Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1017

Search results for: wildlife conservation

1017 Evaluation of a Biodiversity and Wildlife Conservation Education Camp in Thailand

Authors: Ms. Patamasuda Intuprapa , Professor Dr. Nancy Longnecker

Abstract:

This research examines the impact of biodiversity and wildlife conservation messages on school children. It was designed to document science communication activities that relate to biodiversity and wildlife conservation in a residential camp held at Research Station X in Thailand. This research is one of the case studies in a PhD research project. The objectives of this research are to examine environmental program and ultimately develop a model of communicating biodiversity and wildlife conservation issues to Thai children. Observations and report of the surveys were used to examine the residential camp at Research Station X. There were 49 children and five camp leaders agreed to participate in this study. The results of the study show that the children enjoyed their stay at the camp and have positive attitudes toward wildlife and environment but not actually related them with their own well-being. The camp leaders were well prepared and enthusiastic on leading the camp but fail in related contents with the activities.

Keywords: informal education, environmental education, wildlife conservation, residential camp, excursion, Thailand

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1016 The Influence of Wildlife Watching Experience on Tourists’ Connection to Wildlife Conservation Caring and Awareness

Authors: Fiffy Hanisdah Saikim, Bruce Prideaux

Abstract:

One of the aims of wildlife tourism is to educate visitors about the threats facing wildlife, in general, and the actions needed to protect the environment and maintain biodiversity. Annually, millions of tourists visit natural areas and zoos primarily to view flagship species such as rhinos and elephants. Venues rely on the inherent charisma of these species to increase visitation and anchor conservation efforts. Expected visitor outcomes from the use of flagships include raised levels of awareness and pro-conservation behaviors. However, the role of flagships in wildlife tourism has been criticized for not delivering conservation benefits for species of interest or biodiversity and producing negative site impacts. Furthermore, little is known about how the connection to a species influences conservation behaviors. This paper addresses this gap in knowledge by extending previous work exploring wildlife tourism to include the emotional connection formed with wildlife species and pro-conservation behaviors for individual species and biodiversity. This paper represents a substantial contribution to the field because (a) it incorporates the role of the experience in understanding how tourists connect with a species and how this connection influences pro-conservation behaviors; and (b) is the first attempt to operationalize Conservation Caring as a measure of tourists’ connection with a species. Existing studies have investigated how specific elements, such as interpretation or species’ morphology may influence programmatic goals or awareness. However, awareness is a poor measure of an emotional connection with an animal. Furthermore, there has not been work done to address the holistic nature of the wildlife viewing experience, and its subsequent influence on behaviors. Results based on the structural equation modelling, support the validity of Conservation Caring as a factor; the ability of wildlife tourism to influence Conservation Caring; and that this connection is a strong predictor of conservation awareness behaviors. These findings suggest wildlife tourism can deliver conservation outcomes. The studies in this paper also provide a valuable framework for structuring wildlife tourism experiences to align with flagship related conservation outcomes, and exploring a wider assemblage of species as potential flagships.

Keywords: wildlife tourism, conservation caring, conservation awareness, structural equation modelling

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1015 Snow Leopard Conservation in Nepal: Peoples` Perception on the Verge of Rural Livelihood

Authors: Bishnu Prasad Devkota

Abstract:

Peoples` perception is reflected in their attitudes and presumably their behavior towards wildlife conservation. The success of wildlife conservation initiatives in the mountains of Nepal is heavily dependent on local people. Therefore, Nepal has emphasized the involvement of local people in wildlife conservation, especially in the mountainous region. Local peoples` perception towards snow leopard conservation in six mountainous protected area of Nepal was carried out conducting 300 household surveys and 90 face to face key informant interviews. The average livestock holding was 27.74 animals per household with depredation rate of 10.6 % per household per annum. Livestock was the source of 32.74% of the total mean annual income of each household. In average, the economic loss per household per annum due to livestock depredation was US $ 490. There was significant difference in people´s perception towards snow leopard conservation in protected areas of mountainous region of Nepal. These differences were due to economic, educational and cultural factors. 54.4% local people showed preference for snow leopard conservation. The perception of local people toward snow leopard was significantly difference by the economic status of local people. Involvement of local people in conservation activities had positive impact towards wildlife conservation in the mountain region of Nepal. Timely introducing incentive programs can be a supportive way for sustaining the conservation of snow leopards in the Nepalese Himalayas.

Keywords: economic loss, livestock depredation, local people, perception, snow leopard

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1014 National Strategy for Swedish Wildlife Management

Authors: Maria Hornell, Marcus Ohman

Abstract:

Nature, and the society it is a part of, is under constant change. The landscape, climate and game populations vary over time, as well as society's priorities and the way it uses the land where wildlife may proliferate. Sweden currently has historically large wildlife populations which are a resource for the benefit and joy of many people. Wildlife may also be seen as a problem as it may cause damage in contradiction to other human interests. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency introduces a new long-term strategy for national wildlife management. The strategy envisions a wildlife management in balance. It focuses on wildlife values in a broad sense including outdoor recreation and tourism as well as conservation of biodiversity. It is fundamental that these values should be open and accessible for the major part of the population. For that to be possible new ways to manage, mitigate and prevent damages and other problems that wildlife causes need to be developed. The strategy describes a roadmap for the development and strengthening of Sweden's wildlife management until 2020. It aims at being applicable for those authorities and stakeholders with interest in wildlife management being a guide for their own strategies, goals, and activities.

