Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 493

Search results for: wildlife crime

493 Community Perceptions and Attitudes Regarding Wildlife Crime in South Africa

Authors: Louiza C. Duncker, Duarte Gonçalves

Abstract:

Wildlife crime is a complex problem with many interconnected facets, which are generally responded to in parts or fragments in efforts to “break down” the complexity into manageable components. However, fragmentation increases complexity as coherence and cooperation become diluted. A whole-of-society approach has been developed towards finding a common goal and integrated approach to preventing wildlife crime. As part of this development, research was conducted in rural communities adjacent to conservation areas in South Africa to define and comprehend the challenges faced by them, and to understand their perceptions of wildlife crime. The results of the research showed that the perceptions of community members varied - most were in favor of conservation and of protecting rhinos, only if they derive adequate benefit from it. Regardless of gender, income level, education level, or access to services, conservation was perceived to be good and bad by the same people. Even though people in the communities are poor, a willingness to stop rhino poaching does exist amongst them, but their perception of parks not caring about people triggered an attitude of not being willing to stop, prevent or report poaching. Understanding the nuances, the history, the interests and values of community members, and the drivers behind poaching mind-sets (intrinsic or driven by transnational organized crime) is imperative to create sustainable and resilient communities on multiple levels that make a substantial positive impact on people’s lives, but also conserve wildlife for posterity.

Keywords: community perceptions, conservation, rhino poaching, whole-of-society approach, wildlife crime

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492 Forensic Necropsy-Importance in Wildlife Conservation

Authors: G. V. Sai Soumya, Kalpesh Solanki, Sumit K. Choudhary

Abstract:

Necropsy is another term used for an autopsy, which is known as death examination in the case of animals. It is a complete standardized procedure involving dissection, observation, interpretation, and documentation. Government Bodies like National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) have given standard operating procedures for commencing the necropsies. Necropsies are rarely performed as compared to autopsies performed on human bodies. There are no databases which maintain the count of autopsies in wildlife, but the research in this area has shown a very small number of necropsies. Long back, wildlife forensics came into existence but is coming into light nowadays as there is an increase in wildlife crime cases, including the smuggling of trophies, pooching, and many more. Physical examination in cases of animals is not sufficient to yield fruitful information, and thus postmortem examination plays an important role. Postmortem examination helps in the determination of time since death, cause of death, manner of death, factors affecting the case under investigation, and thus decreases the amount of time required in solving cases. Increasing the rate of necropsies will help forensic veterinary pathologists to build standardized provision and confidence within them, which will ultimately yield a higher success rate in solving wildlife crime cases.

Keywords: necropsy, wildlife crime, postmortem examination, forensic application

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491 A Goal-Driven Crime Scripting Framework

Authors: Hashem Dehghanniri

Abstract:

Crime scripting is a simple and effective crime modeling technique that aims to improve understanding of security analysts about security and crime incidents. Low-quality scripts provide a wrong, incomplete, or sophisticated understanding of the crime commission process, which oppose the purpose of their application, e.g., identifying effective and cost-efficient situational crime prevention (SCP) measures. One important and overlooked factor in generating quality scripts is the crime scripting method. This study investigates the problems within the existing crime scripting practices and proposes a crime scripting approach that contributes to generating quality crime scripts. It was validated by experienced crime scripters. This framework helps analysts develop better crime scripts and contributes to their effective application, e.g., SCP measures identification or policy-making.

Keywords: attack modelling, crime commission process, crime script, situational crime prevention

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490 Boosting Crime Scene Investigations Capabilities through Crime Script Analysis

Authors: Benoit Leclerc

Abstract:

The concept of scripts and the role that crime scripts has been playing in criminology during the last decade is reviewed. Particularly illuminating is the potential use of scripts not only to understand and disrupt offender scripts (e.g., commonly referred as crime scripts) but to capture victim and guardian scripts to increase the likelihood of preventing crime. Similarly, the concept of scripts is applied to forensic science – another field that can benefit from script analysis. First, similar to guardian scripts, script analysis can illuminate the process of completing crime scene investigations for those who investigate (crime scene investigators or other professionals involved in crime scene investigations), and as a result, provide a range of intervention-points to improve the success of these investigations. Second, script analysis can also provide valuable information on offenders’ crime-commission processes for crime scene investigators and highlight a number of ‘contact points’ that could be targeted during investigations.

