Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2207

Search results for: computer crime

2207 Computer Fraud from the Perspective of Iran's Law and International Documents

Authors: Babak Pourghahramani

Abstract:

One of the modern crimes against property and ownership in the cyber-space is the computer fraud. Despite being modern, the aforementioned crime has its roots in the principles of religious jurisprudence. In some cases, this crime is compatible with the traditional regulations and that is when the computer is considered as a crime commitment device and also some computer frauds that take place in the context of electronic exchanges are considered as crime based on the E-commerce Law (approved in 2003) but the aforementioned regulations are flawed and until recent years there was no comprehensive law in this regard; yet after some years the Computer Crime Act was approved in 2009/26/5 and partly solved the problem of legal vacuum. The present study intends to investigate the computer fraud according to Iran's Computer Crime Act and by taking into consideration the international documents.

Keywords: fraud, cyber fraud, computer fraud, classic fraud, computer crime

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2206 A Goal-Driven Crime Scripting Framework

Authors: Hashem Dehghanniri

Abstract:

Crime scripting is a simple and effective crime modeling technique that aims to improve understanding of security analysts about security and crime incidents. Low-quality scripts provide a wrong, incomplete, or sophisticated understanding of the crime commission process, which oppose the purpose of their application, e.g., identifying effective and cost-efficient situational crime prevention (SCP) measures. One important and overlooked factor in generating quality scripts is the crime scripting method. This study investigates the problems within the existing crime scripting practices and proposes a crime scripting approach that contributes to generating quality crime scripts. It was validated by experienced crime scripters. This framework helps analysts develop better crime scripts and contributes to their effective application, e.g., SCP measures identification or policy-making.

Keywords: attack modelling, crime commission process, crime script, situational crime prevention

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2205 Boosting Crime Scene Investigations Capabilities through Crime Script Analysis

Authors: Benoit Leclerc

Abstract:

The concept of scripts and the role that crime scripts has been playing in criminology during the last decade is reviewed. Particularly illuminating is the potential use of scripts not only to understand and disrupt offender scripts (e.g., commonly referred as crime scripts) but to capture victim and guardian scripts to increase the likelihood of preventing crime. Similarly, the concept of scripts is applied to forensic science – another field that can benefit from script analysis. First, similar to guardian scripts, script analysis can illuminate the process of completing crime scene investigations for those who investigate (crime scene investigators or other professionals involved in crime scene investigations), and as a result, provide a range of intervention-points to improve the success of these investigations. Second, script analysis can also provide valuable information on offenders’ crime-commission processes for crime scene investigators and highlight a number of ‘contact points’ that could be targeted during investigations.

Keywords: crime scripts, crime scene investigation, script analysis, situational crime prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
2204 Offenders and Victims in Public Focus: Media Coverage about Crime and Its Consequences

Authors: Melanie Verhovnik

Abstract:

Media shape the image of crime, peoples’ believes, attitudes and sometimes also behaviors. Media not only gives the impression that crime is increasing, it also suggest that very violent crime is more common than it actually is. It is also no wonder that humans are more afraid of being involved in a crime committed by strangers than committed by somebody they know – because this is the media construct. With the help of three case studies, the paper analyzes how media frames crime and criminals and gives valuable hints as to what better reporting could look like.

Keywords: court reporting, offenders in media, quantitative content analysis, victims in media

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2203 Police and Crime Scene Management Model

Authors: Najaf Hamadzadeh Arbabi

Abstract:

Crime scene management is the first and most critical step in criminal investigations and all the criminal investigations are based on the ability of the crime scene investigation officers for diagnosing the importance and the role of physical evidence at the crime scene. According to the role of available physical evidence at the scene to prove the crime and identify the perpetrator and prove the innocence of those accused have been unduly and also impossible due to the rejection of these reasons, the maintenance and investigation of crime scene and collect evidence are very important in the crime scene. This research, by identifying the factors affecting the management of the crime scene, looking for presenting the effective and efficient indigenous pattern for managing of the crime scene in Iran. Method: This study is an applied and development research. Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the Friedman test for ranking, were used for analyzing the data and all hypotheses were tested at 95% confidence level. The target population is 50 judges and experts in Tehran.

