
Samuel Akintunde

**Abstract:**

A theoretical approach to consider formation of chemical compound layer at the interface between initial substances *A* and *B* due to the interfacial interaction and diffusion is developed. It is considered situation when speed of interfacial interaction is large enough and diffusion of *A*-atoms through *AB*-layer is much more then diffusion of *B*-atoms. Atoms from *A*-layer diffuse toward *B*-atoms and form *AB*-atoms on the surface of *B*-layer. *B*-atoms are assumed to be immobile. The growth kinetics of the *AB*-layer is described by two differential equations with non-linear coupling, producing a good fit to the experimental data. It is shown that growth of the thickness of the *AB*-layer determines by dependence of chemical reaction rate on reactants concentration. In special case the thickness of the *AB*-layer can grow linearly or parabolically depending on that which of processes (interaction or the diffusion) controls the growth. The thickness of *AB*-layer as function of time is obtained. The moment of time (transition point) at which the linear growth are changed by parabolic is found.

**Keywords:**
Phase formation,
Binary systems,
Interfacial Reaction,
Diffusion,
Compound layers,
Growth kinetics.

##### 1139 Entropy Generation Analysis of Heat Recovery Vapor Generator for Ammonia-Water Mixture

**Authors:**
Chul Ho Han,
Kyoung Hoon Kim

**Abstract:**

This paper carries out a performance analysis based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics for heat recovery vapor generator (HRVG) of ammonia-water mixture when the heat source is low-temperature energy in the form of sensible heat. In the analysis, effects of the ammonia mass concentration and mass flow ratio of the binary mixture are investigated on the system performance including the effectiveness of heat transfer, entropy generation, and exergy efficiency. The results show that the ammonia concentration and the mass flow ratio of the mixture have significant effects on the system performance of HRVG.

**Keywords:**
Entropy,
exergy,
ammonia-water mixture,
heat
exchanger.

##### 1138 Hit-or-Miss Transform as a Tool for Similar Shape Detection

**Authors:**
Osama Mohamed Elrajubi,
Idris El-Feghi,
Mohamed Abu Baker Saghayer

**Abstract:**

This paper describes an identification of specific shapes within binary images using the morphological Hit-or-Miss Transform (HMT). Hit-or-Miss transform is a general binary morphological operation that can be used in searching of particular patterns of foreground and background pixels in an image. It is actually a basic operation of binary morphology since almost all other binary morphological operators are derived from it. The input of this method is a binary image and a structuring element (a template which will be searched in a binary image) while the output is another binary image. In this paper a modification of Hit-or-Miss transform has been proposed. The accuracy of algorithm is adjusted according to the similarity of the template and the sought template. The implementation of this method has been done by C language. The algorithm has been tested on several images and the results have shown that this new method can be used for similar shape detection.

**Keywords:**
Hit-or/and-Miss Operator/Transform,
HMT,
binary morphological operation,
shape detection,
binary images processing.

##### 1137 Comparative Dielectric Properties of 1,2-Dichloroethane with n-Methylformamide and n,n-Dimethylformamide Using Time Domain Reflectometry Technique in Microwave Frequency

**Authors:**
Shagufta Tabassum,
V. P. Pawar,
jr.,
G. N. Shinde

**Abstract:**

The study of dielectric relaxation properties of polar liquids in the binary mixture has been carried out at 10, 15, 20 and 25 ºC temperatures for 11 different concentrations using time domain reflectometry technique. The dielectric properties of a solute-solvent mixture of polar liquids in the frequency range of 10 MHz to 30 GHz gives the information regarding formation of monomers and multimers and also an interaction between the molecules of the liquid mixture under study. The dielectric parameters have been obtained by the least squares fit method using the Debye equation characterized by a single relaxation time without relaxation time distribution.

**Keywords:**
Excess properties,
relaxation time,
static dielectric constant,
time domain refelectometry technique.

##### 1136 Mixture Design Experiment on Flow Behaviour of O/W Emulsions as Affected by Polysaccharide Interactions

**Authors:**
Nor Hayati Ibrahim,
Yaakob B. Che Man,
Chin Ping Tan,
Nor Aini Idris

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
O/W emulsions,
flow behavior,
polysaccharideinteraction,
mixture design.

