Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1976

Search results for: computer fraud

1976 Computer Fraud from the Perspective of Iran's Law and International Documents

Authors: Babak Pourghahramani

Abstract:

One of the modern crimes against property and ownership in the cyber-space is the computer fraud. Despite being modern, the aforementioned crime has its roots in the principles of religious jurisprudence. In some cases, this crime is compatible with the traditional regulations and that is when the computer is considered as a crime commitment device and also some computer frauds that take place in the context of electronic exchanges are considered as crime based on the E-commerce Law (approved in 2003) but the aforementioned regulations are flawed and until recent years there was no comprehensive law in this regard; yet after some years the Computer Crime Act was approved in 2009/26/5 and partly solved the problem of legal vacuum. The present study intends to investigate the computer fraud according to Iran's Computer Crime Act and by taking into consideration the international documents.

Keywords: fraud, cyber fraud, computer fraud, classic fraud, computer crime

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
1975 Practical Limitations of the Fraud Triangle Framework in Fraud Prevention

Authors: Alexander Glebovskiy

Abstract:

Practitioners charged with fraud prevention and investigation strongly rely on the Fraud Triangle framework developed by Joseph T. Wells in 1997 while analyzing the causes of fraud at business organizations. The Fraud Triangle model explains fraud by elements such as pressure, opportunity, and rationalization. This view is not fully suitable for effective fraud prevention as the Fraud Triangle model provides limited insight into the causation of fraud. Fraud is a multifaceted phenomenon, the contextual factors of which may not fit into any framework. Employee criminal behavior in business organizations is influenced by environmental, individual, and organizational aspects. Therefore, further criminogenic factors and processes facilitating fraud in organizational settings need to be considered in the root-cause analysis: organizational culture, leadership style, groupthink effect, isomorphic behavior, crime of obedience, displacement of responsibility, lack of critical thinking and unquestioning conformity and loyalty.

Keywords: criminogenesis, fraud triangle, fraud prevention, organizational culture

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
1974 Detecting Model Financial Statement Fraud by Auditor Industry Specialization with Fraud Triangle Analysis

Authors: Reskino Resky

Abstract:

This research purposes to create a model to detecting financial statement fraud. This research examines the variable of fraud triangle and auditor industry specialization with financial statement fraud. This research used sample of company which is listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange that have sanctions and cases by Financial Services Authority in 2011-2013. The number of company that were became in this research were 30 fraud company and 30 non-fraud company. The method of determining the sample is by using purposive sampling method with judgement sampling, while the data processing methods used by researcher are mann-whitney u and discriminants analysis. This research have two from five variable that can be process with discriminant analysis. The result shows the financial targets can be detect financial statement fraud, while financial stability can’t be detect financial statement fraud.

Keywords: fraud triangle analysis, financial targets, financial stability, auditor industry specialization, financial statement fraud

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
1973 An Investigation into Fraud Detection in Financial Reporting Using Sugeno Fuzzy Classification

Authors: Mohammad Sarchami, Mohsen Zeinalkhani

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Always, financial reporting system faces some problems to win public ear. The increase in the number of fraud and representation, often combined with the bankruptcy of large companies, has raised concerns about the quality of financial statements. So, investors, legislators, managers, and auditors have focused on significant fraud detection or prevention in financial statements. This article aims to investigate the Sugeno fuzzy classification to consider fraud detection in financial reporting of accepted firms by Tehran stock exchange. The hypothesis is: Sugeno fuzzy classification may detect fraud in financial reporting by financial ratio. Hypothesis was tested using Matlab software. Accuracy average was 81/80 in Sugeno fuzzy classification; so the hypothesis was confirmed.

Keywords: fraud, financial reporting, Sugeno fuzzy classification, firm

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
1972 A Study of Management Principles Incorporating Corporate Governance and Advocating Ethics to Reduce Fraud at a South African Bank

Authors: Roshan Jelal, Charles Mbohwa

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In today’s world, internal fraud remains one of the most challenging problems within companies worldwide and despite investment in controls and attention given to the problem, the instances of internal fraud has not abated. To the contrary it appears that internal fraud is on the rise especially in the wake of the economic downturn. Leadership within companies believes that the more sophisticated the controls employed the less likely it would be for employees to pilfer. This is a very antiquated view as investment in controls may not be enough to curtail internal fraud; however, ensuring that a company drives the correct culture and behaviour within the organisation is likely to yield desired results. This research aims to understand how creating a strong ethical culture and embedding the principle of good corporate governance impacts on levels of internal fraud with an organization (a South African Bank).

