Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2380

Search results for: offenders in media

2380 Offenders and Victims in Public Focus: Media Coverage about Crime and Its Consequences

Authors: Melanie Verhovnik

Abstract:

Media shape the image of crime, peoples’ believes, attitudes and sometimes also behaviors. Media not only gives the impression that crime is increasing, it also suggest that very violent crime is more common than it actually is. It is also no wonder that humans are more afraid of being involved in a crime committed by strangers than committed by somebody they know – because this is the media construct. With the help of three case studies, the paper analyzes how media frames crime and criminals and gives valuable hints as to what better reporting could look like.

Keywords: court reporting, offenders in media, quantitative content analysis, victims in media

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2379 Hedonistic Utilitarianism: The Strategic Use of Digital Media along the Online-Offline Continuum of Sexualised Violence

Authors: Katharina Kargel, Frederic Vobbe

Abstract:

The present study examines how offenders targeting children and adolescents strategically use digital media when committing acts of sexualised violence along the online-offline continuum. Even offenders who are previously known to their victims use digital media extensively. The choice to instrumentalise digital media in order to initiate, threaten, exploit and humiliate victims demonstrates the rationale of offenders when committing acts of digitally supported violence. Through digital media, offenders can assume the power of interpretation over their victims’ situations. The ways in which digital media is used to commit violence along the online-offline continuum are a direct manifestation of the hedonistic utilitarianism demonstrated by offenders: a disposition characterised by the weighing of pleasures (“mental states”) and intrinsic value expected from using digital media against the risk of an outcome subjectively experienced as uncomfortable. Thus, sexualised violence using digital media goes beyond the traditional understanding of sexual online grooming.

Keywords: sexualized violence, offender strategy, grooming, children and adolescents, qualitative research, methodology

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2378 Influences of Victimization Experiences on Delinquency: Comparison between Young Offenders and Non-Offenders

Authors: Yoshihiro Horio

Abstract:

Many young offenders grow up in difficult environments. It has often been suggested that many young offenders are victims of abuse. However, there were restricted to abuse or family’s problem. Little research has examined data on ‘multiple victimization’ experiences of young offenders. Thus, this study investigated the victimization experiences of young offenders, including child abuse at home, bullying at school, and crime in the community. Specifically, the number of victimization experiences of young offenders was compared with those of non-delinquents at home, school, and in the community. It was found that young offenders experienced significantly more victimization than non-delinquents. Additionally, the influence of childhood victimization on later misconduct and/or delinquency was examined, then it was founded that victimization experiences to be a risk factor for subsequent delinquency. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that young offenders who had a strong emotional reaction to their experience of abuse began their misconduct at an earlier age. If juveniles start their misconduct early, the degree of delinquency will increase. The anger of young offenders was stronger than that of non-delinquents. A strong emotion of anger may be related to juvenile delinquency.

Keywords: abuse, bullying, delinquency, victimization, young offenders

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2377 Male Versatile Sexual Offenders in Taiwan

Authors: Huang Yueh Chen, Sheng Ang Shen

Abstract:

Purpose: Sexual assault has always been a highly anticipated crime in Taiwan. People assume that the career of sexual offenders tends to be highly specialized. This study hopes to analyze the crime career and risk factors of offenders by means of another classification. Methods: A total of 145 sexual offenders were sentenced on the parole or expiration date from 2009 to 2011, through analysis of official existing documents such as ‘Re-infringement risk assessment report’ and ‘case assessment report’. Results: The section ‘Various Types of Crimes ‘ of criminal career is analyzed. The highest number of ‘ versatile sexual offender’ followed by ‘adult sexual offender’ is about 2.5, representing more than 1.5 kinds of non-sex crimes besides sexual crimes. Different specialized sexual offenders have had extensive experience in the ‘Sexual Assault Experiences in Children and School’, ‘Static 99 Levels’, ‘Pre-Commuted Substance Use’, ‘Excited Deviant Sexual Behavior’, ‘Various Types of Crimes,’ and ‘Sexual Crime in Forerunner’ , ‘Type of Index Crime’ and other projects to achieve significant differences. Conclusions: Resources continue to be devoted to specialized offenders, the character of first-time sexual offender depends on further research and makes the public aware of the different assumptions of diversified offenders from traditional professional offenses that reduce unnecessary panic in society.

