Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 481

Search results for: gamma prime phase

481 Phase Transition Characteristics of Flame-Synthesized Gamma-Al2O3 Nanoparticles with Heat Treatment

Authors: Gyo Woo Lee

Abstract:

In this study, the phase transition characteristics of flame-synthesized γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles to α-Al2O3 have been investigated. The nanoparticles were synthesized by using a coflow hydrogen diffusion flame. The phase transition and particle characteristics of the Al2O3 nanoparticles were determined by examining the crystalline structure and the shape of the collected nanoparticles before and after the heat treatment. The morphology and crystal structure of the Al2O3 nanoparticles were determined from SEM images and XRD analyses, respectively. The measured specific surface area and averaged particle size were 63.44m2/g and 23.94nm, respectively. Based on the scanning electron microscope images and x-ray diffraction patterns, it is believed that the onset temperature of the phase transition to α-Al2O3 was existed near 1200oC. The averaged diameters of the sintered particles heat treated at 1,260oC were approximately 80nm.

Keywords: BET Specific Surface Area, Gamma-Al2O3 Nanoparticles, Flame Synthesis, Phase Transition, X-ray Diffraction.

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480 The High Temperature Damage of DV – 2 Turbine Blade Made from Ni – Base Superalloy

Authors: Juraj Belan, Lenka Hurtalová, Eva Tillová, Alan Vaško, Milan Uhríčik

Abstract:

High pressure turbine (HPT) blades of DV – 2 jet engines are made from Ni – based superalloy. This alloy was originally manufactured in the Soviet Union and referred as ŽS6K. For improving alloy’s high temperature resistance are blades coated with Al – Si diffusion layer. A regular operation temperature of HPT blades vary from 705°C to 750°C depending on jet engine regime. An overcrossing working temperature range causes degradation of the protective coating as well as base material which microstructure is formed by the gamma matrix and strengthening phase gamma prime (forming small particles in the microstructure). Diffusion processes inside the material during exposition of the material to high temperatures causes mainly coarsening of the gamma prime particles, thus decreasing its strengthening effect. Degradation of the Al – Si coating caused its thickness growth. All the microstructure changes and coating layer thickness growth results in decreasing of the turbine blade operation lifetime.

Keywords: Alitize coating layer, gamma prime phase, high temperature degradation, Ni – base superalloy ŽS6K, turbine blade.

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479 (R, S)-Modules and (1, k)-Jointly Prime (R, S)-Submodules

Authors: Thawatchai Khumprapussorn

Abstract:

We introduced the notions of (1, k)-prime ideal and (1, k)-jointly prime (R, S)-submodule as a generalization of prime ideal and jointly prime (R, S)-submodule, respectively. We provide a relationship between (1, k)-prime ideal and (1, k)-jointly prime (R, S)-submodule. Characterizations of (1, k)-jointly prime (R, S)- submodules are also given.

Keywords: R, S)-module, (1, k)-prime ideal, (1, k)-jointly prime (R, S)-submodule.

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478 Prime Cordial Labeling on Graphs

Authors: S. Babitha, J. Baskar Babujee

Abstract:

A prime cordial labeling of a graph G with vertex set V is a bijection f from V to {1, 2, ..., |V |} such that each edge uv is assigned the label 1 if gcd(f(u), f(v)) = 1 and 0 if gcd(f(u), f(v)) > 1, then the number of edges labeled with 0 and the number of edges labeled with 1 differ by at most 1. In this paper we exhibit some characterization results and new constructions on prime cordial graphs.

Keywords: Prime cordial, tree, Euler, bijective, function.

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477 On Weakly Prime and Weakly Quasi-Prime Fuzzy Left Ideals in Ordered Semigroups

Authors: Jian Tang

Abstract:

In this paper, we first introduce the concepts of weakly prime and weakly quasi-prime fuzzy left ideals of an ordered semigroup S. Furthermore, we give some characterizations of weakly prime and weakly quasi-prime fuzzy left ideals of an ordered semigroup S by the ordered fuzzy points and fuzzy subsets of S.

Keywords: Ordered semigroup, ordered fuzzy point, weakly prime fuzzy left ideal, weakly quasi-prime fuzzy left ideal.

