Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1831

Search results for: Power Quality

1831 Power Quality Evaluation of Electrical Distribution Networks

Authors: Mohamed Idris S. Abozaed, Suliman Mohamed Elrajoubi

Abstract:

Researches and concerns in power quality gained significant momentum in the field of power electronics systems over the last two decades globally. This sudden increase in the number of concerns over power quality problems is a result of the huge increase in the use of non-linear loads. In this paper, power quality evaluation of some distribution networks at Misurata - Libya has been done using a power quality and energy analyzer (Fluke 437 Series II). The results of this evaluation are used to minimize the problems of power quality. The analysis shows the main power quality problems that exist and the level of awareness of power quality issues with the aim of generating a start point which can be used as guidelines for researchers and end users in the field of power systems.

Keywords: Power Quality Disturbances, Power Quality Evaluation, Statistical Analysis.

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1830 Power Quality Improvement Using UPQC Integrated with Distributed Generation Network

Authors: B. Gopal, Pannala Krishna Murthy, G. N. Sreenivas

Abstract:

The increasing demand of electric power is giving an emphasis on the need for the maximum utilization of renewable energy sources. On the other hand maintaining power quality to satisfaction of utility is an essential requirement. In this paper the design aspects of a Unified Power Quality Conditioner integrated with photovoltaic system in a distributed generation is presented. The proposed system consist of series inverter, shunt inverter are connected back to back on the dc side and share a common dc-link capacitor with Distributed Generation through a boost converter. The primary task of UPQC is to minimize grid voltage and load current disturbances along with reactive and harmonic power compensation. In addition to primary tasks of UPQC, other functionalities such as compensation of voltage interruption and active power transfer to the load and grid in both islanding and interconnected mode have been addressed. The simulation model is design in MATLAB/ Simulation environment and the results are in good agreement with the published work.

Keywords: Distributed Generation(DG), Interconnected mode, Islanding mode, Maximum power point tracking (MPPT), Power Quality (PQ), Unified power quality conditioner (UPQC), Photovoltaic array (PV).

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1829 Control Strategy of SRM Converters for Power Quality Improvement

Authors: Yogesh Pahariya, Rakesh Saxena, Biswaroop Sarkar

Abstract:

The selection of control strategy depends on the converters of the drive including power, speed, performance and the possible system costs. A number of attempts were therefore made in recent times to develop novel power electronic converter structures for SRM drives, based on the utilization. Many of the converters with variable speed drives have no input power factor correction circuits. This results in harmonic pollution of the utility supply, which should be avoided. The effect of power factor variation in terms of harmonic content is also analyzed in this study. The proposed topologies were simulated using MATLAB / Simulink software package and the results are obtained.

Keywords: Harmonic Pollution, Power Electronic Converter, Power Quality, Simulation.

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1828 A Review of Control Schemes for Active Power Filters in Order to Power Quality Improvement

Authors: Mohammad Hasan Raouf, Azim Nowbakht, Mohammad Bagher Haddadi, Mohammad Reza Tabatabaei

Abstract:

Power quality has become a very important issue recently due to the impact on electricity suppliers, equipment manufacturers and customers. Power quality is described as the variation of voltage, current and frequency in a power system. Voltage magnitude is one of the major factors that determine the quality of power. Indeed, custom power technology, the low-voltage counterpart of the more widely known flexible ac transmission system (FACTS) technology, aimed at high-voltage power transmission applications, has emerged as a credible solution to solve many problems relating to power quality problems. There are various power quality problems such as voltage sags, swells, flickers, interruptions and harmonics etc. Active Power Filter (APF) is one of the custom power devices and can mitigate harmonics, reactive power and unbalanced load currents originating from load side. In this study, an extensive review of APF studies, the advantages and disadvantages of each introduced methods are presented. The study also helps the researchers to choose the optimum control techniques and power circuit configuration for APF applications.

Keywords: Power Quality, Custom Power, Active Filter, Control Approach.

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1827 Three-Level Converters based Generalized Unified Power Quality Conditioner

Authors: Bahr Eldin S. M, K. S. Rama Rao, N. Perumal

Abstract:

A generalized unified power quality conditioner (GUPQC) by using three single-phase three-level voltage source converters (VSCs) connected back-to-back through a common dc link is proposed in this paper as a new custom power device for a three-feeder distribution system. One of the converters is connected in shunt with one feeder for mitigation of current harmonics and reactive power compensation, while the other two VSCs are connected in series with the other two feeders to maintain the load voltage sinusoidal and at constant level. A new control scheme based on synchronous reference frame is proposed for series converters. The simulation analysis on compensation performance of GUPQC based on PSCAD/EMTDC is reported.