Keywords: internal fraud, corporate governance, ethics, reserve bank, the King Code

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
1971 An Assessment of the Extent and Impact of Motor Insurance Fraud Claims in Nigeria

Authors: Olatokunbo Shoyemi, Mario Brito, Ian Dawson

Abstract:

In recent times, the Nigerian motor insurers have experienced high volume of motor insurance claim pay-outs and insignificant contribution to the net premium income of the Nigerian insurance market, which has been a major concern for the shareholders/stakeholders. It has been argued that there are many factors that have brought about these concerns. However, anecdotal evidence (ongoing debates among industry practitioners) suggests prevalence of fraud due to poor practices in motor insurance business in Nigeria. This study is therefore aimed to carry out an assessment of fraud in motor insurance claims as perceived by experts in the Nigerian insurance market. This study adopted a descriptive research design, and the analysis was built on a survey among insurance experts in Nigeria using a designed questionnaire. A purposive and snowball sampling were used to select our sample (N = 120) - representing a selection of all professionally qualified insurance experts in Nigeria insurance industry. The study found that Nigerian insurance experts (i) largely agree that there is a problematic level of fraud in the Nigerian motor insurance industry; (ii) perceive soft fraud to be about 3 times more common than hard fraud in the Nigerian motor insurance industry, and (iii) strongly agree there are problematic impacts from fraud on the solvency of the Nigerian motor insurers. This paper has provided an empirical understanding of the existence, extent, and impact of fraud risks within the Nigerian insurance market based on expert knowledge and insights rather than, as has often been the case, a reliance on individual anecdotes.

Keywords: claims, net premium income, motor insurance, soft fraud, hard fraud

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
1970 Sonic Therapeutic Intervention for Preventing Financial Fraud: A Phenomenological Study

Authors: Vasudev Das

Abstract:

In a global survey of more than 5,000 participants in 99 territories, PwC found a loss of $42 billion through fraud in the last 24 months. The specific problem is that private and public organizational leaders often do not understand the importance of sonic therapeutic intervention in preventing financial fraud. The study aimed to explore sonic therapeutic intervention practitioners' lived experiences regarding the value of sonic therapeutic intervention in preventing financial fraud. The data collection methods were semi-structured interviews of purposeful samples and documentary reviews, which were analyzed thematically. Four themes emerged from the analysis of interview transcription data: Sonic therapeutic intervention enabled self-control, pro-spiritual values, consequentiality mindset, and post-conventional consciousness. The itemized four themes helped non-engagement in financial fraud. Implications for positive social change include enhanced financial fraud management, more significant financial leadership, and result-oriented decision-taking in the financial market. Also, the study results can improve the increased de-escalation of anxiety/stress associated with defrauding.

Keywords: consciousness, consequentiality, rehabilitation, reintegration

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
1969 The Application of Fuzzy Set Theory to Mobile Internet Advertisement Fraud Detection

Authors: Jinming Ma, Tianbing Xia, Janusz Getta

Abstract:

This paper presents the application of fuzzy set theory to implement of mobile advertisement anti-fraud systems. Mobile anti-fraud is a method aiming to identify mobile advertisement fraudsters. One of the main problems of mobile anti-fraud is the lack of evidence to prove a user to be a fraudster. In this paper, we implement an application by using fuzzy set theory to demonstrate how to detect cheaters. The advantage of our method is that the hardship in detecting fraudsters in small data samples has been avoided. We achieved this by giving each user a suspicious degree showing how likely the user is cheating and decide whether a group of users (like all users of a certain APP) together to be fraudsters according to the average suspicious degree. This makes the process more accurate as the data of a single user is too small to be predictable.

Keywords: mobile internet, advertisement, anti-fraud, fuzzy set theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
1968 Surprise Fraudsters Before They Surprise You: A South African Telecommunications Case Study

Authors: Ansoné Human, Nantes Kirsten, Tanja Verster, Willem D. Schutte

Abstract:

Every year the telecommunications industry suffers huge losses due to fraud. Mobile fraud, or generally, telecommunications fraud is the utilisation of telecommunication products or services to acquire money illegally from or failing to pay a telecommunication company. A South African telecommunication operator developed two internal fraud scorecards to mitigate future risks of application fraud events. The scorecards aim to predict the likelihood of an application being fraudulent and surprise fraudsters before they surprise the telecommunication operator by identifying fraud at the time of application. The scorecards are utilised in the vetting process to evaluate the applicant in terms of the fraud risk the applicant would present to the telecommunication operator. Telecommunication providers can utilise these scorecards to profile customers, as well as isolate fraudulent and/or high-risk applicants. We provide the complete methodology utilised in the development of the scorecards. Furthermore, a Determination and Discrimination (DD) ratio is provided in the methodology to select the most influential variables from a group of related variables. Throughout the development of these scorecards, the following was revealed regarding fraudulent cases and fraudster behaviour within the telecommunications industry: Fraudsters typically target high-value handsets. Furthermore, debit order dates scheduled for the end of the month have the highest fraud probability. The fraudsters target specific stores. Applicants who acquire an expensive package and receive a medium-income, as well as applicants who obtain an expensive package and receive a high income, have higher fraud percentages. If one month prior to application, the status of an account is already in arrears (two months or more), the applicant has a high probability of fraud. The applicants with the highest average spend on calls have a higher probability of fraud. If the amount collected changes from month to month, the likelihood of fraud is higher. Lastly, young and middle-aged applicants have an increased probability of being targeted by fraudsters than other ages.