Keywords: crime scripts, crime scene investigation, script analysis, situational crime prevention

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489 Offenders and Victims in Public Focus: Media Coverage about Crime and Its Consequences

Authors: Melanie Verhovnik

Abstract:

Media shape the image of crime, peoples’ believes, attitudes and sometimes also behaviors. Media not only gives the impression that crime is increasing, it also suggest that very violent crime is more common than it actually is. It is also no wonder that humans are more afraid of being involved in a crime committed by strangers than committed by somebody they know – because this is the media construct. With the help of three case studies, the paper analyzes how media frames crime and criminals and gives valuable hints as to what better reporting could look like.

Keywords: court reporting, offenders in media, quantitative content analysis, victims in media

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488 A Case Study of Wildlife Crime in Bangladesh

Authors: M. Golam Rabbi

Abstract:

Theme of wildlife crime is unique in Bangladesh. In earlier of 2010, wildlife crime was not designated as a crime, unlike other offenses. Forest Department and other enforcement agencies were not in full swing to find out the organized crime scene at that time and recorded few cases along with forest crime. However, after the establishment of Wildlife Crime Control Unitin 2012a, total of 374 offenses have been detected with 566 offenders and 37,039 wildlife and trophies were seized till November 2016. Most offenses seem to be committed outside the forests where the presence of the forest staff is minimal. Total detection percentage of offenses is not known, but offenders are not identified in 60% of detected cases (UDOR). Only 20% cases are decided by the courts even after eight years, conviction rate of the total disposal is 70.65%. Mostly six months imprisonment and BDT 5000 fine seems to be the modal penalty. The monetary value of wildlife crime in the country is approximate $0.72M per year and the maximum value counted for reptiles around $0.45M especially for high-level trafficking of geckos and turtles. The most common seizures of wildlife are birds (mynas, munias, parakeets, lorikeets, water birds, etc.) which have domestic demand for pet. Some other wildlife like turtles, lizards and small mammals are also on the list. Venison and migratory waterbirds often seized which has a large quantity demand for consuming at aristocratic level.Due to porous border and weak enforcement in border region poachers use the way for trafficking of geckos, turtles, and tortoises, snakes, venom, tiger and body parts, spotted deerskin, pangolinetc. Those have very high demand in East Asian countries for so-called medicinal purposes. The recent survey also demonstrates new route for illegal trade and trafficking for instance, after poaching of tiger and deer from the Sundarbans, the largest mangrove track of the planet to Thailand through the Bay of Bengal, sharks fins and ray fish through Chittagong seaport and directly by sea routes to Myanmar and Thailand. However, a good number of records of offense demonstrate the transition route from India to South and South East Asian countries. Star tortoises and Hamilton’s turtles are smuggled in from India which mostly seized at Benapole border of Jessore and Hazrat Shah Jajal International Airport of Dhaka, in very large numbers for transmission to East Asian countries. Most of the cases of wildlife trade routes leading to China, Thailand, Malaysia, and Myanmar. Most surprisingly African ivory was seized in Bangladesh recently, which was meant to be trafficked to the South-East Asia. However; forest department is working to fight against wildlife poaching, illegal trade and trafficking in collaboration with other law enforcement agencies. The department needs a clear mandate and to build technical capabilities for identifying, seizing and holding specimens. The department also needs to step out of the forests and must develop the capacity to surveillance and patrol all sensitive locations across the country.

Keywords: Bangladesh forest department, Sundarban, tiger, wildlife crime, wildlife trafficking

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487 Police and Crime Scene Management Model

Authors: Najaf Hamadzadeh Arbabi

Abstract:

Crime scene management is the first and most critical step in criminal investigations and all the criminal investigations are based on the ability of the crime scene investigation officers for diagnosing the importance and the role of physical evidence at the crime scene. According to the role of available physical evidence at the scene to prove the crime and identify the perpetrator and prove the innocence of those accused have been unduly and also impossible due to the rejection of these reasons, the maintenance and investigation of crime scene and collect evidence are very important in the crime scene. This research, by identifying the factors affecting the management of the crime scene, looking for presenting the effective and efficient indigenous pattern for managing of the crime scene in Iran. Method: This study is an applied and development research. Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the Friedman test for ranking, were used for analyzing the data and all hypotheses were tested at 95% confidence level. The target population is 50 judges and experts in Tehran.