Keywords: Custom power device, generalized unified power quality conditioner, PSCAD/ETMDC, voltage source converter

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1826 The Influence of Disturbances Generated by Arc Furnaces on the Power Quality

Authors: Z. Olczykowski

Abstract:

The paper presents the impact of work on the electric arc furnace. Arc equipment is one of the largest receivers powered by the power system. Electric arc disturbances arising during melting process occurring in these furnaces are the cause of an abrupt change of the passive power of furnaces. Currents drawn by these devices undergo an abrupt change, which in turn cause voltage fluctuations and light flicker. The quantitative evaluation of the voltage fluctuations is now the basic criterion of assessment of an influence of unquiet receiver on the supplying net. The paper presents the method of determination of range of voltage fluctuations and light flicker at parallel operation of arc devices. The results of measurements of voltage fluctuations and light flicker indicators recorded in power supply networks of steelworks were presented, with different number of parallel arc devices. Measurements of energy quality parameters were aimed at verifying the proposed method in practice. It was also analyzed changes in other parameters of electricity: the content of higher harmonics, asymmetry, voltage dips.

Keywords: Power quality, arc furnaces, propagation of voltage fluctuations.

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1825 A Strategy of Direct Power Control for PWM Rectifier Reducing Ripple in Instantaneous Power

Authors: T. Mohammed Chikouche, K. Hartani

Abstract:

In order to solve the instantaneous power ripple and achieve better performance of direct power control (DPC) for a three-phase PWM rectifier, a control method is proposed in this paper. This control method is applied to overcome the instantaneous power ripple, to eliminate line current harmonics and therefore reduce the total harmonic distortion and to improve the power factor. A switching table is based on the analysis on the change of instantaneous active and reactive power, to select the optimum switching state of the three-phase PWM rectifier. The simulation result shows feasibility of this control method.

Keywords: Power quality, direct power control, power ripple, switching table, unity power factor.

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1824 Compensation of Power Quality Disturbances Using DVR

Authors: R. Rezaeipour

Abstract:

One of the key aspects of power quality improvement in power system is the mitigation of voltage sags/swells and flicker. Custom power devices have been known as the best tools for voltage disturbances mitigation as well as reactive power compensation. Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) which is the most efficient and effective modern custom power device can provide the most commercial solution to solve several problems of power quality in distribution networks. This paper deals with analysis and simulation technique of DVR based on instantaneous power theory which is a quick control to detect signals. The main purpose of this work is to remove three important disturbances including voltage sags/swells and flicker. Simulation of the proposed method was carried out on two sample systems by using Matlab software environment and the results of simulation show that the proposed method is able to provide desirable power quality in the presence of wide range of disturbances.

Keywords: DVR, Power quality, Voltage sags, Voltage swells, Flicker.

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1823 Comprehensive Hierarchy Evaluation of Power Quality Based on an Incentive Mechanism

Authors: Tao Shun, Xiao Xiangning, HadjSaid, N.

Abstract:

In a liberalized electricity market, it is not surprising that different customers require different power quality (PQ) levels at different price. Power quality related to several power disturbances is described by many parameters, so how to define a comprehensive hierarchy evaluation system of power quality (PQCHES) has become a concerned issue. In this paper, based on four electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) levels, the numerical range of each power disturbance is divided into five grades (Grade I –Grade V), and the “barrel principle" of power quality is used for the assessment of overall PQ performance with only one grade indicator. A case study based on actual monitored data of PQ shows that the site PQ grade indicates the electromagnetic environment level and also expresses the characteristics of loads served by the site. The shortest plank principle of PQ barrel is an incentive mechanism, which can combine with the rewards/penalty mechanism (RPM) of consumed energy “on quality demand", to stimulate utilities to improve the overall PQ level and also stimulate end-user more “smart" under the infrastructure of future SmartGrid..