Keywords: crime scene, identification, designation, individualization, reconstruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
2202 Mapping Crime against Women in India: Spatio-Temporal Analysis, 2001-2012

Authors: Ritvik Chauhan, Vijay Kumar Baraik

Abstract:

Women are most vulnerable to crime despite occupying central position in shaping a society as the first teacher of children. In India too, having equal rights and constitutional safeguards, the incidences of crime against them are large and grave. In this context of crime against women, especially rape has been increasing over time. This paper explores the spatial and temporal aspects of crime against women in India with special reference to rape. It also examines the crime against women with its spatial, socio-economic and demographic associates using related data obtained from the National Crime Records Bureau India, Indian Census and other government sources of the Government of India. The simple statistical, choropleth mapping and other cartographic representation methods have been used to see the crime rates, spatio-temporal patterns of crime, and association of crime with its correlates.  The major findings are visible spatial variations across the country and are also in the rising trends in terms of incidence and rates over the reference period. The study also indicates that the geographical associations are somewhat observed. However, selected indicators of socio-economic factors seem to have no significant bearing on crime against women at this level.

Keywords: crime against women, crime mapping, trend analysis, society

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2201 Detecting of Crime Hot Spots for Crime Mapping

Authors: Somayeh Nezami

Abstract:

The management of financial and human resources of police in metropolitans requires many information and exact plans to reduce a rate of crime and increase the safety of the society. Geographical Information Systems have an important role in providing crime maps and their analysis. By using them and identification of crime hot spots along with spatial presentation of the results, it is possible to allocate optimum resources while presenting effective methods for decision making and preventive solutions. In this paper, we try to explain and compare between some of the methods of hot spots analysis such as Mode, Fuzzy Mode and Nearest Neighbour Hierarchical spatial clustering (NNH). Then the spots with the highest crime rates of drug smuggling for one province in Iran with borderline with Afghanistan are obtained. We will show that among these three methods NNH leads to the best result.

Keywords: GIS, Hot spots, nearest neighbor hierarchical spatial clustering, NNH, spatial analysis of crime

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
2200 Crime and Class: A Study on Violent Crime in Dhaka City

Authors: A. B. M. Najmus Sakib

Abstract:

Being one of the most densely populated cities in the world, Dhaka is facing diversified types of crimes every day. Limitations of resources insert serious strains among the inhabitants of this city. This paper aims to analyze the correlation between crime and class, more especially the violent crime in connection with social class. Following the stratified random sampling technique, one of the police divisions among eight of the Dhaka Metropolitan Police (DMP) will be selected. The data will be collected by evaluating the case files found in the police report. First, this paper discusses the nature and pattern of violent crimes in Dhaka city. Then, it assesses the socio-economic status of the accused persons considering their professions. Furthermore, by testing hypothesis, it will identify how the social classes are connected with violent crimes. Finally, the paper will ascertain the particular class that has an impact on violent crime in Dhaka City and will be ended by suggesting possible measures should take by the law enforcement agencies of Bangladesh.

Keywords: social class, violent crime, crime prevention, nature of crime

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2199 Terrorism Is a Crime under International Law

Authors: Miguel Manero De Lemos

Abstract:

The ‘innovative and creative’ seminal decision of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL) was not welcomed by academic opinion. The court recognized that terrorism is a crime under international law in times of peace. Scholars widely – and sometimes aggressively – criticize this conclusion. This article asserts that, while some aspects of the decision of the STL might be defective, the basic premise, that it is indeed such a crime, is sound. This article delves into the method that the court used to attain such an outcome and explains why the conclusion of the court is correct, albeit the use of a different method is to be preferred. It also argues that subsequent developments leave little room to keep arguing that there is no international crime of terrorism.

Keywords: terrorism, STL, crime, international criminal law

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2198 Exploring Military Crime in the Australian Imperial Force by Officers During The First World War

Authors: DES LAMBLEY

Abstract:

The scope and scale of crime in the AIF is a subject largely overlooked by historians preferring to narrate the macro-scale topics. This examination exposes some 17,000 military criminals, 414 of them officers and illustrates how military law imposed itself. This subjective sociological perspective humanises the impacts of war upon soldiers. Examples of the crimes, their seriousness, punishments and military justice tell of cause and effect linkages between crime, stress and illness. The discourse is derived from original official military sources in the Australian Archives.