Keywords: versatile sexual offender, specialized sexual offender, criminal career, risk factor

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2376 Meeting Criminogenic Needs to Reduce Recidivism: The Diversion of Vulnerable Offenders from the Criminal Justice System into Care

Authors: Paulo Rocha

Abstract:

Once in touch with the Criminal Justice System, offenders with mental disorder tend to return to custody more often than nondisordered individuals, which suggests they have not been receiving appropriate treatment in prison. In this scenario, diverting individuals into care as early as possible in their trajectory seems to be the appropriate approach to rehabilitate mentally unwell offenders and alleviate overcrowded prisons. This paper builds on an ethnographic research investigating the challenges encountered by practitioners working to divert offenders into care while attempting to establish cross-boundary interactions with professionals in the Criminal Justice System and Mental Health Services in the UK. Drawing upon the findings of the study, this paper suggests the development of adequate tools to enable liaison between agencies which ultimately results in successful interventions.

Keywords: criminogenic needs, interagency collaboration, liaison and diversion, recidivism

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2375 The Lived Experiences of South African Female Offenders and the Possible Links to Recidivism Due to their Exclusion from Educational Rehabilitation Programmes

Authors: Jessica Leigh Thornton

Abstract:

The South African Constitution outlines provisions for every detainee and sentenced prisoner in relation to the human rights recognized in the country since 1994; but currently, across the country, prisons have yet to meet many of these criteria. Consequently, their day-to-day lives are marked by extreme lack of privacy, high rates of infection, poor nutrition, and deleterious living conditions, which steadily erode prisoners’ mental and physical capacities rather than rehabilitating inmates so that they can effectively reintegrate into society. Even more so, policy reform, advocacy, security, and rehabilitation programs continue to be based on research and theories that were developed to explain the experiences of men, while female offenders are seen as the “special category” of inmates. Yet, the experiences of women and their pathways to incarceration are remarkably different from those of male offenders. Consequently, little is known about the profile, nature and contributing factors and experiences of female offenders which has impeded a comprehensive and integrated understanding of the subject of female criminality. The number of women globally in correctional centers has more than doubled over the past fifteen years (these increases vary from prison to prison and country to country). Yet, female offenders have largely been ignored in research even though the minority status of female offenders is a phenomenon that is not peculiar to South Africa as the number of women incarcerated has increased by 68% within the decade. Within South Africa, there have been minimal studies conducted on the gendered experience of offenders. While some studies have explored the pathways to female offending, gender-sensitive correctional programming for women that respond to their needs has been overlooked. This often leads to a neglect of the needs of female offenders, not only in terms of programs and services delivery to this minority group but also from a research perspective. In response, the aim of the proposed research is twofold: Firstly, the lived experiences and views of rehabilitation and reintegration of female offenders will be explored. Secondly, the various pathways into and out of recidivism amongst female offenders will be investigated regarding their inclusion in educational rehabilitation.

Keywords: female incarceration, educational rehabilitation, exclusion, experiences of female offenders

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2374 Impact on Underprivileged People Practising Expressive Textile Arts: An Exploratory Study Applied to Ex-Offenders in Hong Kong

Authors: Jin Lam, Joe Au

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the impact of practicing expressive textile arts on the underprivileged people namely, ex-offenders after taking a three-month textile arts and fashion creativity workshops from a service-learning subject, offered by the Hong Kong Polytechnic University in May 2016. In this service-learning subject, the subject lecturers, students and ex-offenders co-designed various expressive textile artworks together. During the creative process, the ex-offenders could enhance their self-confidence and rebuild a satisfactory identity through practicing expressive textile arts and fashion creativity. Ten textile arts prototypes in the format of fashion garments were presented in a mini fashion show and an exhibition, both at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University in July 2016. A quantitative research method was adopted and a questionnaire survey was conducted in this study. The research findings suggest that positive impacts are found on the ex-offenders’ perceptions of ‘feelings and thoughts before attending the workshops’, ‘feelings and thoughts during the workshops’, ‘attitude toward the textile arts materials’, and ‘attitude toward the expressive textile artworks’.

Keywords: creativity, design, expressive textile arts, fashion, underprivileged people

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2373 Restorative Justice Programmes in South African Prison Environment: A Qualitative Enquiry

Authors: Clarice Zimbili Zondi

Abstract:

This study investigates the effect of restorative justice programmes offered to offenders in prison environment (Correctional Centres) during their rehabilitation. The study looks specifically to programmes offered by a Non-Profit Organisation (NPO), Phoenix Zululand (PZ) in twelve (12) different prisons in Zululand, South Africa. Document analysis, interviews and participant observation methods were used to test whether the work done by Phoenix Zululand is in line with the remarks made on restorative justice as encapsulated in the White Paper on Corrections 2005 in South Africa. Also tested was whether a better understanding of restorative justice programmes assists in coming up with better strategies to change the behaviour of offenders. The study findings discovered that the work that is done by PZ is not in line with the remarks made in the White Paper on Corrections. Also the importance of a full comprehension of what one is doing in order to be effective in rehabilitation. However, rehabilitation that is aimed at only changing the decision-making processes of offenders not to reoffend, does not serve as a total rehabilitation programme. Rehabilitation is only successful if ex-offenders, whilst still in prison, have developed market-related skills and become employed or self-employed. Restorative Justice Programmes offered by PZ, although they play a critical role, appears to be lacking in equipping offenders with skills for effective reintegration into society and, subsequently, self-reliance.