Keywords: wildlife management, strategy, Sweden, SEPA

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1013 A Preliminary Study on Factors Determining the Success of High Conservation Value Area in Oil Palm Plantations

Authors: Yanto Santosa, Rozza Tri Kwatrina

Abstract:

High Conservation Value (HCV) is an area with conservation function within oil palm plantation. Despite the important role of HCV area in biodiversity conservation and various studies on HCV, there was a lack of research studying the factors determining its success. A preliminary study was conducted to identify the determinant factor of HCV that affected the diversity. Line transect method was used to calculate the species diversity of butterfly, birds, mammals, and herpetofauna species as well as their richness. Specifically for mammals, camera traps were also used. The research sites comprised of 12 HCV areas in 3 provinces of Indonesia (Central Kalimantan, Riau, and Palembang). The relationship between the HCV biophysical factor with the species number and species diversity for each wildlife class was identified using Chi-Square analysis with Cross tab (contingency table). Results of the study revealed that species diversity varied by research locations. Four factors determining the success of HCV area in relations to the number and diversity of wildlife species are land cover types for mammals, the width of area and distance to rivers for birds, and distance to settlements for butterflies.

Keywords: wildlife diversity, oil palm plantation, high conservation value area, ecological factors

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1012 Community Perceptions and Attitudes Regarding Wildlife Crime in South Africa

Authors: Louiza C. Duncker, Duarte Gonçalves

Abstract:

Wildlife crime is a complex problem with many interconnected facets, which are generally responded to in parts or fragments in efforts to “break down” the complexity into manageable components. However, fragmentation increases complexity as coherence and cooperation become diluted. A whole-of-society approach has been developed towards finding a common goal and integrated approach to preventing wildlife crime. As part of this development, research was conducted in rural communities adjacent to conservation areas in South Africa to define and comprehend the challenges faced by them, and to understand their perceptions of wildlife crime. The results of the research showed that the perceptions of community members varied - most were in favor of conservation and of protecting rhinos, only if they derive adequate benefit from it. Regardless of gender, income level, education level, or access to services, conservation was perceived to be good and bad by the same people. Even though people in the communities are poor, a willingness to stop rhino poaching does exist amongst them, but their perception of parks not caring about people triggered an attitude of not being willing to stop, prevent or report poaching. Understanding the nuances, the history, the interests and values of community members, and the drivers behind poaching mind-sets (intrinsic or driven by transnational organized crime) is imperative to create sustainable and resilient communities on multiple levels that make a substantial positive impact on people’s lives, but also conserve wildlife for posterity.

Keywords: community perceptions, conservation, rhino poaching, whole-of-society approach, wildlife crime

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1011 Plural Perspectives in Conservation Conflicts: The Role of Iconic Species

Authors: Jean Hugé, Francisco Benitez-Capistros, Giorgia Camperio-Ciani

Abstract:

Addressing conservation conflicts requires the consideration of multiple stakeholders' perspectives and knowledge claims, in order to inform complex and possibly contentious decision-making dilemmas. Hence, a better understanding of why people in particular contexts act in a particular way in a conservation conflict is needed. First, this contribution aims at providing and applying an approach to map and interpret the diversity of subjective viewpoints with regard to iconic species in conservation conflicts. Secondly, this contribution aims to feed the reflection on the possible consequences of the diversity of perspectives for the future management of wildlife (in particular iconic species), based on case studies in Galapagos and Malaysia. The use of the semi-quantitative Q methodology allowed us to identify various perspectives on conservation in different social-ecological contexts. While the presence of iconic species may lead to a more passionate and emotional debate, it may also provide more opportunities for finding common ground and for jointly developing acceptable management solutions that will depolarize emergent, long-lasting or latent conservation conflicts. Based on the research team’s experience in the field, and on the integration of ecological and social knowledge, methodological and management recommendations are made with regard to conservation conflicts involving iconic wildlife. The mere presence of iconic wildlife does not guarantee its centrality in conservation conflicts, and comparisons will be drawn between the cases of the giant tortoises (Chelonoidis spec.) in Galapagos, Ecuador and the Milky Stork (Mycteria cinerea) in western peninsular Malaysia. Acknowledging the diversity of viewpoints, reflecting how different stakeholders see, act and talk about wildlife management, highlights the need to develop pro-active and resilient strategies to deal with these issues.

Keywords: conservation conflicts, Q methodology, Galapagos, Malaysia, giant tortoise, milky stork

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1010 Professional Management on Ecotourism and Conservation to Ensure the Future of Komodo National Park

Authors: Daningsih Sulaeman, Achmad Sjarmidi, Djoko T. Iskandar

Abstract:

Komodo National Park can be associated with the implementation of ecotourism program. The result of Principal Components Analysis is synthesized, tested, and compared to the basic concept of ecotourism with some field adjustments. Principal aspects of professional management should involve ecotourism and wildlife welfare. The awareness should be focused on the future of the Natural Park as 7th Wonder Natural Heritage and its wildlife components, free from human wastes and beneficial to wildlife and local people. According to perceptions and expectations of visitors from various results of tourism programs, the visitor’s perceptions showed that the tourism management in Komodo National Park should pay more attention to visitor's satisfaction and expectation and gives positive impact directly to the ecosystem sustainability, local community and transparency to the conservation program.