Keywords: application fraud scorecard, predictive modeling, regression, telecommunications

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
1967 Impact of Internal Control on Fraud Detection and Prevention: A Survey of Selected Organisations in Nigeria

Authors: Amos Olusola Akinola

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to evaluate the internal control system on fraud prevention in Nigerian business organizations. A survey research was undertaken in five organizations from the banking and manufacturing sectors in Nigeria using the simple random sampling technique and primary data was obtained with the aid structured questionnaire drawn on five likert’s scale. Four Hypotheses were formulated and tested using the T-test Statistics, Correlation and Regression Analysis at 95% confidence interval. It was discovered that internal control has a significant positive relationship with fraud prevention and that a weak internal control system permits fraudulent activities among staff. Based on the findings, it was recommended that organizations should continually and methodically review and evaluate the components of its internal control system whether activities are working as planned or not and that every organization should have pre-determined guidelines for conducting its operations and ensures compliance with these set guidelines while proactive steps should be taken to establish the independence of the internal audit by making the audit reportable to the governing council of an organization and not the chief executive officer.

Keywords: internal control, internal system, internal audit, fraud prevention, fraud detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
1966 Financial Fraud Prediction for Russian Non-Public Firms Using Relational Data

Authors: Natalia Feruleva

Abstract:

The goal of this paper is to develop the fraud risk assessment model basing on both relational and financial data and test the impact of the relationships between Russian non-public companies on the likelihood of financial fraud commitment. Relationships mean various linkages between companies such as parent-subsidiary relationship and person-related relationships. These linkages may provide additional opportunities for committing fraud. Person-related relationships appear when firms share a director, or the director owns another firm. The number of companies belongs to CEO and managed by CEO, the number of subsidiaries was calculated to measure the relationships. Moreover, the dummy variable describing the existence of parent company was also included in model. Control variables such as financial leverage and return on assets were also implemented because they describe the motivating factors of fraud. To check the hypotheses about the influence of the chosen parameters on the likelihood of financial fraud, information about person-related relationships between companies, existence of parent company and subsidiaries, profitability and the level of debt was collected. The resulting sample consists of 160 Russian non-public firms. The sample includes 80 fraudsters and 80 non-fraudsters operating in 2006-2017. The dependent variable is dichotomous, and it takes the value 1 if the firm is engaged in financial crime, otherwise 0. Employing probit model, it was revealed that the number of companies which belong to CEO of the firm or managed by CEO has significant impact on the likelihood of financial fraud. The results obtained indicate that the more companies are affiliated with the CEO, the higher the likelihood that the company will be involved in financial crime. The forecast accuracy of the model is about is 80%. Thus, the model basing on both relational and financial data gives high level of forecast accuracy.

Keywords: financial fraud, fraud prediction, non-public companies, regression analysis, relational data

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
1965 A General Framework for Measuring the Internal Fraud Risk of an Enterprise Resource Planning System

Authors: Imran Dayan, Ashiqul Khan

Abstract:

Internal corporate fraud, which is fraud carried out by internal stakeholders of a company, affects the well-being of the organisation just like its external counterpart. Even if such an act is carried out for the short-term benefit of a corporation, the act is ultimately harmful to the entity in the long run. Internal fraud is often carried out by relying upon aberrations from usual business processes. Business processes are the lifeblood of a company in modern managerial context. Such processes are developed and fine-tuned over time as a corporation grows through its life stages. Modern corporations have embraced technological innovations into their business processes, and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems being at the heart of such business processes is a testimony to that. Since ERP systems record a huge amount of data in their event logs, the logs are a treasure trove for anyone trying to detect any sort of fraudulent activities hidden within the day-to-day business operations and processes. This research utilises the ERP systems in place within corporations to assess the likelihood of prospective internal fraud through developing a framework for measuring the risks of fraud through Process Mining techniques and hence finds risky designs and loose ends within these business processes. This framework helps not only in identifying existing cases of fraud in the records of the event log, but also signals the overall riskiness of certain business processes, and hence draws attention for carrying out a redesign of such processes to reduce the chance of future internal fraud while improving internal control within the organisation. The research adds value by applying the concepts of Process Mining into the analysis of data from modern day applications of business process records, which is the ERP event logs, and develops a framework that should be useful to internal stakeholders for strengthening internal control as well as provide external auditors with a tool of use in case of suspicion. The research proves its usefulness through a few case studies conducted with respect to big corporations with complex business processes and an ERP in place.