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476 Prime(Semiprime) Fuzzy h-ideal in Γ-hemiring

Authors: Sujit Kumar Sardar, Debabrata Mandal

Abstract:

The notions of prime(semiprime) fuzzy h-ideal(h-biideal, h-quasi-ideal) in Γ-hemiring are introduced and some of their characterizations are obtained by using "belongingness(∈)" and "quasi - coincidence(q)". Cartesian product of prime(semiprime) fuzzy h-ideals of Γ-hemirings are also investigated.

Keywords: Γ-hemiring, Fuzzy h-ideals, Prime fuzzy left h-ideal, Prime(semiprime) (∈, ∈ ∨q)-fuzzy left h-bi-ideal(h-ideal, h-quasiideal), Cartesian product

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475 A Post Processing Method for Quantum Prime Factorization Algorithm based on Randomized Approach

Authors: Mir Shahriar Emami, Mohammad Reza Meybodi

Abstract:

Prime Factorization based on Quantum approach in two phases has been performed. The first phase has been achieved at Quantum computer and the second phase has been achieved at the classic computer (Post Processing). At the second phase the goal is to estimate the period r of equation xrN ≡ 1 and to find the prime factors of the composite integer N in classic computer. In this paper we present a method based on Randomized Approach for estimation the period r with a satisfactory probability and the composite integer N will be factorized therefore with the Randomized Approach even the gesture of the period is not exactly the real period at least we can find one of the prime factors of composite N. Finally we present some important points for designing an Emulator for Quantum Computer Simulation.

Keywords: Quantum Prime Factorization, RandomizedAlgorithms, Quantum Computer Simulation, Quantum Computation.

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474 The Baer Radical of Rings in Term of Prime and Semiprime Generalized Bi-ideals

Authors: Rattiya Boonruang, Aiyared Iampan

Abstract:

Using the idea of prime and semiprime bi-ideals of rings, the concept of prime and semiprime generalized bi-ideals of rings is introduced, which is an extension of the concept of prime and semiprime bi-ideals of rings and some interesting characterizations of prime and semiprime generalized bi-ideals are obtained. Also, we give the relationship between the Baer radical and prime and semiprime generalized bi-ideals of rings in the same way as of biideals of rings which was studied by Roux.

Keywords: ring, prime and semiprime (generalized) bi-ideal, Baer radical.

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473 Analysis of Gamma-Ray Spectra Using Levenberg-Marquardt Method

Authors: A. H. Fatah, A. H. Ahmed

Abstract:

Levenberg-Marquardt method (LM) was proposed to be applied as a non-linear least-square fitting in the analysis of a natural gamma-ray spectrum that was taken by the Hp (Ge) detector. The Gaussian function that composed of three components, main Gaussian, a step background function and tailing function in the lowenergy side, has been suggested to describe each of the y-ray lines mathematically in the spectrum. The whole spectrum has been analyzed by determining the energy and relative intensity for the strong y-ray lines.

Keywords: Gamma-Ray, Spectrum analysis, Non-linear leastsquare fitting.

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472 Pythagorean-Platonic Lattice Method for Finding all Co-Prime Right Angle Triangles

Authors: Anthony Overmars, Sitalakshmi Venkatraman

Abstract:

This paper presents a method for determining all of the co-prime right angle triangles in the Euclidean field by looking at the intersection of the Pythagorean and Platonic right angle triangles and the corresponding lattice that this produces. The co-prime properties of each lattice point representing a unique right angle triangle are then considered. This paper proposes a conjunction between these two ancient disparaging theorists. This work has wide applications in information security where cryptography involves improved ways of finding tuples of prime numbers for secure communication systems. In particular, this paper has direct impact in enhancing the encryption and decryption algorithms in cryptography.

Keywords: Pythagorean triples, platonic triples, right angle triangles, co-prime numbers, cryptography.