Keywords: offender, rehabilitation, restorative justice, prison

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
2372 Iraqi Media Entrepreneurs across Social Media: Factors and Challenges

Authors: Ahmed Omar Bali, Sherko Jabar, Hazhar Jalal, Mahdi Sofi-Karim

Abstract:

For a long while in Iraq, media organizations were owned by political parties, particularly the ruling parties, because media traditional organizations required big capital and human resources. This paper has examined the dynamics of Iraqi media market transformation with emphasizing on factors that help to merge media entrepreneurs and digital media firms which target audience on social media. A qualitative method was adopted in this study using open, in-depth interviews with 19 media entrepreneurs and three managers of media firms. The study revealed that relative freedom and advanced communication technologies have encouraged media entrepreneurs to drive the new media on producing short videos and broadcast them on social media which has become popular among media consumers.

Keywords: media entrepreneur, Iraq, journalists, media technicians, digital media firms, media market

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
2371 The Effects of Vocational Training on Offender Rehabilitation in Nigerian Correctional Institutions

Authors: Hadi Mohammed

Abstract:

The introduction of vocational education and training (VET) in correctional institutions as part of prisoner rehabilitation program is to help offenders develop marketable job skills and reduce re-offending thereby increasing the likely hood of successful reintegration back to their community. Offenders who participate in vocational education and training are significantly less likely to return to prison after released and are more likely to find employment after released than offenders who do not received such training. Those who participated in vocational training were 28% more likely to be employed after released from prison than those who did not received such training. This paper examined the effects of vocational training on offender rehabilitation as well as the effects of vocational training on the relationship between reformation and reintegration in Nigerian correctional institution. To address this two research question were formulated to guide the research. A survey research was employed. The participants were 200 offenders in Nigerian correctional institutions. Questionnaire items were administered. Mean, standard deviation and Partial Correlation were used for the data analysis. The findings revealed that vocational training has helped in offender rehabilitation in Nigerian correctional institutions. Similarly there was a moderate significant positive partial correlation between reformation and reintegration, controlling for vocational training, r=0.461, n=221, p<0.005 with moderate level of reformation and being associated with moderate level of reintegration. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that Nigerian Correctional Institutions should strengthen their vocational training program for offenders to be properly rehabilitated.

Keywords: correctional institutions, vocational education and training, offender rehabilitation

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2370 Impact of New Media Technologies to News, Social Interactions, and Traditional Media

Authors: Ademola Bamgbose

Abstract:

The new media revolution, which encompasses a wide variety of new media technologies like blogs, social networking, visual worlds, wikis, have had a great influence on communications, traditional media and across other disciplines. This paper gives a review of the impact of new media technologies on the news, social interactions and traditional media in developing and developed countries. The study points to the fact that there is a significant impact of new media technologies on the news, social interactions and the traditional media in developing and developed countries, albeit both positively and negatively. Social interactions have been significantly affected, as well as in news production and reporting. It is reiterated that despite the pervasiveness of new media technologies, it would not bring to a total decline of traditional media. This paper contributes to the theoretical framework on the new media and will help to assess the extent of the impact of the new media in different locations.

Keywords: communication, media, news, new media technologies, social interactions, traditional media

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2369 Neuropsychological Disabilities in Executive Functions and Visuospatial Skills of Juvenile Offenders in a Half-Open Program in Santiago De Chile

Authors: Gabriel Sepulveda Navarro

Abstract:

Traditional interventions for young offenders are necessary but not sufficient to tackle the multiple causes of juvenile crime. For instance, interventions offered to young offenders often are verbally mediated and dialogue based, requiring important metacognitive abilities as well as abstract thinking, assuming average performance in a wide variety of skills. It seems necessary to assess a broader set of abilities and functions in order to increase the efficiency of interventions while addressing offending. In order to clarify these assumptions, Stroop Test, as well as Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test were applied to juvenile offenders tried and sentenced for violent crimes in Santiago de Chile. A random sample was drawn from La Cisterna Half-Open Program, consisting of 50 young males between 18 and 24 years old, residing in different districts of Santiago de Chile. The analysis of results suggests a disproportionately elevated incidence of impairments in executive functions and visuospatial skills. As an outcome, over 40% of the sample shows a significant low performance in both assessments, exceeding four times the same prevalence rates among young people in the general population. While executive functions entail working memory (being able to keep information and use it in some way), cognitive flexibility (to think about something in more than one way) and inhibitory control (being able to self-control, ignore distractions and delay immediate gratification), visuospatial skills permit to orientate and organize a planned conduct. All of these abilities are fundamental to the skill of avoiding violent behaviour and abiding by social rules. Understanding the relevance of neurodevelopmental impairments in the onset of violent and criminal behaviour, as well as recidivism, eventually may guide the deployment of a more comprehensive assessment and treatment for juvenile offenders.