##### 1135 Mass Transfer Modeling of Nitrate in an Ion Exchange Selective Resin

**Authors:**
A. A. Hekmatzadeh,
A. Karimi-Jashani,
N. Talebbeydokhti

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
External mass transfer,
pore volume diffusion,
surface diffusion,
mass action law isotherm.

##### 1134 Dispersed Error Control based on Error Filter Design for Improving Halftone Image Quality

**Authors:**
Sang-Chul Kim,
Sung-Il Chien

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Artifact suppression,
Edge enhancement,
Error
diffusion method,
Halftone image

##### 1133 Modeling and Simulating Reaction-Diffusion Systems with State-Dependent Diffusion Coefficients

**Authors:**
Paola Lecca,
Lorenzo Dematte,
Corrado Priami

**Abstract:**

The present models and simulation algorithms of intracellular stochastic kinetics are usually based on the premise that diffusion is so fast that the concentrations of all the involved species are homogeneous in space. However, recents experimental measurements of intracellular diffusion constants indicate that the assumption of a homogeneous well-stirred cytosol is not necessarily valid even for small prokaryotic cells. In this work a mathematical treatment of diffusion that can be incorporated in a stochastic algorithm simulating the dynamics of a reaction-diffusion system is presented. The movement of a molecule A from a region i to a region j of the space is represented as a first order reaction Ai k- ! Aj , where the rate constant k depends on the diffusion coefficient. The diffusion coefficients are modeled as function of the local concentration of the solutes, their intrinsic viscosities, their frictional coefficients and the temperature of the system. The stochastic time evolution of the system is given by the occurrence of diffusion events and chemical reaction events. At each time step an event (reaction or diffusion) is selected from a probability distribution of waiting times determined by the intrinsic reaction kinetics and diffusion dynamics. To demonstrate the method the simulation results of the reaction-diffusion system of chaperoneassisted protein folding in cytoplasm are shown.

**Keywords:**
Reaction-diffusion systems,
diffusion coefficient,
stochastic simulation algorithm.

##### 1132 Photocatalytic Cleaning Performance of Air Filters for a Binary Mixture

**Authors:**
Lexuan Zhong,
Chang-Seo Lee,
Fariborz Haghighat,
Stuart Batterman,
John C. Little

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
By-products,
inhibitory effect,
mixture,
photocatalytic oxidation.

##### 1131 Basic Calibration and Normalization Techniques for Time Domain Reflectometry Measurements

**Authors:**
Shagufta Tabassum

**Abstract:**

The study of dielectric properties in a binary mixture of liquids is very useful to understand the liquid structure, molecular interaction, dynamics, and kinematics of the mixture. Time-domain reflectometry (TDR) is a powerful tool for studying the cooperation and molecular dynamics of the H-bonded system. Here we discuss the basic calibration and normalization procedure for TDR measurements. Our aim is to explain different types of error occur during TDR measurements and how to minimize it.

**Keywords:**
time domain reflectometry measurement technique,
cable and connector loss,
oscilloscope loss,
normalization technique

##### 1130 Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium for the Binary Mixtures of α-Pinene + Water and α-Terpineol + Water

**Authors:**
Herti Utami,
Sutijan,
Roto,
Wahyudi Budi Sediawan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
α-Pinene,
α-Terpineol,
Liquid-liquid Equilibrium,
NRTL model,
UNIQUAC model

##### 1129 An Approach for Reducing the Computational Complexity of LAMSTAR Intrusion Detection System using Principal Component Analysis

**Authors:**
V. Venkatachalam,
S. Selvan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Binary Tree Classifier,
Gaussian Mixture,
IntrusionDetection System,
LAMSTAR,
Radial Basis Function.

##### 1128 Binary Classification Tree with Tuned Observation-based Clustering

**Authors:**
Maythapolnun Athimethphat,
Boontarika Lerteerawong

**Abstract:**

There are several approaches for handling multiclass classification. Aside from one-against-one (OAO) and one-against-all (OAA), hierarchical classification technique is also commonly used. A binary classification tree is a hierarchical classification structure that breaks down a k-class problem into binary sub-problems, each solved by a binary classifier. In each node, a set of classes is divided into two subsets. A good class partition should be able to group similar classes together. Many algorithms measure similarity in term of distance between class centroids. Classes are grouped together by a clustering algorithm when distances between their centroids are small. In this paper, we present a binary classification tree with tuned observation-based clustering (BCT-TOB) that finds a class partition by performing clustering on observations instead of class centroids. A merging step is introduced to merge any insignificant class split. The experiment shows that performance of BCT-TOB is comparable to other algorithms.