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471 Use of Detectors Technology for Gamma Ray Issued from Radioactive Isotopes and its Impact on Knowledge of Behavior of the Stationary Case of Solid Phase Holdup

Authors: Abbas Ali Mahmood Karwi

Abstract:

For gamma radiation detection, assemblies having scintillation crystals and a photomultiplier tube, also there is a preamplifier connected to the detector because the signals from photomultiplier tube are of small amplitude. After pre-amplification the signals are sent to the amplifier and then to the multichannel analyser. The multichannel analyser sorts all incoming electrical signals according to their amplitudes and sorts the detected photons in channels covering small energy intervals. The energy range of each channel depends on the gain settings of the multichannel analyser and the high voltage across the photomultiplier tube. The exit spectrum data of the two main isotopes studied ,putting data in biomass program ,process it by Matlab program to get the solid holdup image (solid spherical nuclear fuel)

Keywords: Multichannel analyzer, Spectrum, Energies, Fluids holdup, Image

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470 Zero Divisor Graph of a Poset with Respect to Primal Ideals

Authors: Hossein Pourali

Abstract:

In this paper, we extend the concepts of primal and weakly primal ideals for posets. Further, the diameter of the zero divisor graph of a poset with respect to a non-primal ideal is determined. The relation between primary and primal ideals in posets is also studied.

Keywords: Zero divisors graph, ideal, prime ideal, semiprime ideal, primal ideal, weakly primal ideal, associated prime ideal, primary ideal.

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469 Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Crystalline Structure of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride)

Authors: Adriana Souza M. Batista, Cláubia Pereira, Luiz O. Faria

Abstract:

The irradiation of polymeric materials has received much attention because it can produce diverse changes in chemical structure and physical properties. Thus, studying the chemical and structural changes of polymers is important in practice to achieve optimal conditions for the modification of polymers. The effect of gamma irradiation on the crystalline structure of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) has been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction techniques (XRD). Gamma irradiation was carried out in atmosphere air with doses between 100 kGy at 3,000 kGy with a Co-60 source. In the melting thermogram of the samples irradiated can be seen a bimodal melting endotherm is detected with two melting temperature. The lower melting temperature is attributed to melting of crystals originally present and the higher melting peak due to melting of crystals reorganized upon heat treatment. These results are consistent with those obtained by XRD technique showing increasing crystallinity with increasing irradiation dose, although the melting latent heat is decreasing.

Keywords: Differential scanning calorimetry, gamma irradiation, PVDF, X-ray diffraction technique.

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468 Performance Analysis of a Hybrid DF-AF Hybrid RF/FSO System under Gamma Gamma Atmospheric Turbulence Channel Using MPPM Modulation

Authors: Hechmi Saidi, Noureddine Hamdi

Abstract:

The performance of hybrid amplify and forward - decode and forward (AF-DF) hybrid radio frequency/free space optical (RF/FSO) communication system, that adopts M-ary pulse position modulation (MPPM) techniques, is analyzed. Both exact and approximate symbol-error rates (SERs) are derived. The random variations of the received optical irradiance, produced by the atmospheric turbulence, is modeled by the gamma-gamma (GG) statistical distribution. A closed-form expression for the probability density function (PDF) is derived for the whole above system is obtained. Thanks to the use of hybrid AF-DF hybrid RF/FSO configuration and MPPM, the effects of atmospheric turbulence is mitigated; hence the capacity of combating atmospheric turbulence and the transmissitted signal quality are improved.

Keywords: FSO, RF, hybrid, AF, DF, SER, SNR, GG channel.

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467 Gamma Irradiation Effects on the Magnetic Properties of Hard Ferrites

Authors: F. Abbas Pour Khotbehsara, B. Salehpour, A. Kianvash

Abstract:

Many industrial materials like magnets need to be tested for the radiation environment expected at linear colliders (LC) where the accelerator and detectors will be subjected to large influences of beta, neutron and gamma’s over their life Gamma irradiation of the permanent sample magnets using a 60Co source was investigated up to an absorbed dose of 700Mrad shows a negligible effect on some magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B. In this work it has been tried to investigate the change of some important properties of Barium hexa ferrite. Results showed little decreases of magnetic properties at doses rang of 0.5 to 2.5 Mrad. But at the gamma irradiation dose up to 10 Mrad it is showed a few increase of properties. Also study of gamma irradiation of Nd-Fe-B showed considerably increase of magnetic properties.

Keywords: Gamma ray irradiation, Hard Ferrite, Magnetic coefficient, Radiation dose.