Keywords: 7th wonders of nature, ecotourism, Komodo dragon, visitor’s perceptions, wildlife management

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1009 Forensic Necropsy-Importance in Wildlife Conservation

Authors: G. V. Sai Soumya, Kalpesh Solanki, Sumit K. Choudhary

Abstract:

Necropsy is another term used for an autopsy, which is known as death examination in the case of animals. It is a complete standardized procedure involving dissection, observation, interpretation, and documentation. Government Bodies like National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) have given standard operating procedures for commencing the necropsies. Necropsies are rarely performed as compared to autopsies performed on human bodies. There are no databases which maintain the count of autopsies in wildlife, but the research in this area has shown a very small number of necropsies. Long back, wildlife forensics came into existence but is coming into light nowadays as there is an increase in wildlife crime cases, including the smuggling of trophies, pooching, and many more. Physical examination in cases of animals is not sufficient to yield fruitful information, and thus postmortem examination plays an important role. Postmortem examination helps in the determination of time since death, cause of death, manner of death, factors affecting the case under investigation, and thus decreases the amount of time required in solving cases. Increasing the rate of necropsies will help forensic veterinary pathologists to build standardized provision and confidence within them, which will ultimately yield a higher success rate in solving wildlife crime cases.

Keywords: necropsy, wildlife crime, postmortem examination, forensic application

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1008 Determining the Functionality of Urban Wildlife with Large Megafauna: A Case Study from Chobe District, Northern Botswana

Authors: Tempe S. F. Adams, Michael J. Chase, Tracey L. Rogers, Keith E. A. Leggett

Abstract:

Transfrontier wildlife corridors can be successful conservation tools, connecting protected areas and reducing the impact of habitat fragmentation on mobile species. Urban wildlife corridors have been proposed as a potential mitigation tool to facilitate the passage of elephants through towns without causing conflict with urban communities. However, because such corridors are typically narrow and close to human development, wildlife (particularly large mammals) may be less likely to use them. We used remote-sensor camera traps and global positioning system collars to identify the movement patterns of African elephants Loxondonta africana through narrow, urban corridors in Botswana. The corridors were in three types of human-dominated land-use designations with varying levels of human activity: agricultural, industrial and open space recreational land. We found that elephants used the corridors within all three land-use designations and we identified, using a model selection approach, that season, time of day and rainfall were important factors in determining the presence of elephants in the corridors. Elephants moved more slowly through the narrow corridors compared with their movement patterns through broader, wide-ranging corridors. Our results indicate that urban wildlife corridors are useful for facilitating elephants to pass through urban areas.

Keywords: camera traps, conservation, human-elephant coexistence, land management, urban wildlife corridors

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1007 Ecotourism and Orangutan Conservation in City Landscape: The Case of Semenggoh Wildlife Centre

Authors: N. E. F. Jaddil, S. Silang, J. H. Chong

Abstract:

Semenggoh Wildlife Centre (SWC) begins its journey as an important orangutan rehabilitation centre in Sarawak. Strategically located about 25 km from Kuching, the capital city of Malaysian Sarawak in Borneo Island. This paper sought to access the progression of Semenggoh Wildlife Centre from a rehabilitation into one of the top ecotourism destination in Kuching. The existing semi-wild orangutans (attraction)-ecotourism interaction in city landscape setting is evaluated. With the ever-increasing demand of ecotourism activity in SWC, this study is intended to explore and understand the current status of ecotourism activity in SWC by analysing visitors, and economic statistic, issues and challenges and strategically propose way-forward to enhance the sustainability of ecotourism in SWC.

Keywords: ecotourism, orangutan, Semenggoh, urban wildlife park

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1006 Case Study on Socio-Economic Impacts of Sustainable Trophy Hunting Programme on Local Community of Sassi-Haramosh Conservancy, Gilgit District, Pakistan

Authors: Hassan Abbas, Rehmat Ali, Muhammad Akbar

Abstract:

This study has been conducted in Sassi-Haramosh conservancy District Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan of Pakistan, under the Conservation Leadership Programme of Fauna and Flora International. The main objectives of the study were to assess the socio-economic impact of community-based conservation in Sassi-Haramosh conservancy and identify effects of trophy hunting on the conservation of wildlife in the area. The first trophy hunting program of Astor Markhor was held in year February 21, 2015, and the second on February 21, 2016. The community received a share of 49200 USD and 52400 USD from the first and second hunting, and the total earning was 101600 USD which are Rs. 10,871,200 in Pak Rs. The amounts from the trophy hunting are being managed by the Wildlife Conservation and Social Development Organization (WCSDO) Sassi. The village-based organization WCSDO is spending 50% of the trophy hunting amount in the protection of wildlife, its habitat and other natural resources, 30% in developmental sectors of the village and 20% of the amount in the office expenses. Several developmental projects, like construction of 300 KVA hydropower stations, purchase of 8 acres of land for agriculture, potable water supply project, construction of treks, and other social welfare activities have been carried in the village utilizing the trophy hunting grant. These developmental activities have uplifted the socio-economic conditions of the conservancy. Furthermore, trophy hunting program has positive impacts on the wildlife in the area, as the population of Markhor and Ibex has been increased, results in increasing number of other carnivores in the area. The WCSDO has banned any illegal activities in the habitat of wildlife and grazing of livestock in the core habitats. The program raised the level of awareness in communities and reduced poaching, illegal hunting, cutting of shrubs and extraction of Artemisia species from the pastures.

