**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**481

# Search results for: gamma prime phase

##### 481 Phase Transition Characteristics of Flame-Synthesized Gamma-Al2O3 Nanoparticles with Heat Treatment

**Authors:**
Gyo Woo Lee

**Abstract:**

In this study, the phase transition characteristics of flame-synthesized γ-Al_{2}O_{3} nanoparticles to α-Al_{2}O_{3} have been investigated. The nanoparticles were synthesized by using a coflow hydrogen diffusion flame. The phase transition and particle characteristics of the Al_{2}O_{3} nanoparticles were determined by examining the crystalline structure and the shape of the collected nanoparticles before and after the heat treatment. The morphology and crystal structure of the Al_{2}O_{3} nanoparticles were determined from SEM images and XRD analyses, respectively. The measured specific surface area and averaged particle size were 63.44m^{2}/g and 23.94nm, respectively. Based on the scanning electron microscope images and x-ray diffraction patterns, it is believed that the onset temperature of the phase transition to α-Al_{2}O_{3} was existed near 1200^{o}C. The averaged diameters of the sintered particles heat treated at 1,260^{o}C were approximately 80nm.

**Keywords:**
BET Specific Surface Area,
Gamma-Al2O3 Nanoparticles,
Flame Synthesis,
Phase Transition,
X-ray Diffraction.

##### 480 The High Temperature Damage of DV – 2 Turbine Blade Made from Ni – Base Superalloy

**Authors:**
Juraj Belan,
Lenka Hurtalová,
Eva Tillová,
Alan Vaško,
Milan Uhríčik

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Alitize coating layer,
gamma prime phase,
high
temperature degradation,
Ni – base superalloy ŽS6K,
turbine blade.

##### 479 (R, S)-Modules and (1, k)-Jointly Prime (R, S)-Submodules

**Authors:**
Thawatchai Khumprapussorn

**Abstract:**

We introduced the notions of (1, k)-prime ideal and (1, k)-jointly prime (R, S)-submodule as a generalization of prime ideal and jointly prime (R, S)-submodule, respectively. We provide a relationship between (1, k)-prime ideal and (1, k)-jointly prime (R, S)-submodule. Characterizations of (1, k)-jointly prime (R, S)- submodules are also given.

**Keywords:**
R,
S)-module,
(1,
k)-prime ideal,
(1,
k)-jointly prime (R,
S)-submodule.

##### 478 Prime Cordial Labeling on Graphs

**Authors:**
S. Babitha,
J. Baskar Babujee

**Abstract:**

A prime cordial labeling of a graph G with vertex set V is a bijection f from V to {1, 2, ..., |V |} such that each edge uv is assigned the label 1 if gcd(f(u), f(v)) = 1 and 0 if gcd(f(u), f(v)) > 1, then the number of edges labeled with 0 and the number of edges labeled with 1 differ by at most 1. In this paper we exhibit some characterization results and new constructions on prime cordial graphs.

**Keywords:**
Prime cordial,
tree,
Euler,
bijective,
function.

##### 477 On Weakly Prime and Weakly Quasi-Prime Fuzzy Left Ideals in Ordered Semigroups

**Authors:**
Jian Tang

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we first introduce the concepts of weakly prime and weakly quasi-prime fuzzy left ideals of an ordered semigroup S. Furthermore, we give some characterizations of weakly prime and weakly quasi-prime fuzzy left ideals of an ordered semigroup S by the ordered fuzzy points and fuzzy subsets of S.

**Keywords:**
Ordered semigroup,
ordered fuzzy point,
weakly prime
fuzzy left ideal,
weakly quasi-prime fuzzy left ideal.

##### 476 Prime(Semiprime) Fuzzy h-ideal in Γ-hemiring

**Authors:**
Sujit Kumar Sardar,
Debabrata Mandal

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Γ-hemiring,
Fuzzy h-ideals,
Prime fuzzy left h-ideal,
Prime(semiprime) (∈,
∈ ∨q)-fuzzy left h-bi-ideal(h-ideal,
h-quasiideal),
Cartesian product

##### 475 A Post Processing Method for Quantum Prime Factorization Algorithm based on Randomized Approach

**Authors:**
Mir Shahriar Emami,
Mohammad Reza Meybodi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Quantum Prime Factorization,
RandomizedAlgorithms,
Quantum Computer Simulation,
Quantum Computation.

##### 474 The Baer Radical of Rings in Term of Prime and Semiprime Generalized Bi-ideals

**Authors:**
Rattiya Boonruang,
Aiyared Iampan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
ring,
prime and semiprime (generalized) bi-ideal,
Baer
radical.