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466 Formation of Protective Silicide-Aluminide Coating on Gamma-TiAl Advanced Material

Authors: S. Nouri

Abstract:

In this study, the Si-aluminide coating was prepared on gamma-TiAl [Ti-45Al-2Nb-2Mn-1B (at. %)] via liquid-phase slurry procedure. The high temperature oxidation resistance of this diffusion coating was evaluated at 1100 °C for 400 hours. The results of the isothermal oxidation showed that the formation of Si-aluminide coating can remarkably improve the high temperature oxidation of bare gamma-TiAl alloy. The identification of oxide scale microstructure showed that the formation of protective Al2O3+SiO2 mixed oxide scale along with a continuous, compact and uniform layer of Ti5Si3 beneath the surface oxide scale can act as an oxygen diffusion barrier during the high temperature oxidation. The other possible mechanisms related to the formation of Si-aluminide coating and oxide scales were also discussed.

Keywords: Gamma-TiAl alloy, Si-aluminide coating, slurry procedure, high temperature oxidation.

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465 Modification of Electrical and Switching Characteristics of a Non Punch-Through Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor by Gamma Irradiation

Authors: Hani Baek, Gwang Min Sun, Chansun Shin, Sung Ho Ahn

Abstract:

Fast neutron irradiation using nuclear reactors is an effective method to improve switching loss and short circuit durability of power semiconductor (insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT) and insulated gate transistors (IGT), etc.). However, not only fast neutrons but also thermal neutrons, epithermal neutrons and gamma exist in the nuclear reactor. And the electrical properties of the IGBT may be deteriorated by the irradiation of gamma. Gamma irradiation damages are known to be caused by Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effect and Single Event Effect (SEE), Displacement Damage. Especially, the TID effect deteriorated the electrical properties such as leakage current and threshold voltage of a power semiconductor. This work can confirm the effect of the gamma irradiation on the electrical properties of 600 V NPT-IGBT. Irradiation of gamma forms lattice defects in the gate oxide and Si-SiO2 interface of the IGBT. It was confirmed that this lattice defect acts on the center of the trap and affects the threshold voltage, thereby negatively shifted the threshold voltage according to TID. In addition to the change in the carrier mobility, the conductivity modulation decreases in the n-drift region, indicating a negative influence that the forward voltage drop decreases. The turn-off delay time of the device before irradiation was 212 ns. Those of 2.5, 10, 30, 70 and 100 kRad(Si) were 225, 258, 311, 328, and 350 ns, respectively. The gamma irradiation increased the turn-off delay time of the IGBT by approximately 65%, and the switching characteristics deteriorated.

Keywords: NPT-IGBT, gamma irradiation, switching, turn-off delay time, recombination, trap center.

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464 Pre and Post Mordant Effect of Alum on Gamma Rays Assisted Cotton Fabric by Using Ipomoea indica Leaves Extract

Authors: Abdul Hafeez, Shahid Adeel, Ayesha Hussain

Abstract:

There are number of plants species in the universe which give the protections from different diseases and give colour for the foods and textiles. The environmental condition of the universe suggested toward the ecofriendly textiles. The aim of the paper is to analyze the influence of pre & post mordanting of alum on radiated cotton fabric with Gamma Radiation of different doses by using Ipomoea indica leaves extract. Alum used as mordant with the concentration of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% as pre and post mordanting to observe the effect of light and colour fastness of radiated cotton. 6% of alum concentration in pre mordanting gave good colour strength 117.82 with darker in shade toward the greenish tone and in post mordanting 6% concentration gave good colour strength 102.19. The lab values show that the colour is darker in tone and gave bluish effect. Further results showed that alum gave good light and rubbing fastness on gamma radiated cotton fabric.

Keywords: Ipomoea indica, gamma radiation, alum, light fastness.