Keywords: crime scene, identification, designation, individualization, reconstruction

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486 Mapping Crime against Women in India: Spatio-Temporal Analysis, 2001-2012

Authors: Ritvik Chauhan, Vijay Kumar Baraik

Abstract:

Women are most vulnerable to crime despite occupying central position in shaping a society as the first teacher of children. In India too, having equal rights and constitutional safeguards, the incidences of crime against them are large and grave. In this context of crime against women, especially rape has been increasing over time. This paper explores the spatial and temporal aspects of crime against women in India with special reference to rape. It also examines the crime against women with its spatial, socio-economic and demographic associates using related data obtained from the National Crime Records Bureau India, Indian Census and other government sources of the Government of India. The simple statistical, choropleth mapping and other cartographic representation methods have been used to see the crime rates, spatio-temporal patterns of crime, and association of crime with its correlates.  The major findings are visible spatial variations across the country and are also in the rising trends in terms of incidence and rates over the reference period. The study also indicates that the geographical associations are somewhat observed. However, selected indicators of socio-economic factors seem to have no significant bearing on crime against women at this level.

Keywords: crime against women, crime mapping, trend analysis, society

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485 Computer Fraud from the Perspective of Iran's Law and International Documents

Authors: Babak Pourghahramani

Abstract:

One of the modern crimes against property and ownership in the cyber-space is the computer fraud. Despite being modern, the aforementioned crime has its roots in the principles of religious jurisprudence. In some cases, this crime is compatible with the traditional regulations and that is when the computer is considered as a crime commitment device and also some computer frauds that take place in the context of electronic exchanges are considered as crime based on the E-commerce Law (approved in 2003) but the aforementioned regulations are flawed and until recent years there was no comprehensive law in this regard; yet after some years the Computer Crime Act was approved in 2009/26/5 and partly solved the problem of legal vacuum. The present study intends to investigate the computer fraud according to Iran's Computer Crime Act and by taking into consideration the international documents.

Keywords: fraud, cyber fraud, computer fraud, classic fraud, computer crime

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484 Detecting of Crime Hot Spots for Crime Mapping

Authors: Somayeh Nezami

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The management of financial and human resources of police in metropolitans requires many information and exact plans to reduce a rate of crime and increase the safety of the society. Geographical Information Systems have an important role in providing crime maps and their analysis. By using them and identification of crime hot spots along with spatial presentation of the results, it is possible to allocate optimum resources while presenting effective methods for decision making and preventive solutions. In this paper, we try to explain and compare between some of the methods of hot spots analysis such as Mode, Fuzzy Mode and Nearest Neighbour Hierarchical spatial clustering (NNH). Then the spots with the highest crime rates of drug smuggling for one province in Iran with borderline with Afghanistan are obtained. We will show that among these three methods NNH leads to the best result.

Keywords: GIS, Hot spots, nearest neighbor hierarchical spatial clustering, NNH, spatial analysis of crime

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483 Crime and Class: A Study on Violent Crime in Dhaka City

Authors: A. B. M. Najmus Sakib

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Being one of the most densely populated cities in the world, Dhaka is facing diversified types of crimes every day. Limitations of resources insert serious strains among the inhabitants of this city. This paper aims to analyze the correlation between crime and class, more especially the violent crime in connection with social class. Following the stratified random sampling technique, one of the police divisions among eight of the Dhaka Metropolitan Police (DMP) will be selected. The data will be collected by evaluating the case files found in the police report. First, this paper discusses the nature and pattern of violent crimes in Dhaka city. Then, it assesses the socio-economic status of the accused persons considering their professions. Furthermore, by testing hypothesis, it will identify how the social classes are connected with violent crimes. Finally, the paper will ascertain the particular class that has an impact on violent crime in Dhaka City and will be ended by suggesting possible measures should take by the law enforcement agencies of Bangladesh.

Keywords: social class, violent crime, crime prevention, nature of crime

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482 Terrorism Is a Crime under International Law

Authors: Miguel Manero De Lemos

Abstract:

The ‘innovative and creative’ seminal decision of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL) was not welcomed by academic opinion. The court recognized that terrorism is a crime under international law in times of peace. Scholars widely – and sometimes aggressively – criticize this conclusion. This article asserts that, while some aspects of the decision of the STL might be defective, the basic premise, that it is indeed such a crime, is sound. This article delves into the method that the court used to attain such an outcome and explains why the conclusion of the court is correct, albeit the use of a different method is to be preferred. It also argues that subsequent developments leave little room to keep arguing that there is no international crime of terrorism.