Keywords: Power quality, electromagnetic compatibility, SmartGrid, comprehensive evaluation, barrel principle, electricitymarket

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1822 Detection of Power Quality Disturbances using Wavelet Transform

Authors: Sudipta Nath, Arindam Dey, Abhijit Chakrabarti

Abstract:

This paper presents features that characterize power quality disturbances from recorded voltage waveforms using wavelet transform. The discrete wavelet transform has been used to detect and analyze power quality disturbances. The disturbances of interest include sag, swell, outage and transient. A power system network has been simulated by Electromagnetic Transients Program. Voltage waveforms at strategic points have been obtained for analysis, which includes different power quality disturbances. Then wavelet has been chosen to perform feature extraction. The outputs of the feature extraction are the wavelet coefficients representing the power quality disturbance signal. Wavelet coefficients at different levels reveal the time localizing information about the variation of the signal.

Keywords: Power quality, detection of disturbance, wavelet transform, multiresolution signal decomposition.

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1821 Comparison of S-transform and Wavelet Transform in Power Quality Analysis

Authors: Mohammad Javad Dehghani

Abstract:

In the power quality analysis non-stationary nature of voltage distortions require some precise and powerful analytical techniques. The time-frequency representation (TFR) provides a powerful method for identification of the non-stationary of the signals. This paper investigates a comparative study on two techniques for analysis and visualization of voltage distortions with time-varying amplitudes. The techniques include the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), and the S-Transform. Several power quality problems are analyzed using both the discrete wavelet transform and S–transform, showing clearly the advantage of the S– transform in detecting, localizing, and classifying the power quality problems.

Keywords: Power quality, S-Transform, Short Time FourierTransform , Wavelet Transform, instantaneous sag, swell.

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1820 Assessment of Reliability and Quality Measures in Power Systems

Authors: Badr M. Alshammari, Mohamed A. El-Kady

Abstract:

The paper presents new results of a recent industry supported research and development study in which an efficient framework for evaluating practical and meaningful power system reliability and quality indices was applied. The system-wide integrated performance indices are capable of addressing and revealing areas of deficiencies and bottlenecks as well as redundancies in the composite generation-transmission-demand structure of large-scale power grids. The technique utilizes a linear programming formulation, which simulates practical operating actions and offers a general and comprehensive framework to assess the harmony and compatibility of generation, transmission and demand in a power system. Practical applications to a reduced system model as well as a portion of the Saudi power grid are also presented in the paper for demonstration purposes.

Keywords: Power systems, Linear programming, Quality assessment, Reliability.

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1819 Fractal Patterns for Power Quality Detection Using Color Relational Analysis Based Classifier

Authors: Chia-Hung Lin, Mei-Sung Kang, Cong-Hui Huang, Chao-Lin Kuo

Abstract:

This paper proposes fractal patterns for power quality (PQ) detection using color relational analysis (CRA) based classifier. Iterated function system (IFS) uses the non-linear interpolation in the map and uses similarity maps to construct various fractal patterns of power quality disturbances, including harmonics, voltage sag, voltage swell, voltage sag involving harmonics, voltage swell involving harmonics, and voltage interruption. The non-linear interpolation functions (NIFs) with fractal dimension (FD) make fractal patterns more distinguishing between normal and abnormal voltage signals. The classifier based on CRA discriminates the disturbance events in a power system. Compared with the wavelet neural networks, the test results will show accurate discrimination, good robustness, and faster processing time for detecting disturbing events.

Keywords: Power Quality (PQ), Color Relational Analysis(CRA), Iterated Function System (IFS), Non-linear InterpolationFunction (NIF), Fractal Dimension (FD).

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1818 Design of Active Power Filters for Harmonics on Power System and Reducing Harmonic Currents

Authors: Düzgün Akmaz, Hüseyin Erişti

Abstract:

In the last few years, harmonics have been occurred with the increasing use of nonlinear loads, and these harmonics have been an ever increasing problem for the line systems. This situation importantly affects the quality of power and gives large losses to the network. An efficient way to solve these problems is providing harmonic compensation through parallel active power filters. Many methods can be used in the control systems of the parallel active power filters which provide the compensation. These methods efficiently affect the performance of the active power filters. For this reason, the chosen control method is significant. In this study, Fourier analysis (FA) control method and synchronous reference frame (SRF) control method are discussed. These control methods are designed for both eliminate harmonics and perform reactive power compensation in MATLAB/Simulink pack program and are tested. The results have been compared for each two methods.