##### 473 Analysis of Gamma-Ray Spectra Using Levenberg-Marquardt Method

**Authors:**
A. H. Fatah,
A. H. Ahmed

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Gamma-Ray,
Spectrum analysis,
Non-linear leastsquare
fitting.

##### 472 Pythagorean-Platonic Lattice Method for Finding all Co-Prime Right Angle Triangles

**Authors:**
Anthony Overmars,
Sitalakshmi Venkatraman

**Abstract:**

This paper presents a method for determining all of the co-prime right angle triangles in the Euclidean field by looking at the intersection of the Pythagorean and Platonic right angle triangles and the corresponding lattice that this produces. The co-prime properties of each lattice point representing a unique right angle triangle are then considered. This paper proposes a conjunction between these two ancient disparaging theorists. This work has wide applications in information security where cryptography involves improved ways of finding tuples of prime numbers for secure communication systems. In particular, this paper has direct impact in enhancing the encryption and decryption algorithms in cryptography.

**Keywords:**
Pythagorean triples,
platonic triples,
right angle triangles,
co-prime numbers,
cryptography.

##### 471 Use of Detectors Technology for Gamma Ray Issued from Radioactive Isotopes and its Impact on Knowledge of Behavior of the Stationary Case of Solid Phase Holdup

**Authors:**
Abbas Ali Mahmood Karwi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Multichannel analyzer,
Spectrum,
Energies,
Fluids
holdup,
Image

##### 470 Zero Divisor Graph of a Poset with Respect to Primal Ideals

**Authors:**
Hossein Pourali

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Zero divisors graph,
ideal,
prime ideal,
semiprime
ideal,
primal ideal,
weakly primal ideal,
associated prime ideal,
primary ideal.

##### 469 Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Crystalline Structure of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride)

**Authors:**
Adriana Souza M. Batista,
Cláubia Pereira,
Luiz O. Faria

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Differential scanning calorimetry,
gamma
irradiation,
PVDF,
X-ray diffraction technique.

##### 468 Performance Analysis of a Hybrid DF-AF Hybrid RF/FSO System under Gamma Gamma Atmospheric Turbulence Channel Using MPPM Modulation

**Authors:**
Hechmi Saidi,
Noureddine Hamdi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
FSO,
RF,
hybrid,
AF,
DF,
SER,
SNR,
GG channel.

##### 467 Gamma Irradiation Effects on the Magnetic Properties of Hard Ferrites

**Authors:**
F. Abbas Pour Khotbehsara,
B. Salehpour,
A. Kianvash

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Gamma ray irradiation,
Hard Ferrite,
Magnetic
coefficient,
Radiation dose.

##### 466 Formation of Protective Silicide-Aluminide Coating on Gamma-TiAl Advanced Material

**Authors:**
S. Nouri

**Abstract:**

In this study, the Si-aluminide coating was prepared on gamma-TiAl [Ti-45Al-2Nb-2Mn-1B (at. %)] via liquid-phase slurry procedure. The high temperature oxidation resistance of this diffusion coating was evaluated at 1100 °C for 400 hours. The results of the isothermal oxidation showed that the formation of Si-aluminide coating can remarkably improve the high temperature oxidation of bare gamma-TiAl alloy. The identification of oxide scale microstructure showed that the formation of protective Al_{2}O_{3}+SiO_{2} mixed oxide scale along with a continuous, compact and uniform layer of Ti_{5}Si_{3} beneath the surface oxide scale can act as an oxygen diffusion barrier during the high temperature oxidation. The other possible mechanisms related to the formation of Si-aluminide coating and oxide scales were also discussed.

**Keywords:**
Gamma-TiAl alloy,
Si-aluminide coating,
slurry procedure,
high temperature oxidation.

##### 465 Modification of Electrical and Switching Characteristics of a Non Punch-Through Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor by Gamma Irradiation

**Authors:**
Hani Baek,
Gwang Min Sun,
Chansun Shin,
Sung Ho Ahn

**Abstract:**

_{2}interface of the IGBT. It was confirmed that this lattice defect acts on the center of the trap and affects the threshold voltage, thereby negatively shifted the threshold voltage according to TID. In addition to the change in the carrier mobility, the conductivity modulation decreases in the n-drift region, indicating a negative influence that the forward voltage drop decreases. The turn-off delay time of the device before irradiation was 212 ns. Those of 2.5, 10, 30, 70 and 100 kRad(Si) were 225, 258, 311, 328, and 350 ns, respectively. The gamma irradiation increased the turn-off delay time of the IGBT by approximately 65%, and the switching characteristics deteriorated.