**Keywords:**
multiclass classification,
hierarchical classification,
binary classification tree,
clustering,
observation-based clustering

##### 1127 Microneedles-Mediated Transdermal Delivery

**Authors:**
M. Petchsangsai,
N. Wonglertnirant,
T. Rojanarata,
P. Opanasopit,
T. Ngawhirunpat

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Hydrophilic macromolecules,
Microneedles,
Propylene glycol,
Transdermal drug delivery

##### 1126 The Mutated Distance between Two Mixture Trees

**Authors:**
Wan Chian Li,
Justie Su-Tzu Juan,
Yi-Chun Wang,
Shu-Chuan Chen

**Abstract:**

The evolutionary tree is an important topic in bioinformation. In 2006, Chen and Lindsay proposed a new method to build the mixture tree from DNA sequences. Mixture tree is a new type evolutionary tree, and it has two additional information besides the information of ordinary evolutionary tree. One of the information is time parameter, and the other is the set of mutated sites. In 2008, Lin and Juan proposed an algorithm to compute the distance between two mixture trees. Their algorithm computes the distance with only considering the time parameter between two mixture trees. In this paper, we proposes a method to measure the similarity of two mixture trees with considering the set of mutated sites and develops two algorithm to compute the distance between two mixture trees. The time complexity of these two proposed algorithms are O(n2 × max{h(T1), h(T2)}) and O(n2), respectively

**Keywords:**
evolutionary tree,
mixture tree,
mutated site,
distance.

##### 1125 Algorithm for Reconstructing 3D-Binary Matrix with Periodicity Constraints from Two Projections

**Authors:**
V. Masilamani,
Kamala Krithivasan

**Abstract:**

We study the problem of reconstructing a three dimensional binary matrices whose interiors are only accessible through few projections. Such question is prominently motivated by the demand in material science for developing tool for reconstruction of crystalline structures from their images obtained by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Various approaches have been suggested to reconstruct 3D-object (crystalline structure) by reconstructing slice of the 3D-object. To handle the ill-posedness of the problem, a priori information such as convexity, connectivity and periodicity are used to limit the number of possible solutions. Formally, 3Dobject (crystalline structure) having a priory information is modeled by a class of 3D-binary matrices satisfying a priori information. We consider 3D-binary matrices with periodicity constraints, and we propose a polynomial time algorithm to reconstruct 3D-binary matrices with periodicity constraints from two orthogonal projections.

**Keywords:**
3D-Binary Matrix Reconstruction,
Computed Tomography,
Discrete Tomography,
Integral Max Flow Problem.

##### 1124 Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Pressure through Radial Velocity Difference in Arterial Blood Modeled by Drift Flux Model

**Authors:**
Aicha Rima Cheniti,
Hatem Besbes,
Joseph Haggege,
Christophe Sintes

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Mean carbon dioxide pressure,
mean mixture pressure,
mixture velocity,
radial velocity difference.

##### 1123 Gas Pressure Evaluation through Radial Velocity Measurement of Fluid Flow Modeled by Drift Flux Model

**Authors:**
Aicha Rima Cheniti,
Hatem Besbes,
Joseph Haggege,
Christophe Sintes

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we consider a drift flux mixture model of the blood flow. The mixture consists of gas phase which is carbon dioxide and liquid phase which is an aqueous carbon dioxide solution. This model was used to determine the distributions of the mixture velocity, the mixture pressure, and the carbon dioxide pressure. These theoretical data are used to determine a measurement method of mean gas pressure through the determination of radial velocity distribution. This method can be applicable in experimental domain.

**Keywords:**
Mean carbon dioxide pressure,
mean mixture pressure,
mixture velocity,
radial velocity.

##### 1122 Multigrid Bilateral Filter

**Authors:**
Zongqing Lu

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bilateral filter,
multigrid