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463 Gender and Advertisements: A Content Analysis of Pakistani Prime Time Advertisements

Authors: Aaminah Hassan

Abstract:

Advertisements carry a great potential to influence our lives because they are crafted to meet particular ends. Stereotypical representation in advertisements is capable of forming unconscious attitudes among people towards any gender and their abilities. This study focuses on gender representation in Pakistani prime time advertisements. For this purpose, 13 advertisements were selected from three different categories of foods and beverages, cosmetics, cell phones and cellular networks from the prime time slots of one of the leading Pakistani entertainment channel, ‘Urdu 1’. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses are carried out for range of variables like gender, age, roles, activities, setting, appearance and voice overs. The results revealed that gender representation in advertisements is stereotypical. Moreover, in few instances, the portrayal of women is not only culturally inappropriate but is demeaning to the image of women as well. Their bodily charm is used to promote products. Comparing different entertainment channels for their prime time advertisements and broadening the scope of this research will yield greater implications for the researchers who want to carry out the similar research. It is hoped that the current study would help in the promotion of media literacy among the viewers and media authorities in Pakistan.

Keywords: Advertisements, content analysis, gender, prime time.

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462 Performance Analysis of a Free-Space Optical Code Division Multiple Access through Atmospheric Turbulence Channel

Authors: Tanveer Ahmed Bhuiyan, Samiul Hayder Choudhury, Asif Al - Rasheed, S.P. Majumder

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of atmospheric turbulence on bit error probability in free-space optical CDMA scheme with Sequence Inverse Keyed (SIK) optical correlator receiver is analyzed. Here Intensity Modulation scheme is considered for transmission. The turbulence induced fading is described by the newly introduced gamma-gamma pdf[1] as a tractable mathematical model for atmospheric turbulence. Results are evaluated with Gold and Kasami code & it is shown that Gold sequence can be used for more efficient transmission than Kasami sequence in an atmospheric turbulence channel.

Keywords: CDMA, gamma-gamma pdf, atmospheric turbulence, Kasami, Gold, SIK, BER, Power Penalty, FSO.

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461 Performance Analysis of M-Ary Pulse Position Modulation in Multihop Multiple Input Multiple Output-Free Space Optical System over Uncorrelated Gamma-Gamma Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

Authors: Hechmi Saidi, Noureddine Hamdi

Abstract:

The performance of Decode and Forward (DF) multihop Free Space Optical ( FSO) scheme deploying Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) configuration under Gamma-Gamma (GG) statistical distribution, that adopts M-ary Pulse Position Modulation (MPPM) coding, is investigated. We have extracted exact and estimated values of Symbol-Error Rates (SERs) respectively. A closed form formula related to the Probability Density Function (PDF) is expressed for our designed system. Thanks to the use of DF multihop MIMO FSO configuration and MPPM signaling, atmospheric turbulence is combatted; hence the transmitted signal quality is improved.

Keywords: FSO, MIMO, MIMO, multihop, DF, SER, GG channel.

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460 On Completely Semiprime, Semiprime and Prime Fuzzy Ideals in Ordered Semigroups

Authors: Jian Tang

Abstract:

In this paper, we first introduce the new concept of completely semiprime fuzzy ideals of an ordered semigroup S, which is an extension of completely semiprime ideals of ordered semigroup S, and investigate some its related properties. Especially, we characterize an ordered semigroup that is a semilattice of simple ordered semigroups in terms of completely semiprime fuzzy ideals of ordered semigroups. Furthermore, we introduce the notion of semiprime fuzzy ideals of ordered semigroup S and establish the relations between completely semiprime fuzzy ideals and semiprime fuzzy ideals of S. Finally, we give a characterization of prime fuzzy ideals of an ordered semigroup S and show that a nonconstant fuzzy ideal f of an ordered semigroup S is prime if and only if f is twovalued, and max{f(a), f(b)} = inf f((aSb]), ∀a, b ∈ S.

Keywords: Ordered fuzzy point, fuzzy left (right) ideal of anordered semigroup, completely semiprime fuzzy ideal, semiprimefuzzy ideal, prime fuzzy ideal.

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459 Investigation of Threshold Voltage Shift in Gamma Irradiated N-Channel and P-Channel MOS Transistors of CD4007

Authors: S. Boorboor, S. A. H. Feghhi, H. Jafari

Abstract:

The ionizing radiations cause different kinds of damages in electronic components. MOSFETs, most common transistors in today’s digital and analog circuits, are severely sensitive to TID damage. In this work, the threshold voltage shift of CD4007 device, which is an integrated circuit including P-channel and N-channel MOS transistors, was investigated for low dose gamma irradiation under different gate bias voltages. We used linear extrapolation method to extract threshold voltage from ID-VG characteristic curve. The results showed that the threshold voltage shift was approximately 27.5 mV/Gy for N-channel and 3.5 mV/Gy for P-channel transistors at the gate bias of |9 V| after irradiation by Co-60 gamma ray source. Although the sensitivity of the devices under test were strongly dependent to biasing condition and transistor type, the threshold voltage shifted linearly versus accumulated dose in all cases. The overall results show that the application of CD4007 as an electronic buffer in a radiation therapy system is limited by TID damage. However, this integrated circuit can be used as a cheap and sensitive radiation dosimeter for accumulated dose measurement in radiation therapy systems.