Keywords: Harmonics, Harmonic compensation, Parallel active power filters, Power quality.

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1817 Detection of Voltage Sag and Voltage Swell in Power Quality Using Wavelet Transforms

Authors: Nor Asrina Binti Ramlee

Abstract:

Voltage sag, voltage swell, high-frequency noise and voltage transients are kinds of disturbances in power quality. They are also known as power quality events. Equipment used in the industry nowadays has become more sensitive to these events with the increasing complexity of equipment. This leads to the importance of distributing clean power quality to the consumer. To provide better service, the best analysis on power quality is very vital. Thus, this paper presents the events detection focusing on voltage sag and swell. The method is developed by applying time domain signal analysis using wavelet transform approach in MATLAB. Four types of mother wavelet namely Haar, Dmey, Daubechies, and Symlet are used to detect the events. This project analyzed real interrupted signal obtained from 22 kV transmission line in Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia. The signals will be decomposed through the wavelet mothers. The best mother is the one that is capable to detect the time location of the event accurately.

Keywords: Power quality, voltage sag, voltage swell, wavelet transform.

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1816 Enhance Power Quality by HVDC System, Comparison Technique between HVDC and HVAC Transmission Systems

Authors: Smko Zangana, Ergun Ercelebi

Abstract:

The alternating current is the main power in all industries and other aspects especially for the short and mid distances, but as far as long a distance which exceeds 500 KMs, using the alternating current technically will face many difficulties and more costs because it's difficult to control the current and also other restrictions. Therefore, recently those reasons led to building transmission lines HVDC to transmit power for long distances. This document presents technical comparison and assessments for power transmission system among distances either ways and studying the stability of the system regarding the proportion of losses in the actual power sent and received between both sides in different systems and also categorizing filters used in the HVDC system and its impact and effect on reducing Harmonic in the power transmission. MATLAB /Simulink simulation software is used to simulate both HVAC & HVDC power transmission system topologies.

Keywords: HVAC power system, HVDC power system, power system simulation (MATLAB), the alternating current, voltage stability.

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1815 Detection and Classification of Power Quality Disturbances Using S-Transform and Wavelet Algorithm

Authors: Mohamed E. Salem Abozaed

Abstract:

Detection and classification of power quality (PQ) disturbances is an important consideration to electrical utilities and many industrial customers so that diagnosis and mitigation of such disturbance can be implemented quickly. S-transform algorithm and continuous wavelet transforms (CWT) are time-frequency algorithms, and both of them are powerful in detection and classification of PQ disturbances. This paper presents detection and classification of PQ disturbances using S-transform and CWT algorithms. The results of detection and classification, provides that S-transform is more accurate in detection and classification for most PQ disturbance than CWT algorithm, where as CWT algorithm more powerful in detection in some disturbances like notching

Keywords: CWT, Disturbances classification, Disturbances detection, Power quality, S-transform.

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1814 Distributed Automation System Based Remote Monitoring of Power Quality Disturbance on LV Network

Authors: Emmanuel D. Buedi, K. O. Boateng, Griffith S. Klogo

Abstract:

Electrical distribution networks are prone to power quality disturbances originating from the complexity of the distribution network, mode of distribution (overhead or underground) and types of loads used by customers. Data on the types of disturbances present and frequency of occurrence is needed for economic evaluation and hence finding solution to the problem. Utility companies have resorted to using secondary power quality devices such as smart meters to help gather the required data. Even though this approach is easier to adopt, data gathered from these devices may not serve the required purpose, since the installation of these devices in the electrical network usually does not conform to available PQM placement methods. This paper presents a design of a PQM that is capable of integrating into an existing DAS infrastructure to take advantage of available placement methodologies. The monitoring component of the design is implemented and installed to monitor an existing LV network. Data from the monitor is analyzed and presented. A portion of the LV network of the Electricity Company of Ghana is modeled in MATLAB-Simulink and analyzed under various earth fault conditions. The results presented show the ability of the PQM to detect and analyze PQ disturbance such as voltage sag and overvoltage. By adopting a placement methodology and installing these nodes, utilities are assured of accurate and reliable information with respect to the quality of power delivered to consumers.

Keywords: Power quality, remote monitoring, distributed automation system, economic evaluation, LV network.