Keywords: enterprise resource planning, fraud risk framework, internal corporate fraud, process mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
1964 Fraud Detection in Credit Cards with Machine Learning

Authors: Anjali Chouksey, Riya Nimje, Jahanvi Saraf

Abstract:

Online transactions have increased dramatically in this new ‘social-distancing’ era. With online transactions, Fraud in online payments has also increased significantly. Frauds are a significant problem in various industries like insurance companies, baking, etc. These frauds include leaking sensitive information related to the credit card, which can be easily misused. Due to the government also pushing online transactions, E-commerce is on a boom. But due to increasing frauds in online payments, these E-commerce industries are suffering a great loss of trust from their customers. These companies are finding credit card fraud to be a big problem. People have started using online payment options and thus are becoming easy targets of credit card fraud. In this research paper, we will be discussing machine learning algorithms. We have used a decision tree, XGBOOST, k-nearest neighbour, logistic-regression, random forest, and SVM on a dataset in which there are transactions done online mode using credit cards. We will test all these algorithms for detecting fraud cases using the confusion matrix, F1 score, and calculating the accuracy score for each model to identify which algorithm can be used in detecting frauds.

Keywords: machine learning, fraud detection, artificial intelligence, decision tree, k nearest neighbour, random forest, XGBOOST, logistic regression, support vector machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
1963 Machine Learning Techniques to Optimize Fraud Detection

Authors: Jennifer Leach, Umashanger Thayasivam

Abstract:

The use of technology has benefited society in more ways than one ever thought possible. Unfortunately, though, as society’s knowledge of technology has advanced, so has its knowledge of ways to use technology to manipulate people. This has led to a simultaneous advancement in the world of fraud. Machine learning techniques can offer a possible solution to help decrease this advancement. This research explores how the use of various machine learning techniques can aid in detecting fraudulent activity across two different types of fraudulent data, and the accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 were recorded for each method. Each machine learning model was also tested across five different training and testing splits in order to discover which testing split and technique would lead to the most optimal results.

Keywords: data science, fraud detection, machine learning, supervised learning

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1962 The Role of the Internal Audit Unit in Detecting and Preventing Fraud at Public Universities in West Java, Indonesia

Authors: Fury Khristianty Fitriyah

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This study aims to identify the extent of the role of the Satuan Pengawas Intern (Internal Audit Unit) in detecting and preventing fraud in public universities in West Java under the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education. The research method applied was a qualitative case study approach, while the unit of analysis for this study is the Internal Audit Unit at each public university. Results of this study indicate that the Internal Audit Unit is able to detect and prevent fraud within a public university environment by means of red flags to mark accounting anomalies. These stem from inaccurate budget planning that prompts inappropriate use of funds, exacerbated by late disbursements of funds, which potentially lead to fictitious transactions, and discrepancies in recording state-owned assets into a state property management system (SIMAK BMN), which, if not conducted properly, potentially causes loss to the state.

Keywords: governance, internal control, fraud, public university

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
1961 O.MG- It’s a Cyber-Enabled Fraud

Authors: Damola O. Lawal, David W. Gresty, Diane E. Gan, Louise Hewitt

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This paper investigates the feasibility of using a programmable USB such as the O.MG Cable to perform a file tampering attack. Here, the O.MG Cable, an apparently harmless mobile device charger, is used in an unauthorized way to alter the content of a file (accounts record-January_Contributions.xlsx). The aim is to determine if a forensics analyst can reliably determine who has altered the target file; the O.MG Cable or the user of the machine. This work highlights some of the traces of the O.MG Cable left behind on the target computer itself, such as the Product ID (PID) and Vendor ID (ID). Also discussed is the O.MG Cable’s behavior during the experiments. We determine if a forensics analyst could identify if any evidence has been left behind by the programmable device on the target file once it has been removed from the computer to establish if the analyst would be able to link the traces left by the O.MG Cable to the file tampering. It was discovered that the forensic analyst might mistake the actions of the O.MG Cable for the computer users. Experiments carried out in this work could further the discussion as to whether an innocent user could be punished for the unauthorized changes made by a programmable device.