Keywords: terrorism, STL, crime, international criminal law

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481 Exploring Military Crime in the Australian Imperial Force by Officers During The First World War

Authors: DES LAMBLEY

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The scope and scale of crime in the AIF is a subject largely overlooked by historians preferring to narrate the macro-scale topics. This examination exposes some 17,000 military criminals, 414 of them officers and illustrates how military law imposed itself. This subjective sociological perspective humanises the impacts of war upon soldiers. Examples of the crimes, their seriousness, punishments and military justice tell of cause and effect linkages between crime, stress and illness. The discourse is derived from original official military sources in the Australian Archives.

Keywords: Australia, AIF, Military Crime, WW1, Officers

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480 Mapping the Relationship between Elements of Urban Morphology Density of Crime

Authors: Fabio Salvador Aparecido Santos, Spencer Chainey, Richard Wortley

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Urban morphology can be understood as the study of the physical form of cities through its elements. Crime, at this turn, can be oversimplified as an action that breaks the rules established in a certain society. This study involves these two subjects through the relationship between elements of urban morphology and density of crime occurrences. We consider that there is a research gap about the influence of urban features on crime occurrences using statistic methods and mapping techniques on Geographic Information Systems. The investigation will comprehend three main phases. The first phase involves examining how theoretical principles associated with urban morphology can be viewed in terms of their influence on crime patterns. The second phase involves the development of tools to be used to model elements of urban morphology, and measure the relationship between these urban morphological elements and patterns of crime. The third phase involves determining the extent to which elements of the urban environment can contribute to crime reduction. Understanding the relationship between urban morphology and crime patterns in a Latin American context will help highlight the influence urban planning has on the crime problems that emerge in these settings, and how effectively urban planning can contribute to reducing crime.

Keywords: Agent-based Modelling, Environmental Criminology, Geographic Information System, Urban Morphology

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479 Crime against Women in India: A Geospatial Analysis

Authors: V. S. Binu, Amitha Puranik, Sintomon Mathew, Sebin Thomas

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Globally, women are more vulnerable to various forms of crimes than males. The crimes that are directed specifically towards women are classified as crime against women. Crime against women in India is observed to increase year after year and according to the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) report, in 2014 there was an increase of 9.2% cases of crime against women compared to the previous year. The violence in a population depends on socio-demographic factors, unemployment, poverty, number of police officials etc. There are very few studies that explored to identify hotspots of various types of crime against women in India. Hotspots are geographical regions where the number of observed cases is more than the expected number for that region. It is important to identify the hotspots of crime against women in India in order to control and prevent violence against women in that region. The goal of this study is to identify the hotspots of crime against women in India using spatial data analysis techniques. For the present study, we used the district level data of various types of crime against women in India in the year 2011 published by NCRB and the 2011 Census population in each of these districts. The study used spatial scan statistic to identify the hotspots using SaTScan software.

Keywords: crime, hotspots, India, Satscan, Women

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478 Baseline Study on Human Trafficking Crimes: A Case Study of Mapping Human Trafficking Crimes in East Java Province, Indonesia

Authors: Ni Komang Desy Arya Pinatih

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Transnational crime is a crime with 'unique' feature because the activities benefit the lack of state monitoring on the borders so dealing with it cannot be based on conventional engagement but also need joint operation with other countries. On the other hand with the flow of globalization and the growth of information technology and transportation, states become more vulnerable to transnational crime threats especially human trafficking. This paper would examine transnational crime activities, especially human trafficking in Indonesia. With the case study on the mapping of human trafficking crime in East Java province, Indonesia, this paper would try to analyze how the difference in human trafficking crime trends at the national and sub-national levels. The findings of this research were first, there is difference in human trafficking crime trends whereas at the national level the trend is rising, while at sub-national (province) level the trend is declining. Second, regarding the decline of human trafficking number, it’s interesting to see how the method to decrease human trafficking crime in East Jawa Province in order to reduce transnational crime accounts in the region. These things are hopefully becoming a model for transnational crimes engagement in other regions to reduce human trafficking numbers as much as possible.