Keywords: Threshold voltage shift, MOS transistor, linear extrapolation, gamma irradiation.

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458 Effect of Gamma Radiation on Bromophenol Blue Dyed Films as Dosimeter

Authors: Priyanka R. Oberoi, Chandra B. Maurya, Prakash A. Mahanwar

Abstract:

Ionizing radiation can cause a drastic change in the physical and chemical properties of the material exposed. Numerous medical devices are sterilized by ionizing radiation. In the current research paper, an attempt was made to develop precise and inexpensive polymeric film dosimeter which can be used for controlling radiation dosage. Polymeric film containing (pH sensitive dye) indicator dye Bromophenol blue (BPB) was casted to check the effect of Gamma radiation on its optical and physical properties. The film was exposed to gamma radiation at 4 kGy/hr in the range of 0 to 300 kGy at an interval of 50 kGy. Release of vinyl acetate from an emulsion on high radiation reacts with the BPB fading the color of the film from blue to light blue and then finally colorless, indicating a change in pH from basic to acidic form. The change was characterized by using CIE l*a*b*, ultra-violet spectroscopy and FT-IR respectively.

Keywords: Bromophenol blue, dosimeter, gamma radiation, polymer.

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457 Phase Equilibrium in Aqueous Two-phase Systems Containing Poly (propylene glycol) and Sodium Citrate at Different pH

Authors: Farshad Rahimpour, Ali Reza Baharvand

Abstract:

The phase diagrams and compositions of coexisting phases have been determined for aqueous two-phase systems containing poly(propylene glycol) with average molecular weight of 425 and sodium citrate at various pH of 3.93, 4.44, 4.6, 4.97, 5.1, 8.22. The effect of pH on the salting-out effect of poly (propylene glycol) by sodium citrate has been studied. It was found that, an increasing in pH caused the expansion of two-phase region. Increasing pH also increases the concentration of PPG in the PPGrich phase, while the salt-rich phase will be somewhat mole diluted.

Keywords: Aqueous two-phase system, Phase equilibrium, Biomolecules purification

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456 Distribution of Gamma Radiation Levels in Core Sediment Samples in Gulf of Izmir: Eastern Aegean Sea, Turkey

Authors: D. Kurt, Z. U. Yümün, I. F. Barut, E. Kam

Abstract:

Since the development of the industrial revolution, industrial plants and settlements have spread widely along coastlines. This concentration of development brings environmental pollution to the seas. This study focuses on the Gulf of Izmir, a natural gulf of the Eastern Aegean Sea, located west of Turkey. Investigating marine current sediment is extremely important to detect pollution. This study considered natural radioactivity pollution of the marine environment. Ground drilling cores (the depth of each sediment is different) were taken from four different locations in the Gulf of izmir, Karşıyaka (12.5-13.5 m), Inciralti (6.5-7.5 m), Cesmealti (4.5-5 m) and Bayrakli (10-12 m). These sediment cores were put in preserving bags with weight around 1 kg, and were dried at room temperature to remove moisture. The samples were then sieved into fine powder (100 mesh), and these samples were relocated to 1000 mL polyethylene Marinelli beakers. The prepared sediments were stored for 40 days to reach radioactive equilibrium between uranium and thorium. Gamma spectrometry measurement of each sample was made using an HPGe (High-Purity Germanium) semiconductor detector. In this study, the results display that the average concentrations of the activity values are 8.4 ± 0.23 Bq kg-1, 19.6 ± 0.51 Bq kg-1, 8 ± 0.96 Bq kg-1, 1.93 ± 0.3 Bq kg-1, and 77.4 ± 0.96 Bq kg-1, respectively.