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1813 Active Power Filter dimensioning Using a Hysteresis Current Controller

Authors: Tarek A. Kasmieh, Hassan S. Omran

Abstract:

This paper aims to give a full study of the dynamic behavior of a mono-phase active power filter. First, the principle of the parallel active power filter will be introduced. Then, a dimensioning procedure for all its components will be explained in detail, such as the input filter, the current and voltage controllers. This active power filter is simulated using OrCAD program showing the validity of the theoretical study.

Keywords: Active power filter, Power Quality, Hysteresiscurrent controller.

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1812 Fuzzy Logic Controlled Shunt Active Power Filter for Three-phase Four-wire Systems with Balanced and Unbalanced Loads

Authors: Ahmed A. Helal, Nahla E. Zakzouk, Yasser G. Desouky

Abstract:

This paper presents a fuzzy logic controlled shunt active power filter used to compensate for harmonic distortion in three-phase four-wire systems. The shunt active filter employs a simple method for the calculation of the reference compensation current based of Fast Fourier Transform. This presented filter is able to operate in both balanced and unbalanced load conditions. A fuzzy logic based current controller strategy is used to regulate the filter current and hence ensure harmonic free supply current. The validity of the presented approach in harmonic mitigation is verified via simulation results of the proposed test system under different loading conditions.

Keywords: Active power filters, Fuzzy logic controller, Power quality

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1811 Application of Pulse Doubling in Star-Connected Autotransformer Based 12-Pulse AC-DC Converter for Power Quality Improvement

Authors: Rohollah. Abdollahi, Alireza. Jalilian

Abstract:

This paper presents a pulse doubling technique in a 12-pulse ac-dc converter which supplies direct torque controlled motor drives (DTCIMD-s) in order to have better power quality conditions at the point of common coupling. The proposed technique increases the number of rectification pulses without significant changes in the installations and yields in harmonic reduction in both ac and dc sides. The 12-pulse rectified output voltage is accomplished via two paralleled six-pulse ac-dc converters each of them consisting of three-phase diode bridge rectifier. An autotransformer is designed to supply the rectifiers. The design procedure of magnetics is in a way such that makes it suitable for retrofit applications where a six-pulse diode bridge rectifier is being utilized. Independent operation of paralleled diode-bridge rectifiers, i.e. dc-ripple re-injection methodology, requires a Zero Sequence Blocking Transformer (ZSBT). Finally, a tapped interphase reactor is connected at the output of ZSBT to double the pulse numbers of output voltage up to 24 pulses. The aforementioned structure improves power quality criteria at ac mains and makes them consistent with the IEEE-519 standard requirements for varying loads. Furthermore, near unity power factor is obtained for a wide range of DTCIMD operation. A comparison is made between 6- pulse, 12-pulse, and proposed converters from view point of power quality indices. Results show that input current total harmonic distortion (THD) is less than 5% for the proposed topology at various loads.

Keywords: AC–DC converter, star-connected autotransformer, power quality, 24 pulse rectifier, Pulse Doubling, direct torquecontrolled induction motor drive (DTCIMD).

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1810 A Neural Network Control for Voltage Balancing in Three-Phase Electric Power System

Authors: Dana M. Ragab, Jasim A. Ghaeb

Abstract:

The three-phase power system suffers from different challenging problems, e.g. voltage unbalance conditions at the load side. The voltage unbalance usually degrades the power quality of the electric power system. Several techniques can be considered for load balancing including load reconfiguration, static synchronous compensator and static reactive power compensator. In this work an efficient neural network is designed to control the unbalanced condition in the Aqaba-Qatrana-South Amman (AQSA) electric power system. It is designed for highly enhanced response time of the reactive compensator for voltage balancing. The neural network is developed to determine the appropriate set of firing angles required for the thyristor-controlled reactor to balance the three load voltages accurately and quickly. The parameters of AQSA power system are considered in the laboratory model, and several test cases have been conducted to test and validate the proposed technique capabilities. The results have shown a high performance of the proposed Neural Network Control (NNC) technique for correcting the voltage unbalance conditions at three-phase load based on accuracy and response time.

Keywords: Three-phase power system, reactive power control, voltage unbalance factor, neural network, power quality.