Keywords: executive functions, half-open program, juvenile offenders, neurodisabilities, visuospatial skills

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2368 The Emergence of Information and Communication Technologies Acting as a Challenge for Media Literacy

Authors: Geetu Gahlawat, Manisha Singh

Abstract:

In the recent years, the concept of media literacy is being extended from its traditional focus on print and audio-visual media to encompass the internet and other new media within academic and policy discourses. This article throws revolves around three significant queries which are to be dealt by the academia, general public and the policy-makers: What is media literacy? How is it changing? And what is the significance of media literacy? At the beginning of the article, the definition 'media literacy' is the ability to access, analyse, evaluate and create messages across a variety of contexts are given and then this is further being tested in connection with the internet and other information and communication technologies.Having advocated this skills-based approach to media literacy in relation to the internet, the article identifies some outstanding issues for new media literacy crucial to any policy of promoting media literacy among the population. The outcome is better understanding of media literacy and also the impact of ICT on media literacy by the public as well as media literate people.

Keywords: media literacy, ICT, internet, education

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2367 Assessing a New Industrial Growth Media for the Development of Algae Technology in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Zain Alammari, Emna M. Mhedhbi, Claudio G. Grunewald

Abstract:

This study aims to compare a standard F2 media to a local media called Altakamul. The new media was tested in Nannochloropsissp cultures at a lab scale. The main difference between both media is the Nitrogen source (NaNO3 in F/2 and NH4 in Altakamul). According to the preliminary results during three weeks experiments, no significant differences were found between F2 and Alatakamul media in terms of Nannochloropsis growth. We can anticipate that Altakamul media will be the cheapest media option for microalgae cultivation at a higher scale, reducing the OPEX

Keywords: microalgae, nannochloropsis, culture, nitrogen

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2366 Prisoners for Sexual Offences: Custodial Regime, Prison Experience and Reintegration Interventions

Authors: Nikolaos Koulouris, Anna Kasapoglou, Dimitris Koros

Abstract:

The paper aims to present the course of ongoing research concerning the treatment of pretrial detainees, convicted or released prisoners for sexual offenses, an area that has not received much attention in Greece in terms of the prison experience and the reintegration potentials regarding this specific category of prisoners. The study plan provides for the use of a combination of research methods (focus groups with prisoners, structured individual interviews with prisoners and prison staff). Also, interviews with ex-prisoners detained regarding sexual offenses will take place. In Greece, there are no special provisions for the treatment of sexual offenders in prison, nor are there any special programs in place for their rehabilitation. Sexual offenders are usually separated from other prisoners, as the informal code of the social organization of the prison community dictates, despite no relevant legal framework. The study aims to explore the reasons for the separate detention of sexual offenders and discuss their special (non) treatment from different points of view, namely the legality and legitimacy of this discriminatory practice in terms of prisoners’ protection, safety, stigmatization, and possible social exclusion, as well as their post-release expectations and social reintegration potentials. The purpose of the research is the exploration of the prison experience of sexual offenders, the exercise of their legal rights, their adjustment to the demands of social life in prison, as well as the role of prison officers and various interventions aiming to their preparation for reentry to society. The study will take into consideration the European and international prison/penitentiary standards and best practices in order to examine the issue comparatively, while the contribution of the United Nations and the Council of Europe and its standards will be used to assess the treatment of sexual offenders in terms of its compatibility to international and European model-rules and trends. The outcome will be utilized to form main directions and propositions for a coherent and consistent human rights-based and social integration-oriented penal policy regarding the treatment of persons accused or convicted of sexual offenses in Greece.

Keywords: prisoners’ treatment, sex offenders, social exclusion, social reintegration

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2365 Connecting Lives Inside and Outside the Classroom: Why and How to Implement Technology in the Language Learning Classroom

Authors: Geoffrey Sinha

Abstract:

This paper is primarily addressed to teachers who stand on the threshold of bringing technology and new media into their classrooms. Technology and new media, such as smart phones and tablets have changed the face of communication in general and of language teaching more specifically. New media has widespread appeal among young people in particular, so it is in the teacher’s best interests to bring new media into their lessons. It is the author’s firm belief that technology will never replace the teacher, but it is without question that the twenty-first century teacher must employ technology and new media in some form, or run the risk of failure. The level that one chooses to incorporate new media within their class is entirely in their hands.