**Keywords:**
NPT-IGBT,
gamma irradiation,
switching,
turn-off delay time,
recombination,
trap center.

##### 464 Pre and Post Mordant Effect of Alum on Gamma Rays Assisted Cotton Fabric by Using Ipomoea indica Leaves Extract

**Authors:**
Abdul Hafeez,
Shahid Adeel,
Ayesha Hussain

**Abstract:**

There are number of plants species in the universe which give the protections from different diseases and give colour for the foods and textiles. The environmental condition of the universe suggested toward the ecofriendly textiles. The aim of the paper is to analyze the influence of pre & post mordanting of alum on radiated cotton fabric with Gamma Radiation of different doses by using *Ipomoea* *indica* leaves extract. Alum used as mordant with the concentration of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% as pre and post mordanting to observe the effect of light and colour fastness of radiated cotton. 6% of alum concentration in pre mordanting gave good colour strength 117.82 with darker in shade toward the greenish tone and in post mordanting 6% concentration gave good colour strength 102.19. The lab values show that the colour is darker in tone and gave bluish effect. Further results showed that alum gave good light and rubbing fastness on gamma radiated cotton fabric.

**Keywords:**
Ipomoea indica,
gamma radiation,
alum,
light fastness.

##### 463 Gender and Advertisements: A Content Analysis of Pakistani Prime Time Advertisements

**Authors:**
Aaminah Hassan

**Abstract:**

Advertisements carry a great potential to influence our lives because they are crafted to meet particular ends. Stereotypical representation in advertisements is capable of forming unconscious attitudes among people towards any gender and their abilities. This study focuses on gender representation in Pakistani prime time advertisements. For this purpose, 13 advertisements were selected from three different categories of foods and beverages, cosmetics, cell phones and cellular networks from the prime time slots of one of the leading Pakistani entertainment channel, ‘Urdu 1’. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses are carried out for range of variables like gender, age, roles, activities, setting, appearance and voice overs. The results revealed that gender representation in advertisements is stereotypical. Moreover, in few instances, the portrayal of women is not only culturally inappropriate but is demeaning to the image of women as well. Their bodily charm is used to promote products. Comparing different entertainment channels for their prime time advertisements and broadening the scope of this research will yield greater implications for the researchers who want to carry out the similar research. It is hoped that the current study would help in the promotion of media literacy among the viewers and media authorities in Pakistan.

**Keywords:**
Advertisements,
content analysis,
gender,
prime time.

##### 462 Performance Analysis of a Free-Space Optical Code Division Multiple Access through Atmospheric Turbulence Channel

**Authors:**
Tanveer Ahmed Bhuiyan,
Samiul Hayder Choudhury,
Asif Al - Rasheed,
S.P. Majumder

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
CDMA,
gamma-gamma pdf,
atmospheric
turbulence,
Kasami,
Gold,
SIK,
BER,
Power Penalty,
FSO.

##### 461 Performance Analysis of M-Ary Pulse Position Modulation in Multihop Multiple Input Multiple Output-Free Space Optical System over Uncorrelated Gamma-Gamma Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

**Authors:**
Hechmi Saidi,
Noureddine Hamdi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
FSO,
MIMO,
MIMO,
multihop,
DF,
SER,
GG
channel.

##### 460 On Completely Semiprime, Semiprime and Prime Fuzzy Ideals in Ordered Semigroups

**Authors:**
Jian Tang

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we first introduce the new concept of completely semiprime fuzzy ideals of an ordered semigroup S, which is an extension of completely semiprime ideals of ordered semigroup S, and investigate some its related properties. Especially, we characterize an ordered semigroup that is a semilattice of simple ordered semigroups in terms of completely semiprime fuzzy ideals of ordered semigroups. Furthermore, we introduce the notion of semiprime fuzzy ideals of ordered semigroup S and establish the relations between completely semiprime fuzzy ideals and semiprime fuzzy ideals of S. Finally, we give a characterization of prime fuzzy ideals of an ordered semigroup S and show that a nonconstant fuzzy ideal f of an ordered semigroup S is prime if and only if f is twovalued, and max{f(a), f(b)} = inf f((aSb]), ∀a, b ∈ S.

**Keywords:**
Ordered fuzzy point,
fuzzy left (right) ideal of anordered semigroup,
completely semiprime fuzzy ideal,
semiprimefuzzy ideal,
prime fuzzy ideal.