Keywords: Markhor, trophy hunting, Sassi-Haramosh, Gilgit

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1005 Strategies for a Sustainable Future of Forest and Tribal Peoples on This Planet

Authors: Dharmpal Singh

Abstract:

The objective of this proposed project is to relocation and resettlement of carnivores tribal communities who are currently residing in the protected forest land in all over the world just like resettlement project of the carnivores tribal families of Mongia who at past were residing in Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve (RTR) and had caused excess damage of endangered species of wildlife including Tigers. At present several tribal communities are residing in the another national parks and they not only consuming the wild animals but also involved in illegal trading of vital organs, skin and bones with National and international traders. Tribal are ideally suited for the job because they are highly skilled game trackers and due to having had a definite source of income over the years, they easily drawn in to the illegal wildlife trade and slaughter of wild animals. Their income is increasing but wild animals are on the brink of extinction. For the conservation of flora and fauna the rehabilitation process should be thought out according to the RTR project (which not only totally change the quality of life of mongia tribal community but also increased the conopy cover of forest and grass due to reduced the biotic pressure on protected land of forest in Rajasthan state) with appropriate understanding of the sociology of the people involved, their culture, education standard and the need of different skills to be acquired by them for sustenance such as agriculture, dairy, poultry, social forestry, job as forest guard and others eco-development programmes. Perhaps, the dimensions presented by me may generate discussion among the international wild life lovers and conservationists and remedies may be result oriented in the field of management of forest and conservation of wildlife on this planet.

Keywords: strategies, rehablety of tribals, conservation of forest, eco-development Programmes, wildlife

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1004 Bamboo as the Frontier for Economically Sustainable Solution to Flood Control and Human Wildlife Conflict

Authors: Nirman Kumar Ojha

Abstract:

Bamboo plantation can be integrated for natural embankment against flood and live fencing against wild animals, at the same time provide economic opportunity for the poor farmers as a sustainable solution and adaptation alternative. 2010 flood in the Rui River completely inundated fields of four VDCs in Madi, Chitwan National Park with extensive bank erosion. The main aim of this action research was to identify an economically sustainable natural embankment against flood and also providing wildlife friendly fencing to reduce human-wildlife conflict. Community people especially poor farmers were trained for soil testing, land identification, plantation, and the harvesting regime, nursery set up and intercropping along with bamboo plantation on the edge of the river bank in order to reduce or minimize soil erosion. Results show that farmers are able to establish cost efficient and economically sustainable river embankment with bamboo plantation also creating a fence for wildlife which has also promoted bamboo cultivation and conservation. This action research has amalgamated flood control and wildlife control with the livelihood of the farmers which otherwise would cost huge resource. Another major impact of the bamboo plantation is its role in climate change and its adaptation process reducing degradation and improving vegetation cover contributing to landscape management. Based on this study, we conclude that bamboo plantation in Madi, Chitwan promoted the livelihood of the poor farmers providing a sustainable economic solution to reduce bank erosion, human-wildlife conflict and contributes to landscape management.

Keywords: climate change and conservation, economic opportunity, flood control, national park

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1003 A Flexible Bayesian State-Space Modelling for Population Dynamics of Wildlife and Livestock Populations

Authors: Sabyasachi Mukhopadhyay, Joseph Ogutu, Hans-Peter Piepho

Abstract:

We aim to model dynamics of wildlife or pastoral livestock population for understanding of their population change and hence for wildlife conservation and promoting human welfare. The study is motivated by an age-sex structured population counts in different regions of Serengeti-Mara during the period 1989-2003. Developing reliable and realistic models for population dynamics of large herbivore population can be a very complex and challenging exercise. However, the Bayesian statistical domain offers some flexible computational methods that enable the development and efficient implementation of complex population dynamics models. In this work, we have used a novel Bayesian state-space model to analyse the dynamics of topi and hartebeest populations in the Serengeti-Mara Ecosystem of East Africa. The state-space model involves survival probabilities of the animals which further depend on various factors like monthly rainfall, size of habitat, etc. that cause recent declines in numbers of the herbivore populations and potentially threaten their future population viability in the ecosystem. Our study shows that seasonal rainfall is the most important factors shaping the population size of animals and indicates the age-class which most severely affected by any change in weather conditions.

Keywords: bayesian state-space model, Markov Chain Monte Carlo, population dynamics, conservation

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1002 New Challenges to the Conservation and Management of the Endangered Persian Follow Deer (Dama dama mesopotamica) in Ashk Island of Lake Uromiyeh National Park, Iran

Authors: Morteza Naderi

Abstract:

The Persian fallow deer was considered as a globally extinct species until 1956 when a small population was rediscovered from Dez Wildlife Refuge and Karkheh Wildlife Refuge in southwestern parts of Iran. After long species rehabilitation process, the species was transplanted to Dasht-e-Naz Wildlife Refuge in northern Iran, and from where, follow deer was introduced to the different selected habitats such as Ashk Island in Lake Uromiyeh National Park. During 12 years, (from 1978 to 1989) 58 individuals (25 males and 33 females) were transferred to Ask Island. The main threat to the established population was related to the freshwater shortage and existing just one single trough such as high mortality rate of adult males during rutting season, snake biting and dilutional hyponatremia. Desiccation of Lake Uromiyeh in recent years raised new challenges to the conservation process, as about 80 individuals, nearly one third of the population were died in 2011. Connection of Island to the mainland caused predators’ accessibility (such as wolf and Jackal) to the Ask Island and higher mortality because of follow deer attraction to the surrounding mainland farms. Conservation team faced such new challenges that may cause introduction plan to be probably failed. Investigations about habitat affinities and carrying capacity are the main basic researches in the management and conservation of the species. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of the different fresh water resources as well as Allium akaka and Pistacia atlantica are the main environmental variables affect Follow deer habitat selection. Habitat carrying capacity analysis both in summer and winter seasons indicated that Ashk Island can support 240±30 of Persian follow deer.