Keywords: O.MG cable, programmable USB, file tampering attack, digital evidence credibility, miscarriage of justice, cyber fraud

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
1960 Financial Statement Fraud: The Need for a Paradigm Shift to Forensic Accounting

Authors: Ifedapo Francis Awolowo

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The unrelenting series of embarrassing audit failures should stimulate a paradigm shift in accounting. And in this age of information revolution, there is need for a constant improvement on the products or services one offers to the market in order to be relevant. This study explores the perceptions of external auditors, forensic accountants and accounting academics on whether a paradigm shift to forensic accounting can reduce financial statement frauds. Through Neo-empiricism/inductive analytical approach, findings reveal that a paradigm shift to forensic accounting might be the right step in the right direction in order to increase the chances of fraud prevention and detection in the financial statement. This research has implication on accounting education on the need to incorporate forensic accounting into present day accounting curriculum. Accounting professional bodies, accounting standard setters and accounting firms all have roles to play in incorporating forensic accounting education into accounting curriculum. Particularly, there is need to alter the ISA 240 to make the prevention and detection of frauds the responsibilities of bot those charged with the management and governance of companies and statutory auditors.

Keywords: financial statement fraud, forensic accounting, fraud prevention and detection, auditing, audit expectation gap, corporate governance

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
1959 Profit-Based Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Trained by Migrating Birds Optimization: A Case Study in Credit Card Fraud Detection

Authors: Ashkan Zakaryazad, Ekrem Duman

Abstract:

A typical classification technique ranks the instances in a data set according to the likelihood of belonging to one (positive) class. A credit card (CC) fraud detection model ranks the transactions in terms of probability of being fraud. In fact, this approach is often criticized, because firms do not care about fraud probability but about the profitability or costliness of detecting a fraudulent transaction. The key contribution in this study is to focus on the profit maximization in the model building step. The artificial neural network proposed in this study works based on profit maximization instead of minimizing the error of prediction. Moreover, some studies have shown that the back propagation algorithm, similar to other gradient–based algorithms, usually gets trapped in local optima and swarm-based algorithms are more successful in this respect. In this study, we train our profit maximization ANN using the Migrating Birds optimization (MBO) which is introduced to literature recently.

Keywords: neural network, profit-based neural network, sum of squared errors (SSE), MBO, gradient descent

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
1958 Secure Distance Bounding Protocol on Ultra-WideBand Based Mapping Code

Authors: Jamel Miri, Bechir Nsiri, Ridha Bouallegue

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Ultra WidBand-IR physical layer technology has seen a great development during the last decade which makes it a promising candidate for short range wireless communications, as they bring considerable benefits in terms of connectivity and mobility. However, like all wireless communication they suffer from vulnerabilities in terms of security because of the open nature of the radio channel. To face these attacks, distance bounding protocols are the most popular counter measures. In this paper, we presented a protocol based on distance bounding to thread the most popular attacks: Distance Fraud, Mafia Fraud and Terrorist fraud. In our work, we study the way to adapt the best secure distance bounding protocols to mapping code of ultra-wideband (TH-UWB) radios. Indeed, to ameliorate the performances of the protocol in terms of security communication in TH-UWB, we combine the modified protocol to ultra-wideband impulse radio technology (IR-UWB). The security and the different merits of the protocols are analyzed.

Keywords: distance bounding, mapping code ultrawideband, terrorist fraud, physical layer technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
1957 A Comprehensive Survey on Machine Learning Techniques and User Authentication Approaches for Credit Card Fraud Detection

Authors: Niloofar Yousefi, Marie Alaghband, Ivan Garibay

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With the increase of credit card usage, the volume of credit card misuse also has significantly increased, which may cause appreciable financial losses for both credit card holders and financial organizations issuing credit cards. As a result, financial organizations are working hard on developing and deploying credit card fraud detection methods, in order to adapt to ever-evolving, increasingly sophisticated defrauding strategies and identifying illicit transactions as quickly as possible to protect themselves and their customers. Compounding on the complex nature of such adverse strategies, credit card fraudulent activities are rare events compared to the number of legitimate transactions. Hence, the challenge to develop fraud detection that are accurate and efficient is substantially intensified and, as a consequence, credit card fraud detection has lately become a very active area of research. In this work, we provide a survey of current techniques most relevant to the problem of credit card fraud detection. We carry out our survey in two main parts. In the first part, we focus on studies utilizing classical machine learning models, which mostly employ traditional transnational features to make fraud predictions. These models typically rely on some static physical characteristics, such as what the user knows (knowledge-based method), or what he/she has access to (object-based method). In the second part of our survey, we review more advanced techniques of user authentication, which use behavioral biometrics to identify an individual based on his/her unique behavior while he/she is interacting with his/her electronic devices. These approaches rely on how people behave (instead of what they do), which cannot be easily forged. By providing an overview of current approaches and the results reported in the literature, this survey aims to drive the future research agenda for the community in order to develop more accurate, reliable and scalable models of credit card fraud detection.