Keywords: new media, social media, technology, education, language learning

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2364 Internet Media and Public: A Report of a Mutual Deception

Authors: Safet Zejnullahu

Abstract:

The relationship between the public and media is more than meaningful. It has been a topic of discussion as early as the birth of the media. The 'magic box' called radio adapted and transformed by following the tastes and interests of the public. Television went a step further by complementing the magic sound of the magic box with photos/images. Newspapers informed the reader, but from time to time, they also provided them the room to express their opinions. The media-public report in the traditional media is a report of a mutual respect. Today, the report between media and public should be well defined. The goal of this paper is to analyze the history of the media-public relationship, with a special emphasis on the analysis of this relationship in media of the internet time. This paper seeks to prove that the internet media has created a completely new and thus far unknown relationship between the media and public. Through research, which includes an analysis of the media in Kosovo and Albania, it will be proven that the media of the internet time has elevated this relationship to a new level, with many unknowns in terms of the functioning and role of the media. The results and findings of the paper are related to the conclusion that from the relationship in which the roles of the media and the public are known, nowadays, this relationship goes beyond the known principle and rules and is more defined as a relationship of mutual deception. The media goes beyond the line of the humility of the public, and the public seeks to direct the content of the media. The media-public report in the internet-media is a report based on mutual attempt for fraud.

Keywords: media, public, report, humility, direction

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2363 Formation of Convergence Culture in the Framework of Conventional Media and New Media

Authors: Berkay Buluş, Aytekin İşman, Kübra Yüzüncüyıl

Abstract:

Developments in media and communication technologies have changed the way we use media. The importance of convergence culture has been increasing day by day within the framework of these developments. With new media, it is possible to say that social networks are the most powerful platforms that are integrated to this digitalization process. Although social networks seem like the place that people can socialize, they can also be utilized as places of production. On the other hand, audience has become users within the framework of transformation from national to global broadcasting. User generated contents make conventional media and new media collide. In this study, these communication platforms will be examined not as platforms that replace one another but mediums that unify each other. In the light of this information, information that is produced by users regarding new media platforms and all new media use practices are called convergence culture. In other words, convergence culture means intersections of conventional and new media. In this study, examples of convergence culture will be analyzed in detail.

Keywords: new media, convergence culture, convergence, use of new media, user generated content

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2362 Developing New Media Credibility Scale: A Multidimensional Perspective

Authors: Hanaa Farouk Saleh

Abstract:

The main purposes of this study are to develop a scale that reflects emerging theoretical understandings of new media credibility, based on the evolution of credibility studies in western researches, identification of the determinants of credibility in the media and its components by comparing traditional and new media credibility scales and building accumulative scale to test new media credibility. This approach was built on western researches using conceptualizations of media credibility, which focuses on four principal components: Source (journalist), message (article), medium (newspaper, radio, TV, web, etc.), and organization (owner of the medium), and adding user and cultural context as key components to assess new media credibility in particular. This study’s value lies in its contribution to the conceptualization and development of new media credibility through the creation of a theoretical measurement tool. Future studies should explore this scale to test new media credibility, which represents a promising new approach in the efforts to define and measure credibility of all media types.

Keywords: credibility scale, media credibility components, new media credibility scale, scale development

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2361 Characteristics of Female Offenders: Using Childhood Victimization Model for Treatment

Authors: Jane E. Hill

Abstract:

Sexual, physical, or emotional abuses are behaviors used by one person in a relationship or within a family unit to control the other person. Physical abuse can consist of, but not limited to hitting, pushing, and shoving. Sexual abuse is unwanted or forced sexual activity on a person without their consent. Abusive behaviors include intimidation, manipulation, humiliation, isolation, frightening, terrorizing, coercing, threatening, blaming, hurting, injuring, or wounding another individual. Although emotional, psychological and financial abuses are not criminal behaviors, they are forms of abuse and can leave emotional scars on their victim. The purpose of this literature review research was to examine characteristics of female offenders, past abuse, and pathways to offending. The question that guided this research: does past abuse influence recidivism? The theoretical foundation used was relational theory by Jean Baker Miller. One common feature of female offenders is abuse (sexual, physical, or verbal). Abuse can cause mental illnesses and substance abuse. The abuse does not directly affect the women's recidivism. However, results indicated the psychological and maladaptive behaviors as a result of the abuse did contribute to indirect pathways to continue offending. The female offenders’ symptoms of ongoing depression, anxiety, and engaging in substance abuse (self medicating) did lead to the women's incarceration. Using the childhood victimization model as the treatment approach for women's mental illness and substance abuse disorders that were a result from history of child abuse have shown success. With that in mind, if issues surrounding early victimization are not addressed, then the women offenders may not recover from their mental illness or addiction and are at a higher risk of reoffending. However, if the women are not emotionally ready to engage in the treatment process, then it should not be forced onto them because it may cause harm (targeting prior traumatic experiences). Social capital is family support and sources that assist in helping the individual with education, employment opportunities that can lead to success. Human capital refers to internal knowledge, skills, and capacities that help the individual act in new and appropriate ways. The lack of human and social capital is common among female offenders, which leads to extreme poverty and economic marginalization, more often in frequent numbers than men. In addition, the changes in welfare reform have exacerbated women’s difficulties in gaining adequate-paying jobs to support themselves and their children that have contributed to female offenders reoffending. With that in mind, one way to lower the risk factor of female offenders from reoffending is to provide them with educational and vocational training, enhance their self-efficacy, and teach them appropriate coping skills and life skills. Furthermore, it is important to strengthen family bonds and support. Having a supportive family relationship was a statistically significant protective factor for women offenders.