Keywords: carrying capacity, follow deer, lake Uromiyeh, microhabitat affinities, population oscillation, predation, sex ratio

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1001 Assessment of Population Trends of Birds at Taunsa Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary, Pakistan

Authors: Fehmeada Bibi, Shafqat Nawaz Qaisrani, Masood Akhtar, Zulfiqar Ali

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Population trends learning is an important tool for conservation programs in rare as well as in common species of birds. A study was conducted to assess annual decline in species of birds and to identify the causes of this decline at Taunsa Barrage wildlife Sanctuary, Punjab, Pakistan. Data were collected by direct census method during wintering and breeding periods (2001 to 2002 and 2008 to 2011). The results indicated an increasing trend in 157, whereas a decreasing trend in 14 species of birds. Among the species with declining trend, there was a 92% decrease in White-backed Vulture (Gyps bengalensis), 60% in Greater Painted Snipe (Rostratula benghalensis), 57% in Garganey (Anas querquedula), Pallas’s Fish Eagle and Long-legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus) 50% each, 41% in Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea), 39% in Little Cormorant (Phalacrocorax niger), 37% in Gadwall (Anas strepera), 33% in Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus), 30% in Black Drongo (Dicrurus macrocercus) and 26% in Red-crested Pochard (Netta rufina) population. Habitat exploitation, hunting and grazing were found the main causes of this decline. In conclusion, conservation and management of the study area is foremost to interests of declining bird population. It is suggested, therefore, to take immediate steps for the protection of the sanctuary to conserve the declining population of birds.

Keywords: population trends, wildlife sanctuary, bird, habitat exploitation

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1000 The Political Economy of Conservation at Bhitarkanika Wild Life Sanctuary, India: Conflicts, Sustainability, and Development

Authors: Diptimayee Nayak, V. Upadhyay

Abstract:

This paper posits the attempt of conservation and the idea of protected areas from the Marxian primitive accumulation to the politics of sustainability. Using field survey data and secondary literature, this paper analyses an Indian wildlife sanctuary, the Bhitarkanika, Odisha and finds how the hegemony of power among different management regimes attempted for conservation and the present protected area management regime attempted to imbibe the policy of ecotourism for achieving sustainability. The paper contends that the current policy of ecotourism in protected areas acts as a veil for the local deprived people, to avoid many legal conflicts like property rights, livelihood, and man-wildlife issues. Moreover, opening the scope to accumulate on the part of tour operators, the policy of ecotourism establishes a nexus between the profit holders/tour operators (the capitalists) and the power hegemony on the part of management authorities. The sustainability attempt of ecotourism may lead to private benefits maximising the profit accumulation and can expand and continue, showing the bulk of employment generation of local people at petty odd jobs, grabbing a lion share! Positing ecotourism as a capitalist project as against the general assumption of one of the drivers of sustainable development, the paper shows that ecotourism in practice may end up ruining the very social-environmental set up, leading to unsustainability related to waste management, equality, culture, relationship and above all polarised private accumulators in absence of sound mechanism. The paper ends with the caveat that while shopping for neoliberal conservation, the conservators found ecotourism as a product without finalising the hallmark of mechanism/ institutions with appropriate modus operandii to check/guard the quality assurance/standard of ecotourism for sustainability. The paper proposes sound structural and institutional mechanism of ecotourism to be developed to harness sustainability in the local economy as well as in conservation.

Keywords: conservation, ecotourism, Marxian capitalism, protected areas, sustainability

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999 Using Hierarchical Modelling to Understand the Role of Plantations in the Abundance of Koalas, Phascolarctos cinereus

Authors: Kita R. Ashman, Anthony R. Rendall, Matthew R. E. Symonds, Desley A. Whisson

Abstract:

Forest cover is decreasing globally, chiefly due to the conversion of forest to agricultural landscapes. In contrast, the area under plantation forestry is increasing significantly. For wildlife occupying landscapes where native forest is the dominant land cover, plantations generally represent a lower value habitat; however, plantations established on land formerly used for pasture may benefit wildlife by providing temporary forest habitat and increasing connectivity. This study investigates the influence of landscape, site, and climatic factors on koala population density in far south-west Victoria where there has been extensive plantation establishment. We conducted koala surveys and habitat characteristic assessments at 72 sites across three habitat types: plantation, native vegetation blocks, and native vegetation strips. We employed a hierarchical modeling framework for estimating abundance and constructed candidate multinomial N-mixture models to identify factors influencing the abundance of koalas. We detected higher mean koala density in plantation sites (0.85 per ha) than in either native block (0.68 per ha) or native strip sites (0.66 per ha). We found five covariates of koala density and using these variables, we spatially modeled koala abundance and discuss factors that are key in determining large-scale distribution and density of koala populations. We provide a distribution map that can be used to identify high priority areas for population management as well as the habitat of high conservation significance for koalas. This information facilitates the linkage of ecological theory with the on-ground implementation of management actions and may guide conservation planning and resource management actions to consider overall landscape configuration as well as the spatial arrangement of plantations adjacent to the remnant forest.