Keywords: transnational crime, human trafficking, southeast Asia, anticipation model on transnational crimes

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477 An Examination of Criminology and Cyber Crime in Contemporary Society

Authors: Uche A. Nnawulezi

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The evolving global environment has as of late seen formative difficulties bordering on cyber crime and its attendant effects. This paper looks at what constitutes an offense of cyber crime under the tenets of International Law as no nation can lay bona-fide claim in managing cyber crime as a criminal phenomenon. Therefore, there has been a plethora of ideological, conceptual and mental propositions of policies aimed at domesticating cyber crimes – an international crime. These policies were as a result of parochial consideration and social foundations which negate the spirit of internationally accepted procedures. The study also noted that the non-domestication of cyber crime laws by most countries has led to an increase in cyber crimes and its attendant effects have remained unabated. The author has pointed out emerging international rules as a panacea for a sustainable cyber crime-free society. The paper relied on documentary evidence and hence scooped much of the data from secondary sources such as text books, journals, articles and periodicals and more so, opinion papers, emanating from international criminal court. It concludes that the necessary recommendations made in this paper, if fully adopted, shall go a long way in maintaining a cyber crime-free society. Ultimately, the domestic and international law mechanisms capable of dealing with cyber crime offenses should be expanded and be made proactive in order to deal with the demands of modern day challenges.

Keywords: criminology, cyber crime, domestic law, international law

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476 Poverty and Illiteracy as a Key Factor for Crime and Unrest in Nigeria

Authors: Lawrence Emah

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Nigeria, Africa’s most populous nation is undoubtedly, currently going through one of the most difficult phases in her 55 years of existence as an independent nation. At no other time in her history is she under so much pressure of social unrest and unacceptable rate of crime and criminality than it is today. From the North where there is an insurgency to contend with, then to the South where kidnapping and armed robbery hold sway. These issues did not just sprout from nowhere; they have a root somewhere. This is why this paper seeks to bring to the fore poverty and illiteracy as leading causes of these twin social ills– crime and social restiveness as well as suggest practical solutions to the problems.

Keywords: crime, illiteracy, poverty, unrest

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475 Sexual Crime Prediction in an African Context

Authors: Olayemi Success Falope, Surendra Thakur

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The significant rise of sexual crime around the world and the inability to control this violation has resulted in serious attacks, murders, and injuries to sexual crime victims in many situations. Crime in general, of which sexual crime is a major contributor, has brought about a downgrade in South Africa’s economy. The growing need to mitigate sexual crime across the country prompted this study. Data mining techniques were applied to a sexual crime dataset extracted from the South African crime statistics database on the Kaggle website to visualize sexual crime trends and build a model to predict future sexual crime occurrences, thereby assisting the government and law enforcement agencies with gaining insight into the most common sexual crime hotspots across all nine provinces of South Africa. The model could enable law officials to take more timeous action to curb sexual crimes in the country. This paper focuses on the identification of suitable data analytics algorithms available for sexual crime prediction and then determining the most suitable algorithm for the study. The linear regression and decision tree classifier algorithms were applied to the extracted sexual crime dataset to predict the features responsible for causing sexual crime in South Africa. Of these, linear regression was the most effective algorithm. The researcher found that a linear relationship exists between the dependent variable (sexual crime) and the independent variables (population and density) of this study. Accuracy, precision, recall, and f1 score were used to measure the performance of the decision tree algorithm, while linear regression was measured using the coefficient of determination measured by the R-squared score, which is a key output of regression analysis. The 91% accuracy achieved is an indication of how effective the model will predict sexual crime occurrences.

Keywords: algorithms, data analytics, data mining, decision tree classifier, linear regression, sexual crime prediction, south africa

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474 Police and Community Crime Prevention in Sweden

Authors: Peter Lindstrom, Caroline Gyberg, Scott Goodwin

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The Swedish police organisation was fundamentally reorganized in 2015 when 21 regional police forces were combined into one national police authority divided in 7 larger police regions, 35 police areas, and some 100 local police districts. A central theme for the reform was that local crime prevention policing should be more unified in the country. In this paper, we review crime prevention strategies in Sweden from a criminological and policing perspective focusing, among other things, on differences between urban and rural areas. In the crime prevention field, words such as 'knowledge- and evidence-based', 'collaboration', and 'strategies' are common. Our objective is to investigate the relationship between theoretical and practical knowledge in local crime prevention work. Our research indicate that an elaborated and strategic connection between theoretical and practical perspectives is important for successful local crime prevention work. Universities may provide a platform such knowledge exchange.