Keywords: Credit Card Fraud Detection, User Authentication, Behavioral Biometrics, Machine Learning, Literature Survey

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
1956 Enhanced Automated Teller Machine Using Short Message Service Authentication Verification

Authors: Rasheed Gbenga Jimoh, Akinbowale Nathaniel Babatunde

Abstract:

The use of Automated Teller Machine (ATM) has become an important tool among commercial banks, customers of banks have come to depend on and trust the ATM conveniently meet their banking needs. Although the overwhelming advantages of ATM cannot be over-emphasized, its alarming fraud rate has become a bottleneck in it’s full adoption in Nigeria. This study examined the menace of ATM in the society another cost of running ATM services by banks in the country. The researcher developed a prototype of an enhanced Automated Teller Machine Authentication using Short Message Service (SMS) Verification. The developed prototype was tested by Ten (10) respondents who are users of ATM cards in the country and the data collected was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Based on the results of the analysis, it is being envisaged that the developed prototype will go a long way in reducing the alarming rate of ATM fraud in Nigeria.

Keywords: ATM, ATM fraud, e-banking, prototyping

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
1955 A Qualitative Research of Online Fraud Decision-Making Process

Authors: Semire Yekta

Abstract:

Many online retailers set up manual review teams to overcome the limitations of automated online fraud detection systems. This study critically examines the strategies they adapt in their decision-making process to set apart fraudulent individuals from non-fraudulent online shoppers. The study uses a mix method research approach. 32 in-depth interviews have been conducted alongside with participant observation and auto-ethnography. The study found out that all steps of the decision-making process are significantly affected by a level of subjectivity, personal understandings of online fraud, preferences and judgments and not necessarily by objectively identifiable facts. Rather clearly knowing who the fraudulent individuals are, the team members have to predict whether they think the customer might be a fraudster. Common strategies used are relying on the classification and fraud scorings in the automated fraud detection systems, weighing up arguments for and against the customer and making a decision, using cancellation to test customers’ reaction and making use of personal experiences and “the sixth sense”. The interaction in the team also plays a significant role given that some decisions turn into a group discussion. While customer data represent the basis for the decision-making, fraud management teams frequently make use of Google search and Google Maps to find out additional information about the customer and verify whether the customer is the person they claim to be. While this, on the one hand, raises ethical concerns, on the other hand, Google Street View on the address and area of the customer puts customers living in less privileged housing and areas at a higher risk of being classified as fraudsters. Phone validation is used as a final measurement to make decisions for or against the customer when previous strategies and Google Search do not suffice. However, phone validation is also characterized by individuals’ subjectivity, personal views and judgment on customer’s reaction on the phone that results in a final classification as genuine or fraudulent.

Keywords: online fraud, data mining, manual review, social construction

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
1954 Application All Digits Number Benford Law in Financial Statement

Authors: Teguh Sugiarto

Abstract:

Background: The research aims to explore if there is fraud in a financial statement, use the Act stated that Benford's distribution all digits must compare the number will follow the trend of lower number. Research methods: This research uses all the analysis number being in Benford's law. After receiving the results of the analysis of all the digits, the author makes a distinction between implementation using the scale above and below 5%, the rate of occurrence of difference. With the number which have differences in the range of 5%, then can do the follow-up and the detection of the onset of fraud against the financial statements. The findings: From the research that has been done can be drawn the conclusion that the average of all numbers appear in the financial statements, and compare the rates of occurrence of numbers according to the characteristics of Benford's law. About the existence of errors and fraud in the financial statements of PT medco Energy Tbk did not occur. Conclusions: The study concludes that Benford's law can serve as indicator tool in detecting the possibility of in financial statements to case studies of PT Medco Energy Tbk for the fiscal year 2000-2010.

Keywords: Benford law, first digits, all digits number Benford law, financial statement

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
1953 The Advantages of Using DNA-Barcoding for Determining the Fraud in Seafood

Authors: Elif Tugce Aksun Tumerkan

Abstract:

Although seafood is an important part of human diet and categorized highly traded food industry internationally, it is remain overlooked generally in the global food security aspect. Food product authentication is the main interest in the aim of both avoids commercial fraud and to consider the risks that might be harmful to human health safety. In recent years, with increasing consumer demand for regarding food content and it's transparency, there are some instrumental analyses emerging for determining food fraud depend on some analytical methodologies such as proteomic and metabolomics. While, fish and seafood consumed as fresh previously, within advanced technology, processed or packaged seafood consumption have increased. After processing or packaging seafood, morphological identification is impossible when some of the external features have been removed. The main fish and seafood quality-related issues are the authentications of seafood contents such as mislabelling products which may be contaminated and replacement partly or completely, by lower quality or cheaper ones. For all mentioned reasons, truthful consistent and easily applicable analytical methods are needed for assurance the correct labelling and verifying of seafood products. DNA-barcoding methods become popular robust that used in taxonomic research for endangered or cryptic species in recent years; they are used for determining food traceability also. In this review, when comparing the other proteomic and metabolic analysis, DNA-based methods are allowing a chance to identification all type of food even as raw, spiced and processed products. This privilege caused by DNA is a comparatively stable molecule than protein and other molecules. Furthermore showing variations in sequence based on different species and founding in all organisms, make DNA-based analysis more preferable. This review was performed to clarify the main advantages of using DNA-barcoding for determining seafood fraud among other techniques.