Keywords: abundance modelling, arboreal mammals plantations, wildlife conservation

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998 Orchids of Coastal Karnataka, India: Diversity, Trends in Population, Threats and Conservation Strategies

Authors: Sankaran Potti Narasimhan

Abstract:

Costal Karnataka is sandwiched between Arabian Sea and the biodiversity hotspot of Western Ghats. This has provided a rich vegetation, canopy and humidity for the sustainable growth and evolution of many orchid populations. Similar to many other biodiversity hostpot regions of India and the world, this region also faces threat from anthropogenic activities and climate change. Hence, there is a need to study the current orchid diversity and trends in population as well as an effective conservation strategy. Costal belt of Karnataka state of India extends over 325 kilometers and an area of 18,000 km2. The region encompasses two national parks such as the Anshi National Park and the Kudremukh National Park. The study regions also include two Wild Life Sanctuaries such as the Someshwara Wildlife Sanctuary and Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary. The estimated number of orchids in the region includes 30 genera and 45 species. Both terrestrial and epiphytic orchids are found in this region. The region contains many red listed orchids such as Trias stocksii (Critically endangered), Eriad alzellii (Lower risk vulnerable) and Dendrobnium ovatum (Vulnerable). The important terrestrial orchids of the region are Geodorum, Habenaria, Lipparis, Malaxis, Nervilia, Pachystoma, Pectelis, Peristylus, Tropidia and Zeuxine. The epiphytic forms includes Acampe, Aerides, Bulbophyllum, Cleisostoma, Conchidum, Cottonia, Cymbidium, Dendronium, Eria, Flickingeria, Gastrochilus, Kingidium, Luisia, Oberonia, Phalaenopsis, Pholidota, Porpax, Rhynchostylis, Sirhookera and Trias. The current paper discusses the population strength and changes in the population structure of these orchids along with proposed conservation strategies.

Keywords: orchid diversity, bulbophyllum, dendrobium, orchid conservation

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997 Towards Conservation and Recovery of Species at Risk in Ontario: Progress on Recovery Planning and Implementation and an Overview of Key Research Needs

Authors: Rachel deCatanzaro, Madeline Austen, Ken Tuininga, Kathy St. Laurent, Christina Rohe

Abstract:

In Canada, the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA) provides protection for wildlife species at risk and a national legislative framework for the conservation or recovery of species that are listed as endangered, threatened, or special concern under Schedule 1 of SARA. Key aspects of the federal species at risk program include the development of recovery documents (recovery strategies, action plans, and management plans) outlining threats, objectives, and broad strategies or measures for conservation or recovery of the species; the identification and protection of critical habitat for threatened and endangered species; and working with groups and organizations to implement on-the-ground recovery actions. Environment Canada’s progress on the development of recovery documents and on the identification and protection of critical habitat in Ontario will be presented, along with successes and challenges associated with on-the ground implementation of recovery actions. In Ontario, Environment Canada is currently involved in several recovery and monitoring programs for at-risk bird species such as the Loggerhead Shrike, Piping Plover, Golden-winged Warbler and Cerulean Warbler and has provided funding for a wide variety of recovery actions targeting priority species at risk and geographic areas each year through stewardship programs including the Habitat Stewardship Program, Aboriginal Fund for Species at Risk, and the Interdepartmental Recovery Fund. Key research needs relevant to the recovery of species at risk have been identified, and include: surveys and monitoring of population sizes and threats, population viability analyses, and addressing knowledge gaps identified for individual species (e.g., species biology and habitat needs). The engagement of all levels of government, the local and international conservation communities, and the scientific research community plays an important role in the conservation and recovery of species at risk in Ontario– through surveying and monitoring, filling knowledge gaps, conducting public outreach, and restoring, protecting, or managing habitat – and will be critical to the continued success of the federal species at risk program.

Keywords: conservation biology, habitat protection, species at risk, wildlife recovery

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996 Road Kills of Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) in the Lithuania, 2014-2020

Authors: Lina Galinskaitė

Abstract:

Animal-vehicle collisions (AVC’s) affect human safety, cause property damage end wildlife welfare. The number of AVC’s is increasing and creating serious implications for conservation and management. In Lithuania, the roe deer (Capreoluscapreolus) is one the main wildlife animals frequently ending up as road kill. The study analyses the data from police reports on vehicle collisions with animals by date and time and animal species over a8-year period (2014–2020). These data were analyses to determine the temporal dynamics of vehicle collisions with animals. In Lithuania, in period of 2014–2020, collision with wildlife was registered more than 23395times, more than67,7 % of it occur with roe deer. Roe deer are most commonly involved in vehicle collisions, followed by moose (6,3), wild boar (3,8), red deer (1,7). Since vehicle collisions with animals showed temporal variation, these should be taken into consideration in developing statistical models of spatial WVC patterns and also in planning strategies to reduce accident risk.

Keywords: animal-vehicle collisions, roe deer, statistic analysis, lithuania

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995 Conservation Detection Dogs to Protect Europe's Native Biodiversity from Invasive Species

Authors: Helga Heylen

Abstract:

With dogs saving wildlife in New Zealand since 1890 and governments in Africa, Australia and Canada trusting them to give the best results, Conservation Dogs Ireland want to introduce more detection dogs to protect Europe's native wildlife. Conservation detection dogs are fast, portable and endlessly trainable. They are a cost-effective, highly sensitive and non-invasive way to detect protected and invasive species and wildlife disease. Conservation dogs find targets up to 40 times faster than any other method. They give results instantly, with near-perfect accuracy. They can search for multiple targets simultaneously, with no reduction in efficacy The European Red List indicates the decline in biodiversity has been most rapid in the past 50 years, and the risk of extinction never higher. Just two examples of major threats dogs are trained to tackle are: (I)Japanese Knotweed (Fallopia Japonica), not only a serious threat to ecosystems, crops, structures like bridges and roads - it can wipe out the entire value of a house. The property industry and homeowners are only just waking up to the full extent of the nightmare. When those working in construction on the roads move topsoil with a trace of Japanese Knotweed, it suffices to start a new colony. Japanese Knotweed grows up to 7cm a day. It can stay dormant and resprout after 20 years. In the UK, the cost of removing Japanese Knotweed from the London Olympic site in 2012 was around £70m (€83m). UK banks already no longer lend on a house that has Japanese Knotweed on-site. Legally, landowners are now obliged to excavate Japanese Knotweed and have it removed to a landfill. More and more, we see Japanese Knotweed grow where a new house has been constructed, and topsoil has been brought in. Conservation dogs are trained to detect small fragments of any part of the plant on sites and in topsoil. (II)Zebra mussels (Dreissena Polymorpha) are a threat to many waterways in the world. They colonize rivers, canals, docks, lakes, reservoirs, water pipes and cooling systems. They live up to 3 years and will release up to one million eggs each year. Zebra mussels attach to surfaces like rocks, anchors, boat hulls, intake pipes and boat engines. They cause changes in nutrient cycles, reduction of plankton and increased plant growth around lake edges, leading to the decline of Europe's native mussel and fish populations. There is no solution, only costly measures to keep it at bay. With many interconnected networks of waterways, they have spread uncontrollably. Conservation detection dogs detect the Zebra mussel from its early larvae stage, which is still invisible to the human eye. Detection dogs are more thorough and cost-effective than any other conservation method, and will greatly complement and speed up the work of biologists, surveyors, developers, ecologists and researchers.

Keywords: native biodiversity, conservation detection dogs, invasive species, Japanese Knotweed, zebra mussel

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994 Challenges, Responses and Governance in the Conservation of Forest and Wildlife: The Case of the Aravali Ranges, Delhi NCR

Authors: Shashi Mehta, Krishan Kumar Yadav

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of issues pertaining to the conservation of the natural environment and factors affecting the coexistence of the forest, wildlife and people. As forests and wildlife together create the basis for economic, cultural and recreational spaces for overall well-being and life-support systems, the adverse impacts of increasing consumerism are only too evident. The IUCN predicts extinction of 41% of all amphibians and 26% of mammals. The major causes behind this threatened extinction are Deforestation, Dysfunctional governance, Climate Change, Pollution and Cataclysmic phenomena. Thus the intrinsic relationship between natural resources and wildlife needs to be understood in totality, not only for the eco-system but for humanity at large. To demonstrate this, forest areas in the Aravalis- the oldest mountain ranges of Asia—falling in the States of Haryana and Rajasthan, have been taken up for study. The Aravalis are characterized by extreme climatic conditions and dry deciduous forest cover on intermittent scattered hills. Extending across the districts of Gurgaon, Faridabad, Mewat, Mahendergarh, Rewari and Bhiwani, these ranges - with village common land on which the entire economy of the rural settlements depends - fall in the state of Haryana. Aravali ranges with diverse fauna and flora near Alwar town of state of Rajasthan also form part of NCR. Once, rich in biodiversity, the Aravalis played an important role in the sustainable co-existence of forest and people. However, with the advent of industrialization and unregulated urbanization, these ranges are facing deforestation, degradation and denudation. The causes are twofold, i.e. the need of the poor and the greed of the rich. People living in and around the Aravalis are mainly poor and eke out a living by rearing live-stock. With shrinking commons, they depend entirely upon these hills for grazing, fuel, NTFP, medicinal plants and even drinking water. But at the same time, the pressure of indiscriminate urbanization and industrialization in these hills fulfils the demands of the rich and powerful in collusion with Government agencies. The functionaries of federal and State Governments play largely a negative role supporting commercial interests. Additionally, planting of a non- indigenous species like prosopis juliflora across the ranges has resulted in the extinction of almost all the indigenous species. The wildlife in the area is also threatened because of the lack of safe corridors and suitable habitat. In this scenario, the participatory role of different stakeholders such as NGOs, civil society and local community in the management of forests becomes crucial not only for conservation but also for the economic wellbeing of the local people. Exclusion of villagers from protection and conservation efforts - be it designing, implementing or monitoring and evaluating could prove counterproductive. A strategy needs to be evolved, wherein Government agencies be made responsible by putting relevant legislation in place along with nurturing and promoting the traditional wisdom and ethics of local communities in the protection and conservation of forests and wild life in the Aravali ranges of States of Haryana and Rajasthan of the National Capital Region, Delhi.

Keywords: deforestation, ecosystem, governance, urbanization

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993 A Multi-Objective Decision Making Model for Biodiversity Conservation and Planning: Exploring the Concept of Interdependency

Authors: M. Mohan, J. P. Roise, G. P. Catts

Abstract:

Despite living in an era where conservation zones are de-facto the central element in any sustainable wildlife management strategy, we still find ourselves grappling with several pareto-optimal situations regarding resource allocation and area distribution for the same. In this paper, a multi-objective decision making (MODM) model is presented to answer the question of whether or not we can establish mutual relationships between these contradicting objectives. For our study, we considered a Red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) habitat conservation scenario in the coastal plain of North Carolina, USA. Red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW) is a non-migratory territorial bird that excavates cavities in living pine trees for roosting and nesting. The RCW groups nest in an aggregation of cavity trees called ‘cluster’ and for our model we use the number of clusters to be established as a measure of evaluating the size of conservation zone required. The case study is formulated as a linear programming problem and the objective function optimises the Red-cockaded woodpecker clusters, carbon retention rate, biofuel, public safety and Net Present Value (NPV) of the forest. We studied the variation of individual objectives with respect to the amount of area available and plotted a two dimensional dynamic graph after establishing interrelations between the objectives. We further explore the concept of interdependency by integrating the MODM model with GIS, and derive a raster file representing carbon distribution from the existing forest dataset. Model results demonstrate the applicability of interdependency from both linear and spatial perspectives, and suggest that this approach holds immense potential for enhancing environmental investment decision making in future.