Keywords: crime prevention, police reform, urban and rural areas, criminological and policing perspectives

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473 National Strategy for Swedish Wildlife Management

Authors: Maria Hornell, Marcus Ohman

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Nature, and the society it is a part of, is under constant change. The landscape, climate and game populations vary over time, as well as society's priorities and the way it uses the land where wildlife may proliferate. Sweden currently has historically large wildlife populations which are a resource for the benefit and joy of many people. Wildlife may also be seen as a problem as it may cause damage in contradiction to other human interests. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency introduces a new long-term strategy for national wildlife management. The strategy envisions a wildlife management in balance. It focuses on wildlife values in a broad sense including outdoor recreation and tourism as well as conservation of biodiversity. It is fundamental that these values should be open and accessible for the major part of the population. For that to be possible new ways to manage, mitigate and prevent damages and other problems that wildlife causes need to be developed. The strategy describes a roadmap for the development and strengthening of Sweden's wildlife management until 2020. It aims at being applicable for those authorities and stakeholders with interest in wildlife management being a guide for their own strategies, goals, and activities.

Keywords: wildlife management, strategy, Sweden, SEPA

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472 Place and Situational Management in Crime Prevention

Authors: Mehdi Moghimi

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Doctrines associated with situational prevention considers 'place of committing crime' as one of the fundamental elements of a crime. Meanwhile, with regard to causing or having effect on a crime situation, 'place' can be one of the pivotal indices in situational prevention analyses. This study aims at examining the role of place in construction of a crime situation and explaining the relationship between 'place' and situational preventive measures and procedures. Also, how to identify high-crime places, types of high-crime places and the factors influencing their creation are among the most important secondary objectives of this article. Concerning the purpose, it is a practical study whose material has been written through a documentary method using original sources (English), books and written and translated articles etc. This article is written in two main parts. In the first section, cognitive-conceptual issues about 'place' as one of the main causes of crime situation, and its effective interaction with situational preventive measures will be reviewed. The second part of this paper will focus on criminological examination of places and critical locations of crime and provide situational preventive measures to deal with the situation. 'Crime displacement' and 'geographical distribution of benefits'are also considered as the possible consequences of implementing preventive strategies. The results of the study suggest that the inventory of offenses is distributed according to the spatial characteristics. Moreover, according to the criminological characteristics governing region or location, offenders choose the place of crime based on a logical calculation. Therefore, some locations, regions or neighborhoods are permanent places of occurring lots of crimes. As a result, considering "place", preventive measures and procedures can be systematically directed, and using the most effective ways, limited preventive resources are utilized in the most critical places. Finally, some suggestions for further research and application are provided in line with more favorable promotion of situational preventive measures.

Keywords: crime prevention, place, police crime, situational crime prevention

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471 ‘Honour’ Crime and the Need for Differentiation from Domestic Violence in UK Law

Authors: Mariam Shah

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‘Honour’ crime has commonly been perceived in the UK as being a ‘domestic violence’ related issue due to incidents perceived to take place within a domestic context, and commonly by familial perpetrators. The lack of differentiation between domestic violence and ‘honour’ related incidents has several negative implications. Firstly, the prevalence and extent of ‘honour’ related crime within the UK cannot be accurately quantified due to ‘honour’ incidents being classed statistically as domestic violence incidents. Secondly, lack of differentiation means that the negative stereotypical attitudes ascribed to domestic violence which has resulted in lower criminal conviction rates that are also impacting the conviction of perpetrators of ‘honour’ crime. Thirdly, ‘honour’ related crime is innately distinct from domestic violence due to the perpetrator’s resolute intent of cleansing perceived ‘shame’ in any way possible, often with the involvement and collusion of multiple perpetrators from within the family and/or community. Domestic violence is typically restricted to the ‘home’, but ‘honour’ crime can operate between national and international boundaries. This paper critically examines the current academic literature and concludes that the few similarities between domestic violence and ‘honour’ related crime are not sufficient to warrant identical treatment under UK criminal law. ‘Honour’ related crime is a distinct and stand-alone offence which should be recognised as such. The appropriate identification and treatment of ‘honour’ crime are crucial, particularly in light of the UK’s first ‘white’ honour killing which saw a young English woman murdered after being deemed to have brought ‘shame’ on her ex-boyfriend’s family. This incident highlights the possibility of ‘honour’ crime extending beyond its perceived ‘ethnic minority’ roots and becoming more of a ‘mainstream’ issue for the multi-cultural and multi-racial UK.