Keywords: characteristics, childhood victimization model, female offenders, treatment

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2360 An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Juvenile Justice in Rehabilitating the Youth in South Africa

Authors: Leah Gwatimba, Nanga Raymond Raselekoane

Abstract:

The incidences of youth who engage in unlawful or criminal activities are of great concern for the criminal justice system and government in South Africa. In terms of the juvenile justice system in South Africa, under-age youth who have been found guilty and sentenced to serve a jail term cannot be sent to the same detention facility as adults. The juvenile justice system is meant to protect young offenders from physical, emotional and mental exploitation by adult prisoners. Under-age young offenders should be assisted and exposed to educational, entrepreneurial and behavioral programmes that can equip them with the much needed skills that will turn them into law-abiding and economically productive citizens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the justice system in South Africa in the rehabilitation young offenders. A qualitative method was used. The study used the non-probability purposive sampling to select the respondents. In-depth interviews, focus groups, observation and thematic coding were used to collect and analyse the data respectively. The study population consisted of social workers and offending youth. The sample comprised of 16 respondents (i.e. 4 social workers and twelve offending youth (6 males and 6 females). The study indicated that there is worrying recurrence of the anti-social behavior by some of the young offenders. According to this study, the effectiveness of the juvenile justice system in the rehabilitation of the offending youth can be achieved by paying serious attention to follow-up services, participation of families of the offending youth in the diversion programmes and by improving the socio-economic conditions in the homes and communities of the offending youth.

Keywords: juvenile delinquent, juvenile justice system, diversion programmes, rehabilitation, restorative justice

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2359 New Media and Social Media Laws and Ethics in United Arab Emirates

Authors: Ahmed Farouk Radwan, Sheren Mousa

Abstract:

There are many laws and regulations governing the use of new and social media in the United Arab Emirates. During the past few years, the importance of using these platforms in the fields of media and government communication has increased, as well as at the level of individual use. In 2016, the National Media Council Law was issued to regulate traditional and new media field, and gave the council the power to oversee and undertake the media affairs in the state. NMC is mandated to: Develop the UAE’s media policy, Draft media legislation and ensure its execution and Prohibited media content ,Co-ordinate the media policy between the emirates in line with the UAE’s domestic and foreign policy, Ensure support for the federation and project national unity. All media organizations in the UAE must comply with the regulations and rules issued by council. Social media influencers have to be licensed by NMC if they accept paid ads to be published on their accounts. The study explores other laws concerning of new media and social media regulations and ethics including Combatting Cybercrimes law, Combating Discrimination and Hatred law, The Government Guidelines for social media users in the UAE, The Guidelines for the practices of electronic participation and social networking, Copyright Law, and Child Rights Law. The study clarifies the legal articles, items and standards in all these laws which related with the new media and social platforms and also determines the prohibited digital practices and the cultural norms governing it.

Keywords: media laws, media ethics, new media , UAE

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2358 Integrating a Universal Forensic DNA Database: Anticipated Deterrent Effects

Authors: Karen Fang

Abstract:

Investigative genetic genealogy has attracted much interest in both the field of ethics and the public eye due to its global application in criminal cases. Arguments have been made regarding privacy and informed consent, especially with law enforcement using consumer genetic testing results to convict individuals. In the case of public interest, DNA databases have the strong potential to significantly reduce crime, which in turn leads to safer communities and better futures. With the advancement of genetic technologies, the integration of a universal forensic DNA database in violent crimes, crimes against children, and missing person cases is expected to deter crime while protecting one’s privacy. Rather than collecting whole genomes from the whole population, STR profiles can be used to identify unrelated individuals without compromising personal information such as physical appearance, disease risk, and geographical origin, and additionally, reduce cost and storage space. STR DNA profiling is already used in the forensic science field and going a step further benefits several areas, including the reduction in recidivism, improved criminal court case turnaround time, and just punishment. Furthermore, adding individuals to the database as early as possible prevents young offenders and first-time offenders from participating in criminal activity. It is important to highlight that DNA databases should be inclusive and tightly governed, and the misconception on the use of DNA based on crime television series and other media sources should be addressed. Nonetheless, deterrent effects have been observed in countries like the US and Denmark with DNA databases that consist of serious violent offenders. Fewer crimes were reported, and fewer people were convicted of those crimes- a favorable outcome, not even the death penalty could provide. Currently, there is no better alternative than a universal forensic DNA database made up of STR profiles. It can open doors for investigative genetic genealogy and fostering better communities. Expanding the appropriate use of DNA databases is ethically acceptable and positively impacts the public.