Keywords: conservation, interdependency, multi-objective decision making, red-cockaded woodpecker

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992 Appraising the Need to Improve Sumu Wildlife Park Bauchi, North-Eastern Nigeria to International Standard

Authors: Sanusi Abubakar Sadiq, Rebecca William Chiwar

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Wildlife Park stands a chance of contributing to tourism development in different ways, but available infrastructure, and facilities required by visitors when they arrive, access road to the destination, and resources to facilitate positive experience are lacking in certain areas. The study set out to find out the need to develop Sumu Wildlife Park Bauchi State, to an international standard. The study focused on identifying the existing facilities and infrastructure at the park and to further identify the available resources used by visitors. In attempt to find out the impact of developing Sumu Wildlife Park and ways of filling the gap of the actual standard data were obtained from fifteen administrative staff of Sumu Wildlife Park, ten staff of Bauchi state Tourism Board and twenty-five residents of the community in Kafin Madaki, Bauchi. Relevant literature were reviewed in the study; data collected were organized and analyzed using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS), software for analysis. Findings revealed that though Sumu Wildlife Park has attractions to keep visitors patronage but has insufficient facilities to maintain visitors and has not been developed to an expected standard. The problem faced by the management of Sumu wildlife Park is lack of adequate facilities, infrastructure and resources. The need to develop Sumu Wildlife Park has enormous benefits in increasing patronage. Provision of more funds would help improve standard as there would be more activities within and around the park. Regular maintenance of those facilities protects the life span of the park.

Keywords: attractions, facilities, infrastructure, resources

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991 Applying WILSERV in Measuring Visitor Satisfaction at Sepilok Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre (SORC)

Authors: A. H. Hendry, H. S. Mogindol

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There is an increasing worldwide demand on the field of interaction with wildlife tourism. Studies pertaining to the service quality within the sphere of interaction with wildlife tourism are plentiful. However, studies on service quality in wildlife attractions, especially on semi-captured wildlife tourism are still limited. The Sepilok Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre (SORC) in Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia is one good example of a semi-captured wildlife attraction and a renowned attraction in Sabah. This study presents a gap analysis by measuring the perception and expectation of service quality at SORC through the use of a modified SERVQUAL, referred to as WILSERV. A survey questionnaire was devised and administered to 190 visitors who visited SORC. The study revealed that all the means of the six dimensions for perceived perceptions were lower than the expectations. The highest gap was from the dimension of reliability (-0.21), followed by tangible (-0.17), responsiveness (-0.11), assurance, (-0.11), empathy (-0.11) and wild-tangible (-0.05). Similarly, the study also showed that all six dimensions for perceived perceptions means were lower than the expectations for both local and foreign visitors.

Keywords: importance performance analysis, service quality, WIL-SERV, wildlife tourism

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990 Transformation of the Traditional Landscape of Kabul Old City: A Study for Its Conservation

Authors: Mohammad Umar Azizi, Tetsuya Ando

Abstract:

This study investigates the transformation of the traditional landscape of Kabul Old City through an examination of five case study areas. Based on physical observation, three types of houses are found: traditional, mixed and modern. Firstly, characteristics of the houses are described according to construction materials and the number of stories. Secondly, internal and external factors are considered in order to implement a conservation plan. Finally, an adaptive conservation plan is suggested to protect the traditional landscape of Kabul Old City.

Keywords: conservation, district 1, Kabul Old City, landscape, transformation, traditional houses

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989 Maintaining Biodiversity Through Environmental Conservation Awareness Program in Nigeria School Sectors

Authors: Oluwasegun A. Oke, Mayowa A. Abolaji, Oluwaseun A. Adefila

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Environmental problems have become a priority on the world political agenda for the last two decades and this is inevitably linked with the general degradation of our environment which calls for ultimate attention. Therefore, this study searched for better and more involving methods of imparting environmental knowledge to average learner with the view of creating awareness, increasing knowledge as well as changing their attitude positively towards conservation of the environment. The study also investigated the effectiveness of conservation club in creating awareness (among students) about environmental conservation. About 240 Students were randomly selected for data collection using validated instruments (questionnaires). T-test statistics, chi-square and simple percentage were the major statistical tools employed in data analysis. This study revealed that environmental conservation club plays a vital role in creating awareness as well as promoting students understanding of environmental issues to promote positive attitude towards natural environment.

Keywords: environmental conservation, biodiversity, awareness program, environmental disasters

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988 Key Determinants of Human-Wolf (Canis lupus) Conflict in Shabestar County's Villages of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran

Authors: Nader Habibzadeh

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Developing effective and well-targeted conservation strategies is dependent upon fully understanding the complexities of the local situation. We attempted to discern the main likely wolf-human conflict contributing variables in households of Shabestar county’s villages. Data were collected through questions in 53 semi-structured interviews in 36 villages across Shabestar district in summer 2014. The results suggested that people who have reportedly suffered livestock depredation and who have alternative income sources to livestock, are likely to be particularly hostile toward wildlife. With rapid assessment of households using these few key variables we are able to identify likely conflict hotspots and target conflict resolution efforts in those villages. Based on these results, the most important initial strategies for reducing conflict would be reducing the number of livestock killed by wolf, increasing opportunities to generate income only from livestock holdings rather than alternative income sources.

Keywords: human-wildlife conflict, wolf (Canis lupus), Shabestar, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 186