Keywords: differentiation, domestic violence, honour crime, United Kingdom

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470 An Analysis on the Appropriateness and Effectiveness of CCTV Location for Crime Prevention

Authors: Tae-Heon Moon, Sun-Young Heo, Sang-Ho Lee, Youn-Taik Leem, Kwang-Woo Nam

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This study aims to investigate the possibility of crime prevention through CCTV by analyzing the appropriateness of the CCTV location, whether it is installed in the hotspot of crime-prone areas, and exploring the crime prevention effect and transition effect. The real crime and CCTV locations of case city were converted into the spatial data by using GIS. The data was analyzed by hotspot analysis and weighted displacement quotient(WDQ). As study methods, it analyzed existing relevant studies for identifying the trends of CCTV and crime studies based on big data from 1800 to 2014 and understanding the relation between CCTV and crime. Second, it investigated the current situation of nationwide CCTVs and analyzed the guidelines of CCTV installation and operation to draw attention to the problems and indicating points of domestic CCTV use. Third, it investigated the crime occurrence in case areas and the current situation of CCTV installation in the spatial aspects, and analyzed the appropriateness and effectiveness of CCTV installation to suggest a rational installation of CCTV and the strategic direction of crime prevention. The results demonstrate that there was no significant effect in the installation of CCTV on crime prevention. This indicates that CCTV should be installed and managed in a more scientific way reflecting local crime situations. In terms of CCTV, the methods of spatial analysis such as GIS, which can evaluate the installation effect, and the methods of economic analysis like cost-benefit analysis should be developed. In addition, these methods should be distributed to local governments across the nation for the appropriate installation of CCTV and operation. This study intended to find a design guideline of the optimum CCTV installation. In this regard, this study is meaningful in that it will contribute to the creation of a safe city.

Keywords: CCTV, safe city, crime prevention, spatial analysis

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469 Journey to Cybercrime and Crime Opportunity: Quantitative Analysis of Cyber Offender Spatial Decision Making

Authors: Sinchul Back, Sun Ho Kim, Jennifer LaPrade, Ilju Seong

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Due to the advantage of using the Internet, cybercriminals can reach target(s) without border controls. Prior research on criminology and crime science has largely been void of empirical studies on journey-to-cybercrime and crime opportunity. Thus, the purpose of this study is to understand more about cyber offender spatial decision making associated with crime opportunity factors (i.e., co-offending, offender-stranger). Data utilized in this study were derived from 306 U.S. Federal court cases of cybercrime. The findings of this study indicated that there was a positive relationship between co-offending and journey-to-cybercrime, whereas there was no link between offender-stranger and journey-to-cybercrime. Also, the results showed that there was no relationship between cybercriminal sex, age, and journey-to-cybercrime. The policy implications and limitations of this study are discussed.

Keywords: co-offending, crime opportunity, journey-to-cybercrime, offender-stranger

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468 On the Estimation of Crime Rate in the Southwest of Nigeria: Principal Component Analysis Approach

Authors: Kayode Balogun, Femi Ayoola

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Crime is at alarming rate in this part of world and there are many factors that are contributing to this antisocietal behaviour both among the youths and old. In this work, principal component analysis (PCA) was used as a tool to reduce the dimensionality and to really know those variables that were crime prone in the study region. Data were collected on twenty-eight crime variables from National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) databank for a period of fifteen years, while retaining as much of the information as possible. We use PCA in this study to know the number of major variables and contributors to the crime in the Southwest Nigeria. The results of our analysis revealed that there were eight principal variables have been retained using the Scree plot and Loading plot which implies an eight-equation solution will be appropriate for the data. The eight components explained 93.81% of the total variation in the data set. We also found that the highest and commonly committed crimes in the Southwestern Nigeria were: Assault, Grievous Harm and Wounding, theft/stealing, burglary, house breaking, false pretence, unlawful arms possession and breach of public peace.

Keywords: crime rates, data, Southwest Nigeria, principal component analysis, variables

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467 A Machine Learning-Assisted Crime and Threat Intelligence Hunter

Authors: Mohammad Shameel, Peter K. K. Loh, James H. Ng

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Cybercrime is a new category of crime which poses a different challenge for crime investigators and incident responders. Attackers can mask their identities using a suite of tools and with the help of the deep web, which makes them difficult to track down. Scouring the deep web manually takes time and is inefficient. There is a growing need for a tool to scour the deep web to obtain useful evidence or intel automatically. In this paper, we will explain the background and motivation behind the research, present a survey of existing research on related tools, describe the design of our own crime/threat intelligence hunting tool prototype, demonstrate its capability with some test cases and lastly, conclude with proposals for future enhancements.