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1809 Simulating Voltage Sag Using PSCAD Software

Authors: Kang Chia Yang, Hushairi HJ Zen, Nur [email protected] Binti Ayob

Abstract:

Power quality is used to describe the degree of consistency of electrical energy expected from generation source to point of use. The term power quality refers to a wide variety of electromagnetic phenomena that characterize the voltage and current at a given time and at a given location on the power system. Power quality problems can be defined as problem that results in failure of customer equipments, which manifests itself as an economic burden to users, or produces negative impacts on the environment. Voltage stability, power factor, harmonics pollution, reactive power and load unbalance are some of the factors that affect the consistency or the quality level. This research proposal proposes to investigate and analyze the causes and effects of power quality to homes and industries in Sarawak. The increasing application of electronics equipment used in the industries and homes has caused a big impact on the power quality. Many electrical devices are now interconnected to the power network and it can be observed that if the power quality of the network is good, then any loads connected to it will run smoothly and efficiently. On the other hand, if the power quality of the network is bad, then loads connected to it will fail or may cause damage to the equipments and reduced its lifetime. The outcome of this research will enable better and novel solutions of poor power quality to small industries and reduce damage of electrical devices and products in the industries.

Keywords: Power quality, power network, voltage dip.

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1808 Customer Audits as a Quality Control Tool for Both Suppliers and Customers

Authors: Denisa Ferenčíková, Petr Briš

Abstract:

Customer audits are generally used to ensure customer that supplier is continuously able to meet his requirements while supplying him required products and services. However, customer audits can be considered as a very useful quality control tool for suppliers as well. In our paper, we analyzed the process of customer audits realized in Czech companies from both perspectives: a supplier´s viewpoint and customer´s viewpoint. At the end, we tried to emphasize some areas that should not be omitted during the audit process.

Keywords: Customer Audit, Quality Control, Quality Management, Product Quality, Service Quality, Process Quality.

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1807 Balanced and Unbalanced Voltage Sag Mitigation Using DSTATCOM with Linear and Nonlinear Loads

Authors: H. Nasiraghdam, A. Jalilian

Abstract:

DSTATCOM is one of the equipments for voltage sag mitigation in power systems. In this paper a new control method for balanced and unbalanced voltage sag mitigation using DSTATCOM is proposed. The control system has two loops in order to regulate compensator current and load voltage. Delayed signal cancellation has been used for sequence separation. The compensator should protect sensitive loads against different types of voltage sag. Performance of the proposed method is investigated under different types of voltage sags for linear and nonlinear loads. Simulation results show appropriate operation of the proposed control system.

Keywords: Custom power, power quality, voltage sagmitigation, current vector control.

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1806 Application of Single Tuned Passive Filters in Distribution Networks at the Point of Common Coupling

Authors: M. Almutairi, S. Hadjiloucas

Abstract:

The harmonic distortion of voltage is important in relation to power quality due to the interaction between the large diffusion of non-linear and time-varying single-phase and three-phase loads with power supply systems. However, harmonic distortion levels can be reduced by improving the design of polluting loads or by applying arrangements and adding filters. The application of passive filters is an effective solution that can be used to achieve harmonic mitigation mainly because filters offer high efficiency, simplicity, and are economical. Additionally, possible different frequency response characteristics can work to achieve certain required harmonic filtering targets. With these ideas in mind, the objective of this paper is to determine what size single tuned passive filters work in distribution networks best, in order to economically limit violations caused at a given point of common coupling (PCC). This article suggests that a single tuned passive filter could be employed in typical industrial power systems. Furthermore, constrained optimization can be used to find the optimal sizing of the passive filter in order to reduce both harmonic voltage and harmonic currents in the power system to an acceptable level, and, thus, improve the load power factor. The optimization technique works to minimize voltage total harmonic distortions (VTHD) and current total harmonic distortions (ITHD), where maintaining a given power factor at a specified range is desired. According to the IEEE Standard 519, both indices are viewed as constraints for the optimal passive filter design problem. The performance of this technique will be discussed using numerical examples taken from previous publications.

Keywords: Harmonics, passive filter, power factor, power quality.