Keywords: DNA-barcoding, genetic analysis, food fraud, mislabelling, packaged seafood

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
1952 Credit Card Fraud Detection with Ensemble Model: A Meta-Heuristic Approach

Authors: Gong Zhilin, Jing Yang, Jian Yin

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to develop a novel system for credit card fraud detection based on sequential modeling of data using hybrid deep learning models. The projected model encapsulates five major phases are pre-processing, imbalance-data handling, feature extraction, optimal feature selection, and fraud detection with an ensemble classifier. The collected raw data (input) is pre-processed to enhance the quality of the data through alleviation of the missing data, noisy data as well as null values. The pre-processed data are class imbalanced in nature, and therefore they are handled effectively with the K-means clustering-based SMOTE model. From the balanced class data, the most relevant features like improved Principal Component Analysis (PCA), statistical features (mean, median, standard deviation) and higher-order statistical features (skewness and kurtosis). Among the extracted features, the most optimal features are selected with the Self-improved Arithmetic Optimization Algorithm (SI-AOA). This SI-AOA model is the conceptual improvement of the standard Arithmetic Optimization Algorithm. The deep learning models like Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), and optimized Quantum Deep Neural Network (QDNN). The LSTM and CNN are trained with the extracted optimal features. The outcomes from LSTM and CNN will enter as input to optimized QDNN that provides the final detection outcome. Since the QDNN is the ultimate detector, its weight function is fine-tuned with the Self-improved Arithmetic Optimization Algorithm (SI-AOA).

Keywords: credit card, data mining, fraud detection, money transactions

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
1951 First Digit Lucas, Fibonacci and Benford Number in Financial Statement

Authors: Teguh Sugiarto, Amir Mohamadian Amiri

Abstract:

Background: This study aims to explore if there is fraud in the company's financial report distribution using the number first digit Lucas, Fibonacci and Benford. Research methods: In this study, the author uses a number model contained in the first digit of the model Lucas, Fibonacci and Benford, to make a distinction between implementation by using the scale above and below 5%, the rate of occurrence of a difference against the digit number contained on Lucas, Fibonacci and Benford. If there is a significant difference above and below 5%, then the process of follow-up and detection of occurrence of fraud against the financial statements can be made. Findings: From research that has been done can be concluded that the number of frequency levels contained in the financial statements of PT Bank BRI Tbk in a year in the same conscientious results for model Lucas, Fibonacci and Benford.

Keywords: Lucas, Fibonacci, Benford, first digit

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
1950 The Application and Applicability of Computer System to Financial Management: A Case Study of College of Education, Oju, Benue State, Nigeria

Authors: Agih Ukuru Agih

Abstract:

This work is an appraisal of the application and applicability of computer system to financial management in improving the speed, performance, accuracy, and efficiency of the College of Education, Oju. The computerization of financial management, which is a recent development that has authentic and dedicated balancing of accounting records, would be of enormous benefits to the college. The core objective of this project is to recommend the software that typically matches a computerized institution, making for improved service, reduced fraud, mishandled funds, and financial records in the College of Education, Oju. Considering major globalization impacts in computerized financial management of the college, the study recommends among other things that the College of Education, Oju should endeavor to be positive towards computerized financial management in the institution.

Keywords: computer system, balancing, accounting records, computerized financial management

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
1949 Fraud in the Higher Educational Institutions in Assam, India: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Kalidas Sarma

Abstract:

Fraud is a social problem changing with social change and it has a regional and global impact. Introduction of private domain in higher education along with public institutions has led to commercialization of higher education which encourages unprecedented mushrooming of private institutions resulting in fraudulent activities in higher educational institutions in Assam, India. Presently, fraud has been noticed in in-service promotion, fake entry qualification by teachers in different levels of work-place by using fake master degrees, master of philosophy and doctor of philosophy degree certificates. The aim and objective of the study are to identify grey areas in maintenance of quality in higher educational institutions in Assam and also to draw the contour for planning and implementation. This study is based on both primary and secondary data collected through questionnaire and seeking information through Right to Information Act 2005. In Assam, there are 301 undergraduate and graduate colleges distributed in 27 (Twenty seven) administrative districts with 11000 (Eleven thousand) college teachers. Total 421 (Four hundred twenty one) college teachers from the 14 respondent colleges have been taken for analysis. Data collected has been analyzed by using 'Hypertext Pre-processor' (PhP) application with My Sequel Structure Query Language (MySQL) and Google Map Application Programming Interface (APIs). Graph has been generated by using open source tool Chart.js. Spatial distribution maps have been generated with the help of geo-references of the colleges. The result shows: (i) the violation of University Grants Commission's (UGCs) Regulation for the awards of M. Phil/Ph.D. clearly exhibits. (ii) There is a gap between apex regulatory bodies of higher education at national and as well as state level to check fraud. (iii) Mala fide 'No Objection Certificate' (NOC) issued by the Government of Assam have played pivotal role in the occurrence of fraudulent practices in higher educational institutions of Assam. (iv) Violation of verdict of the Hon'ble Supreme Court of India regarding territorial jurisdiction of Universities for the awards of Ph.D. and M. Phil degrees in distance mode/study centre is also a responsible factor for the spread of these academic frauds in Assam and other states. The challenges and mitigation of these issues have been discussed.