Keywords: Gamma, Gulf of Izmir, Eastern Aegean Sea, Turkey, natural radionuclides, pollution.

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455 A Mixture Model of Two Different Distributions Approach to the Analysis of Heterogeneous Survival Data

Authors: Ülkü Erişoğlu, Murat Erişoğlu, Hamza Erol

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a mixture of two different distributions such as Exponential-Gamma, Exponential-Weibull and Gamma-Weibull to model heterogeneous survival data. Various properties of the proposed mixture of two different distributions are discussed. Maximum likelihood estimations of the parameters are obtained by using the EM algorithm. Illustrative example based on real data are also given.

Keywords: Exponential-Gamma, Exponential-Weibull, Gamma-Weibull, EM Algorithm, Survival Analysis.

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454 Characterization of Gamma Irradiated PVDF and PVDF/Graphene Oxide Composites by Spectroscopic Techniques

Authors: Juliana V. Pereira, Adriana S. M. Batista, Jefferson P. Nascimento, Clascídia A. Furtado, Luiz O. Faria

Abstract:

The combination of the properties of graphene oxide (OG) and PVDF homopolymer makes their combined composite materials as multifunctional systems with great potential. Knowledge of the molecular structure is essential for better use. In this work, the degradation of PVDF polymer exposed to gamma irradiation in oxygen atmosphere in high dose rate has been studied and compared to degradation of PVDF/OG composites. The samples were irradiated with a Co-60 source at constant dose rate, with doses ranging from 100 kGy to 1,000 kGy. In FTIR data shown that the formation of oxidation products was at the both samples with formation of carbonyl and hydroxyl groups amongst the most prevalent products in the pure PVDF samples. In the other hand, the composites samples exhibit less presence of degradation products with predominant formation of carbonyl groups, these results also seen in the UV-Vis analysis. The results show that the samples of composites may have greater resistance to the irradiation process, since they have less degradation products than pure PVDF samples seen by spectroscopic techniques.

Keywords: Gamma irradiation, PVDF, PVDF/OG composites, spectroscopic techniques.

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453 Gamma Irradiation Effect on Structural and Optical Properties of Bismuth-Boro-Tellurite Glasses

Authors: A. Azuraida, M. K. Halimah, C. A. C. Azurahanim, M. Ishak

Abstract:

The changes of the optical and structural properties of Bismuth-Boro-Tellurite glasses pre and post gamma irradiation were studied. Six glass samples, with different composition [(TeO2)0.7 (B2O3)0.3]1-x (Bi2O3)x prepared by melt quenching method were irradiated with 25kGy gamma radiation at room temperature. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to explore the structural bonding in the prepared glass samples due to exposure, while UV-VIS Spectrophotometer was used to evaluate the changes in the optical properties before and after irradiation. Gamma irradiation causes profound changes in the peak intensity as shown by FTIR spectra which is due to the breaking of the network bonding. Before gamma irradiation, the optical band gap, Eg value decreased from 2.44 eV to 2.15 eV with the addition of Bismuth content. The value kept decreasing (from 2.18 eV to 2.00 eV) following exposure to gamma radiation due to the increase of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) and the increase of defect in the glass. In conclusion, the glass with high content of Bi2O3 (0.30Bi) give smallest Eg and show less changes in FTIR spectra after gamma irradiation which indicate that this glass is more resistant to gamma radiation compared to other glasses.

Keywords: Boro-Tellurite, bismuth, gamma radiation, optical properties.

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452 The Effect of Guanidine Hydrochloride on Phase Diagram of PEG- Phosphate Aqueous Two-Phase System

Authors: Farshad Rahimpour, Mohsen Pirdashti

Abstract:

This report focus on phase behavior of polyethylene glycol (PEG)4000/ phosphate/ guanidine hydrochloride/ water system at different guanidine hydrochloride concentrations and pH. The binodal of the systems was displaced toward higher concentrations of the components with increasing guanidine hydrochloride concentrations. The partition coefficient of guanidine hydrochloride was near unity and increased with decreasing pH and increasing PEG/salt (%w/w) ratio.

Keywords: Aqueous two-phase system, guanidinehydrochloride, partition coefficient, phase diagram.

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