Keywords: cybercrime, deep web, threat intelligence, web crawler

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466 Hidden Hot Spots: Identifying and Understanding the Spatial Distribution of Crime

Authors: Lauren C. Porter, Andrew Curtis, Eric Jefferis, Susanne Mitchell

Abstract:

A wealth of research has been generated examining the variation in crime across neighborhoods. However, there is also a striking degree of crime concentration within neighborhoods. A number of studies show that a small percentage of street segments, intersections, or addresses account for a large portion of crime. Not surprisingly, a focus on these crime hot spots can be an effective strategy for reducing community level crime and related ills, such as health problems. However, research is also limited in an important respect. Studies tend to use official data to identify hot spots, such as 911 calls or calls for service. While the use of call data may be more representative of the actual level and distribution of crime than some other official measures (e.g. arrest data), call data still suffer from the 'dark figure of crime.' That is, there is most certainly a degree of error between crimes that occur versus crimes that are reported to the police. In this study, we present an alternative method of identifying crime hot spots, that does not rely on official data. In doing so, we highlight the potential utility of neighborhood-insiders to identify and understand crime dynamics within geographic spaces. Specifically, we use spatial video and geo-narratives to record the crime insights of 36 police, ex-offenders, and residents of a high crime neighborhood in northeast Ohio. Spatial mentions of crime are mapped to identify participant-identified hot spots, and these are juxtaposed with calls for service (CFS) data. While there are bound to be differences between these two sources of data, we find that one location, in particular, a corner store, emerges as a hot spot for all three groups of participants. Yet it does not emerge when we examine CFS data. A closer examination of the space around this corner store and a qualitative analysis of narrative data reveal important clues as to why this store may indeed be a hot spot, but not generate disproportionate calls to the police. In short, our results suggest that researchers who rely solely on official data to study crime hot spots may risk missing some of the most dangerous places.

Keywords: crime, narrative, video, neighborhood

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465 Conceptual Model Providing More Information on the Contact Situation between Crime Victim and the Police

Authors: M. Inzunza

Abstract:

In contemporary society, victims of crime has been given more recognition, which have contributed to advancing the knowledge on the effects of crime. There exists a complexity of who gets the status of victim and that the typology of good versus bad can interfere with the contact situation of the victim with the police. The aim of this study is to identify the most central areas affecting the contact situation between crime victims and the police to develop a conceptual model to be useful empirically. By considering previously documented problem areas and different theoretical domains, a conceptual model has been developed. Preliminary findings suggest that an area that should be given attention is to get a better understanding of the victim, not only in terms of demographics but also in terms of risk behavior and social network. This area has been considered to influence the status of the crime victim. Another domain of value is the type of crime and the context of the incident in more detail. The police officer approach style in the contact situation is also a pertinent area that is influenced by how the police based victim services are organized and how individual police officers are suited for the mission. Suitability includes constructs from empathy models adapted to the police context and especially focusing on sub-constructs such as perspective taking. Discussion will focus on how these findings can be operationalized in practice and how they are used in ongoing empirical studies.

Keywords: empathy, perspective taking, police contact, victim of crime

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464 Sociodemographic Approach to Juveniles Directed to Delinquent Behaviour in Zonguldak

Authors: Riza Yilmaz, Samet Kiyak, Sezin Nur Yilmaz, Yasemin Yilmaz

Abstract:

Child delinquency has been increasing in our country as well as in many countries of the world. Child intelligence, abilities, family's social environment and life conditions are the factors which affect the child delinquency. The reports of 73 cases ages of 12-15 which were sent to the University of Bulent Ecevit, School of Medicine, Forensic Medicine Department between January 2011-September 2015, in order to evaluate medically, children pushed to crime by the judicial authorities are examined in terms of age, gender, educational background, place of residence, reasons for being sent, whether it’s a repeating crime or not, type of intelligence test, results revealed by forensic medicine and department of mental and neurological disorders. When children pushed to crime examined in terms of their crimes, the most common type of crime was identified as theft (n = 24). The crimes with 19 physical attacks and 12 sexual abuse were seen. Following that other 12 crimes were determined as damage to property, hemp crop, insult, incitement to crime, forgery of private documents, illegal excavation, threatening, involuntary manslaughter. The alleged crimes in 6 cases were more than one. The children pushed to crime are one of the major social problems of many countries. In this sense, it is not only the responsibility of government agencies to protect children pushed to crime, also, the civil society organizations should take place in this struggle.

Keywords: delinquent behaviour, forensic medicine, crime, punishment

Procedia PDF Downloads 298