Keywords: bioethics, deterrent effects, DNA database, investigative genetic genealogy, privacy, public interest

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2357 A Systematic Literature Review of the Influence of New Media-Based Interventions on Drug Abuse

Authors: Wen Huei Chou, Te Lung Pan, Tsu Wen Yeh

Abstract:

New media have recently received increasing attention as a new communication form. The COVID-19 outbreak has pushed people’s lifestyles into the digital age, and the drug market has infiltrated formal e-commerce platforms. The self-media boom has fostered growth in online drug myths. To set the record straight, it is imperative to develop new media-based interventions. However, the usefulness of new media on this issue has not yet been fully examined. This study selected 13 articles on the development of new media-based interventions to prevent drug abuse from Airiti Library and Pub-Med as of October 3, 2021. The key conclusions are that (1) new media have a significantly positive influence on skills, self-efficacy, and behavior; (2) most interventions package traditional course learning into new media formats; and (3) new media can create a covert, interactive environment that cannot be replicated offline, which may merit attention in future research.

Keywords: drug abuse, interventions, new media, systematic review

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2356 Anti-Social Media: Implications of Social Media in the Form of Stressors on Our Daily Lives

Authors: Aimen Batool Bint-E-Rashid, Huma Irfan

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This research aims to investigate the role of social media (Snapchat, Facebook, Twitter, etc.) in our daily lives and its implication on our everyday routine in the form of stressors. The study has been validated by a social media survey with 150 social media users belonging to various age groups. The study explores how social media can make an individual anti-social in his or her life offline. To explain the phenomenon, we have proposed and evaluated a model based on social media usage and stressors including burnout and social overload. Results, through correlation and regression tests, have revealed that with increase in social media usage, social overload and burnout also increases. Evidence for the fact that excessive social media usage causes social overload and burnout has been provided in the study.

Keywords: burnout, emotional exhaustion, fatigue, stressors, social networking, social media, social overload

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2355 Growth of New Media Advertising

Authors: Palwinder Bhatia

Abstract:

As all know new media is a broad term in media studies that emerged in the latter part of the 20th century which refers to on-demand access to content any time, anywhere, on any digital device, as well as interactive user feedback, creative participation and community formation around the media content. The role of new media in advertisement is impeccable these days. It becomes the cheap and best way of advertising. Another important promise of new media is the democratization of the creation, publishing, distribution and consumption of media content. New media brings a revolution in about every field. It makes bridge between customer and companies. World make a global village with the only help of new media. Advertising helps in shaping the consumer behavior and effect on consumer psychology, sociology, social anthropology and economics. People do comments and like the particular brands on the networking sites which create mesmerism impact on the behavior of customer. Recent study did by Times of India shows that 64% of Facebook users have liked a brand on Facebook.

Keywords: film, visual, culture, media, advertisement

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2354 Everyday Interactions among Imprisoned Sex Offenders: A Qualitative Study within the 'Due Palazzi' Prison in Padua

Authors: Matteo Mazzucato, Elena Faccio, Antonio Iudici

Abstract:

Prison is a social reality constructed by everyday interactions between an inmate, other social actors (cellmates, prison officers, educationalists and psychologists or other detainees) and the external world which participates in this complex construction through the social discourses on prison reality and its problems. Being a detainee means performing a self dealing with processes of stereotypization, attribution of a social role and prejudices assigned by various interlocutors and depending on what kind of crime one has been convicted of. Among all inmates, sex offenders are the ones who risk more to be socially condemned beyond a legal sentence since they have committed one of the most hated and disapproved crime. Regarding this, prison has to be considered as a critical context in which all community expectations and beliefs are converged: for common sense, rapists and child molesters are dangerous people who have to be stigmatized, punished and isolated. Furthermore, other detainees share a code of conduct by which the ‘sex offender’ is collocated at the lowest level of the social hierarchy of the prison. The penitentiary administration too defines this kind of detainee as a ‘vulnerable person to protect’ while prison staff considers him as a particular inmate who has to be treated and definitely changed. Considering all the complexities connected with being imprisoned as a sex offender, our research aimed at exploring how people convicted of sex crimes are called upon to manage all these hetero-narrations about their selves. Set this goal, textual data retrieved from this qualitative research show that sex offenders tend to not face the stigma assigned to them. They are rather used to minimize the story telling about their selves and costruct alternative biographies to be shared with other inmates. Managing narrations about their selves in this way permits to distance them from all the threats perceived living together with other detainees but it blocks sex offenders’ ri-signification of their offences during prison treatment. Given these results, prison administration should develop activities in order to create fields of interaction between detainees where experiencing new versions of their selves spendable even in external social situations. Regarding this it’s important to re-consider prison as part of the community and the sex offenders as a member of it.