Keywords: Australia, AIF, Military Crime, WW1, Officers

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2197 Mapping the Relationship between Elements of Urban Morphology Density of Crime

Authors: Fabio Salvador Aparecido Santos, Spencer Chainey, Richard Wortley

Abstract:

Urban morphology can be understood as the study of the physical form of cities through its elements. Crime, at this turn, can be oversimplified as an action that breaks the rules established in a certain society. This study involves these two subjects through the relationship between elements of urban morphology and density of crime occurrences. We consider that there is a research gap about the influence of urban features on crime occurrences using statistic methods and mapping techniques on Geographic Information Systems. The investigation will comprehend three main phases. The first phase involves examining how theoretical principles associated with urban morphology can be viewed in terms of their influence on crime patterns. The second phase involves the development of tools to be used to model elements of urban morphology, and measure the relationship between these urban morphological elements and patterns of crime. The third phase involves determining the extent to which elements of the urban environment can contribute to crime reduction. Understanding the relationship between urban morphology and crime patterns in a Latin American context will help highlight the influence urban planning has on the crime problems that emerge in these settings, and how effectively urban planning can contribute to reducing crime.

Keywords: Agent-based Modelling, Environmental Criminology, Geographic Information System, Urban Morphology

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2196 Crime against Women in India: A Geospatial Analysis

Authors: V. S. Binu, Amitha Puranik, Sintomon Mathew, Sebin Thomas

Abstract:

Globally, women are more vulnerable to various forms of crimes than males. The crimes that are directed specifically towards women are classified as crime against women. Crime against women in India is observed to increase year after year and according to the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) report, in 2014 there was an increase of 9.2% cases of crime against women compared to the previous year. The violence in a population depends on socio-demographic factors, unemployment, poverty, number of police officials etc. There are very few studies that explored to identify hotspots of various types of crime against women in India. Hotspots are geographical regions where the number of observed cases is more than the expected number for that region. It is important to identify the hotspots of crime against women in India in order to control and prevent violence against women in that region. The goal of this study is to identify the hotspots of crime against women in India using spatial data analysis techniques. For the present study, we used the district level data of various types of crime against women in India in the year 2011 published by NCRB and the 2011 Census population in each of these districts. The study used spatial scan statistic to identify the hotspots using SaTScan software.

Keywords: crime, hotspots, India, Satscan, Women

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
2195 Baseline Study on Human Trafficking Crimes: A Case Study of Mapping Human Trafficking Crimes in East Java Province, Indonesia

Authors: Ni Komang Desy Arya Pinatih

Abstract:

Transnational crime is a crime with 'unique' feature because the activities benefit the lack of state monitoring on the borders so dealing with it cannot be based on conventional engagement but also need joint operation with other countries. On the other hand with the flow of globalization and the growth of information technology and transportation, states become more vulnerable to transnational crime threats especially human trafficking. This paper would examine transnational crime activities, especially human trafficking in Indonesia. With the case study on the mapping of human trafficking crime in East Java province, Indonesia, this paper would try to analyze how the difference in human trafficking crime trends at the national and sub-national levels. The findings of this research were first, there is difference in human trafficking crime trends whereas at the national level the trend is rising, while at sub-national (province) level the trend is declining. Second, regarding the decline of human trafficking number, it’s interesting to see how the method to decrease human trafficking crime in East Jawa Province in order to reduce transnational crime accounts in the region. These things are hopefully becoming a model for transnational crimes engagement in other regions to reduce human trafficking numbers as much as possible.