Keywords: Assam, fraud, higher education, mitigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
1948 Perceived Seriousness of Cybercrime Types: A Comparison across Gender

Authors: Suleman Ibrahim

Abstract:

Purpose: The research is seeking people's perceptions on cybercrime issues, rather than their knowledge of the facts. Unlike the Tripartite Cybercrime Framework (TCF), the binary models are ill-equipped to differentiate between cyber fraud (a socioeconomic crime) and cyber bullying or cyber stalking (psychosocial cybercrimes). Whilst the binary categories suggested that digital crimes are dichotomized: (i.e. cyber-enabled and cyber-dependent), the TCF, recently proposed, argued that cybercrimes can be conceptualized into three groups: socioeconomic, psychosocial and geopolitical. Concomitantly, as regards to the experience/perceptions of cybercrime, the TCF’s claim requires substantiation beyond its theoretical realm. Approach/Methodology: This scholar endeavor framed with the TCF, deploys a survey method to explore the experience of cybercrime across gender. Drawing from over 400 participants in the UK, this study aimed to contrast the differential perceptions/experiences of socioeconomic cybercrime (e.g. cyber fraud) and psychological cybercrime (e.g. cyber bullying and cyber stalking) across gender. Findings: The results revealed that cyber stalking was rated as least serious of the different digital crime categories. Further revealed that female participants judged all types of cybercrimes as more serious than male participants, with the exception of socioeconomic cybercrime – cyber fraud. This distinction helps to emphasize that gender cultures and nuances not only apply both online and offline, it emphasized the utilitarian value of the TCF. Originality: Unlike existing data, this study has contrasted the differential perceptions and experience of socioeconomic and psychosocial cybercrimes with more refined variables.

Keywords: gender variations, psychosocial cybercrime, socioeconomic cybercrime, tripartite cybercrime framework

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
1947 Basics for Corruption Reduction and Fraud Prevention in Industrial/Humanitarian Organizations through Supplier Management in Supply Chain Systems

Authors: Ibrahim Burki

Abstract:

Unfortunately, all organizations (Industrial and Humanitarian/ Non-governmental organizations) are prone to fraud and corruption in their supply chain management routines. The reputational and financial fallout can be disastrous. With the growing number of companies using suppliers based in the local market has certainly increased the threat of fraud as well as corruption. There are various potential threats like, poor or non-existent record keeping, purchasing of lower quality goods at higher price, excessive entertainment of staff by suppliers, deviations in communications between procurement staff and suppliers, such as calls or text messaging to mobile phones, staff demanding extended periods of notice before they allow an audit to take place, inexperienced buyers and more. But despite all the above-mentioned threats, this research paper emphasize upon the effectiveness of well-maintained vendor/s records and sorting/filtration of vendor/s to cut down the possible threats of corruption and fraud. This exercise is applied in a humanitarian organization of Pakistan but it is applicable to whole South Asia region due to the similarity of culture and contexts. In that firm, there were more than 550 (five hundred and fifty) registered vendors. As during the disasters or emergency phases requirements are met on urgent basis thus, providing golden opportunities for the fake companies or for the brother/sister companies of the already registered companies to be involved in the tendering process without declaration or even under some different (new) company’s name. Therefore, a list of required documents (along with checklist) was developed and sent to all of the vendor(s) in the current database and based upon the receipt of the requested documents vendors were sorted out. Furthermore, these vendors were divided into active (meeting the entire set criterion) and non-active groups. This initial filtration stage allowed the firm to continue its work without a complete shutdown that is only vendors falling in the active group shall be allowed to participate in the tenders by the time whole process is completed. Likewise only those companies or firms meeting the set criterion (active category) shall be allowed to get registered in the future along with a dedicated filing system (soft and hard shall be maintained), and all of the companies/firms in the active group shall be physically verified (visited) by the Committee comprising of senior members of at least Finance department, Supply Chain (other than procurement) and Security department.

Keywords: corruption reduction, fraud prevention, supplier management, industrial/humanitarian organizations

Procedia PDF Downloads 475