Keywords: interactions, qualitative research, prison reality, sex offender

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2353 Problem Solving Courts for Domestic Violence Offenders: Duluth Model Application in Spanish-Speaking Offenders

Authors: I. Salas-Menotti

Abstract:

Problem-solving courts were created to assist offenders with specific needs that were not addressed properly in traditional courts. Problem-solving courts' main objective is to pursue solutions that will benefit the offender, the victim, and society as well. These courts were developed as an innovative response to deal with issues such as drug abuse, mental illness, and domestic violence. In Brooklyn, men who are charged with domestic violence related offenses for the first time are offered plea bargains that include the attendance to a domestic abuse intervention program as a condition to dismiss the most serious charges and avoid incarceration. The desired outcome is that the offender will engage in a program that will modify his behavior avoiding new incidents of domestic abuse, it requires accountability towards the victim and finally, it will hopefully bring down statistic related to domestic abuse incidents. This paper will discuss the effectiveness of the Duluth model as applied to Spanish-speaking men mandated to participate in the program by the specialized domestic violence courts in Brooklyn. A longitudinal study was conducted with 243 Spanish- speaking men who were mandated to participated in the men's program offered by EAC in Brooklyn in the years 2016 through 2018 to determine the recidivism rate of domestic violence crimes. Results show that the recidivism rate was less than 5% per year after completing the program which indicates that the intervention is effective in preventing new abuse allegations and subsequent arrests. It's recommended that comparative study with English-speaking participants is conducted to determine cultural and language variables affecting the program's efficacy.

Keywords: domestic violence, domestic abuse intervention programs, Problem solving courts, Spanish-speaking offenders

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2352 Feedback of Using Set-Up Candid Clips as New Media

Authors: Miss Suparada Prapawong

Abstract:

The objectives were to analyze the using of new media in the form of set up candid clip that affects the product and presenter, to study the effectiveness of using new media in the form of set up candid clip in order to increase the circulation and audience satisfaction and to use the earned information and knowledge to develop the communication for publicizing and advertising via new media. This research is qualitative research based on questionnaire and in-depth interview from experts. The findings showed the advantages and disadvantages of communication for publicizing and advertising via new media in the form of set up candid clip including with the specific target group for this kind of advertising. It will be useful for fields of publicizing and advertising in the new media forms at the present.

Keywords: candid clip, communication, new media, social network

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2351 Ex-Offenders’ Labelling, Stigmatisation and Unsuccessful Re-Integration as Factors Leading into Recidivism: A South African Context

Authors: Tshimangadzo Oscar Magadze

Abstract:

For successful re-integration, the individual offender must adapt and transform, which requires that the offender should adopt and internalise socially approved norms, attitudes, values, and beliefs. However, the offender’s labelling and community stigmatisation decide the destination of the offender. Community involvement in ex-offenders’ re-integration is an important issue in efforts to reduce recidivism and to control overcrowding in our correctional facilities. Crime is a social problem that requires society to come together to fight against it. This study was conducted in the Limpopo Province in Vhembe District Municipality within four local municipalities, namely Musina, Makhado, Mutale, and Thulamela. A total number of 30 participants were interviewed, and all were members of the Community Corrections Forums. This was necessitated by the fact that Musina is a very small area, which compelled the Department of Correctional Services to combine the two (Musina and Makhado) into one social re-integration entity. This is a qualitative research study where participants were selected through the use of purposive sampling. Participants were selected based on the value they would add to this study in order to achieve the objectives. The data collection method of this study was the focus group, which comprised of three groups of 10 participants each. Thulamela and Mutale local municipalities formed a group with (10) participants each, whereas Musina (2) and Makhado (8) formed another. Results indicate that the current situation is not conducive for re-integration to be successful. Participants raised many factors that need serious redress, namely offenders’ discrimination, lack of forgiveness by members of the community, which is fuelled by lack of community awareness due to the failure of the Department of Correctional Services in educating communities on ex-offenders’ re-integration.

Keywords: ex-offender, labeling, re-integration, stigmatization

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