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1805 Validation of Solar PV Inverter Harmonics Behaviour at Different Power Levels in a Test Network

Authors: Wilfred Fritz

Abstract:

Grid connected solar PV inverters need to be compliant to standard regulations regarding unwanted harmonic generation. This paper gives an introduction to harmonics, solar PV inverter voltage regulation and balancing through compensation and investigates the behaviour of harmonic generation at different power levels. Practical measurements of harmonics and power levels with a power quality data logger were made, on a test network at a university in Germany. The test setup and test results are discussed. The major finding was that between the morning and afternoon load peak windows when the PV inverters operate under low solar insolation and low power levels, more unwanted harmonics are generated. This has a huge impact on the power quality of the grid as well as capital and maintenance costs. The design of a single-tuned harmonic filter towards harmonic mitigation is presented.

Keywords: Harmonics, power quality, pulse width modulation, total harmonic distortion.

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1804 Artificial Intelligence Techniques Applications for Power Disturbances Classification

Authors: K.Manimala, Dr.K.Selvi, R.Ahila

Abstract:

Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods are increasingly being used for problem solving. This paper concerns using AI-type learning machines for power quality problem, which is a problem of general interest to power system to provide quality power to all appliances. Electrical power of good quality is essential for proper operation of electronic equipments such as computers and PLCs. Malfunction of such equipment may lead to loss of production or disruption of critical services resulting in huge financial and other losses. It is therefore necessary that critical loads be supplied with electricity of acceptable quality. Recognition of the presence of any disturbance and classifying any existing disturbance into a particular type is the first step in combating the problem. In this work two classes of AI methods for Power quality data mining are studied: Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs). We show that SVMs are superior to ANNs in two critical respects: SVMs train and run an order of magnitude faster; and SVMs give higher classification accuracy.

Keywords: back propagation network, power quality, probabilistic neural network, radial basis function support vector machine

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1803 Analysis of the Root Causes of Transformer Bushing Failures

Authors: E. A. Feilat, I. A. Metwally, S. Al-Matri, A. S. Al-Abri

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of a comprehensive investigation of five blackouts that occurred on 28 August to 8 September 2011 due to bushing failures of the 132/33 kV, 125 MVA transformers at JBB Ali Grid station. The investigation aims to explore the root causes of the bushing failures and come up with recommendations that help in rectifying the problem and avoiding the reoccurrence of similar type of incidents. The incident reports about the failed bushings and the SCADA reports at this grid station were examined and analyzed. Moreover, comprehensive power quality field measurements at ten 33/11 kV substations (S/Ss) in JBB Ali area were conducted, and frequency scans were performed to verify any harmonic resonance frequencies due to power factor correction capacitors. Furthermore, the daily operations of the on-load tap changers (OLTCs) of both the 125 MVA and 20 MVA transformers at JBB Ali Grid station have been analyzed. The investigation showed that the five bushing failures were due to a local problem, i.e. internal degradation of the bushing insulation. This has been confirmed by analyzing the time interval between successive OLTC operations of the faulty grid transformers. It was also found that monitoring the number of OLTC operations can help in predicting bushing failure.

Keywords: Modeling and simulation, power system, transformer, bushing, OLTC, power quality, partial discharge.

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1802 Investigating the Effect of Using Capacitors in the Pumping Station on the Harmonic Contents (Case Study: Kafr El - Shikh Governorate, Egypt)

Authors: Khaled M. Fetyan

Abstract:

Power Factor (PF) is one of the most important parameters in the electrical systems, especially in the water pumping station. The low power factor value of the water pumping stations causes penalty for the electrical bill. There are many methods use for power factor improvement. Each one of them uses a capacitor on the electrical power network. The position of the capacitors is varied depends on many factors such as; voltage level and capacitors rating. Adding capacitors on the motor terminals increase the supply power factor from 0.8 to more than 0.9 but these capacitors cause some problems for the electrical grid network, such as increasing the harmonic contents of the grid line voltage. In this paper the effects of using capacitors in the water pumping stations to improve the power factor value on the harmonic contents of the electrical grid network are studied. One of large water pumping stations in Kafr El-Shikh Governorate in Egypt was used, as a case study. The effect of capacitors on the line voltage harmonic contents is measured. The station uses capacitors to improve the PF values at the 1 lkv grid network. The power supply harmonics values are measured by a power quality analyzer at different loading conditions. The results showed that; the capacitors improved the power factor value of the feeder and its value increased than 0.9. But the THD values are increased by adding these capacitors. The harmonic analysis showed that; the 13th, 17th, and 19th harmonics orders are increased also by adding the capacitors.

Keywords: Water pumping stations, power factor improvement, total harmonic distortions (THD), power quality.

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