##### 459 Investigation of Threshold Voltage Shift in Gamma Irradiated N-Channel and P-Channel MOS Transistors of CD4007

**Authors:**
S. Boorboor,
S. A. H. Feghhi,
H. Jafari

**Abstract:**

The ionizing radiations cause different kinds of damages in electronic components. MOSFETs, most common transistors in today’s digital and analog circuits, are severely sensitive to TID damage. In this work, the threshold voltage shift of CD4007 device, which is an integrated circuit including P-channel and N-channel MOS transistors, was investigated for low dose gamma irradiation under different gate bias voltages. We used linear extrapolation method to extract threshold voltage from I_{D}-V_{G} characteristic curve. The results showed that the threshold voltage shift was approximately 27.5 mV/Gy for N-channel and 3.5 mV/Gy for P-channel transistors at the gate bias of |9 V| after irradiation by Co-60 gamma ray source. Although the sensitivity of the devices under test were strongly dependent to biasing condition and transistor type, the threshold voltage shifted linearly versus accumulated dose in all cases. The overall results show that the application of CD4007 as an electronic buffer in a radiation therapy system is limited by TID damage. However, this integrated circuit can be used as a cheap and sensitive radiation dosimeter for accumulated dose measurement in radiation therapy systems.

**Keywords:**
Threshold voltage shift,
MOS transistor,
linear extrapolation,
gamma irradiation.

##### 458 Effect of Gamma Radiation on Bromophenol Blue Dyed Films as Dosimeter

**Authors:**
Priyanka R. Oberoi,
Chandra B. Maurya,
Prakash A. Mahanwar

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bromophenol blue,
dosimeter,
gamma radiation,
polymer.

##### 457 Phase Equilibrium in Aqueous Two-phase Systems Containing Poly (propylene glycol) and Sodium Citrate at Different pH

**Authors:**
Farshad Rahimpour,
Ali Reza Baharvand

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Aqueous two-phase system,
Phase equilibrium,
Biomolecules purification

##### 456 Distribution of Gamma Radiation Levels in Core Sediment Samples in Gulf of Izmir: Eastern Aegean Sea, Turkey

**Authors:**
D. Kurt,
Z. U. Yümün,
I. F. Barut,
E. Kam

**Abstract:**

Since the development of the industrial revolution, industrial plants and settlements have spread widely along coastlines. This concentration of development brings environmental pollution to the seas. This study focuses on the Gulf of Izmir, a natural gulf of the Eastern Aegean Sea, located west of Turkey. Investigating marine current sediment is extremely important to detect pollution. This study considered natural radioactivity pollution of the marine environment. Ground drilling cores (the depth of each sediment is different) were taken from four different locations in the Gulf of izmir, Karşıyaka (12.5-13.5 m), Inciralti (6.5-7.5 m), Cesmealti (4.5-5 m) and Bayrakli (10-12 m). These sediment cores were put in preserving bags with weight around 1 kg, and were dried at room temperature to remove moisture. The samples were then sieved into fine powder (100 mesh), and these samples were relocated to 1000 mL polyethylene Marinelli beakers. The prepared sediments were stored for 40 days to reach radioactive equilibrium between uranium and thorium. Gamma spectrometry measurement of each sample was made using an HPGe (High-Purity Germanium) semiconductor detector. In this study, the results display that the average concentrations of the activity values are 8.4 ± 0.23 Bq kg^{-1}, 19.6 ± 0.51 Bq kg^{-1}, 8 ± 0.96 Bq kg^{-1}, 1.93 ± 0.3 Bq kg^{-1}, and 77.4 ± 0.96 Bq kg^{-1}, respectively.

**Keywords:**
Gamma,
Gulf of Izmir,
Eastern Aegean Sea,
Turkey,
natural radionuclides,
pollution.

##### 455 A Mixture Model of Two Different Distributions Approach to the Analysis of Heterogeneous Survival Data

**Authors:**
Ülkü Erişoğlu,
Murat Erişoğlu,
Hamza Erol

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Exponential-Gamma,
Exponential-Weibull,
Gamma-Weibull,
EM Algorithm,
Survival Analysis.

##### 454 Characterization of Gamma Irradiated PVDF and PVDF/Graphene Oxide Composites by Spectroscopic Techniques

**Authors:**
Juliana V. Pereira,
Adriana S. M. Batista,
Jefferson P. Nascimento,
Clascídia A. Furtado,
Luiz O. Faria

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Gamma irradiation,
PVDF,
PVDF/OG composites,
spectroscopic techniques.

##### 453 Gamma Irradiation Effect on Structural and Optical Properties of Bismuth-Boro-Tellurite Glasses

**Authors:**
A. Azuraida,
M. K. Halimah,
C. A. C. Azurahanim,
M. Ishak

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Boro-Tellurite,
bismuth,
gamma radiation,
optical
properties.

##### 452 The Effect of Guanidine Hydrochloride on Phase Diagram of PEG- Phosphate Aqueous Two-Phase System

**Authors:**
Farshad Rahimpour,
Mohsen Pirdashti

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Aqueous two-phase system,
guanidinehydrochloride,
partition coefficient,
phase diagram.