Keywords: transnational crime, human trafficking, southeast Asia, anticipation model on transnational crimes

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
2194 An Examination of Criminology and Cyber Crime in Contemporary Society

Authors: Uche A. Nnawulezi

Abstract:

The evolving global environment has as of late seen formative difficulties bordering on cyber crime and its attendant effects. This paper looks at what constitutes an offense of cyber crime under the tenets of International Law as no nation can lay bona-fide claim in managing cyber crime as a criminal phenomenon. Therefore, there has been a plethora of ideological, conceptual and mental propositions of policies aimed at domesticating cyber crimes – an international crime. These policies were as a result of parochial consideration and social foundations which negate the spirit of internationally accepted procedures. The study also noted that the non-domestication of cyber crime laws by most countries has led to an increase in cyber crimes and its attendant effects have remained unabated. The author has pointed out emerging international rules as a panacea for a sustainable cyber crime-free society. The paper relied on documentary evidence and hence scooped much of the data from secondary sources such as text books, journals, articles and periodicals and more so, opinion papers, emanating from international criminal court. It concludes that the necessary recommendations made in this paper, if fully adopted, shall go a long way in maintaining a cyber crime-free society. Ultimately, the domestic and international law mechanisms capable of dealing with cyber crime offenses should be expanded and be made proactive in order to deal with the demands of modern day challenges.

Keywords: criminology, cyber crime, domestic law, international law

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2193 Poverty and Illiteracy as a Key Factor for Crime and Unrest in Nigeria

Authors: Lawrence Emah

Abstract:

Nigeria, Africa’s most populous nation is undoubtedly, currently going through one of the most difficult phases in her 55 years of existence as an independent nation. At no other time in her history is she under so much pressure of social unrest and unacceptable rate of crime and criminality than it is today. From the North where there is an insurgency to contend with, then to the South where kidnapping and armed robbery hold sway. These issues did not just sprout from nowhere; they have a root somewhere. This is why this paper seeks to bring to the fore poverty and illiteracy as leading causes of these twin social ills– crime and social restiveness as well as suggest practical solutions to the problems.

Keywords: crime, illiteracy, poverty, unrest

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2192 Sexual Crime Prediction in an African Context

Authors: Olayemi Success Falope, Surendra Thakur

Abstract:

The significant rise of sexual crime around the world and the inability to control this violation has resulted in serious attacks, murders, and injuries to sexual crime victims in many situations. Crime in general, of which sexual crime is a major contributor, has brought about a downgrade in South Africa’s economy. The growing need to mitigate sexual crime across the country prompted this study. Data mining techniques were applied to a sexual crime dataset extracted from the South African crime statistics database on the Kaggle website to visualize sexual crime trends and build a model to predict future sexual crime occurrences, thereby assisting the government and law enforcement agencies with gaining insight into the most common sexual crime hotspots across all nine provinces of South Africa. The model could enable law officials to take more timeous action to curb sexual crimes in the country. This paper focuses on the identification of suitable data analytics algorithms available for sexual crime prediction and then determining the most suitable algorithm for the study. The linear regression and decision tree classifier algorithms were applied to the extracted sexual crime dataset to predict the features responsible for causing sexual crime in South Africa. Of these, linear regression was the most effective algorithm. The researcher found that a linear relationship exists between the dependent variable (sexual crime) and the independent variables (population and density) of this study. Accuracy, precision, recall, and f1 score were used to measure the performance of the decision tree algorithm, while linear regression was measured using the coefficient of determination measured by the R-squared score, which is a key output of regression analysis. The 91% accuracy achieved is an indication of how effective the model will predict sexual crime occurrences.

Keywords: algorithms, data analytics, data mining, decision tree classifier, linear regression, sexual crime prediction, south africa

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2191 Police and Community Crime Prevention in Sweden

Authors: Peter Lindstrom, Caroline Gyberg, Scott Goodwin

Abstract:

The Swedish police organisation was fundamentally reorganized in 2015 when 21 regional police forces were combined into one national police authority divided in 7 larger police regions, 35 police areas, and some 100 local police districts. A central theme for the reform was that local crime prevention policing should be more unified in the country. In this paper, we review crime prevention strategies in Sweden from a criminological and policing perspective focusing, among other things, on differences between urban and rural areas. In the crime prevention field, words such as 'knowledge- and evidence-based', 'collaboration', and 'strategies' are common. Our objective is to investigate the relationship between theoretical and practical knowledge in local crime prevention work. Our research indicate that an elaborated and strategic connection between theoretical and practical perspectives is important for successful local crime prevention work. Universities may provide a platform such knowledge exchange.

Keywords: crime prevention, police reform, urban and rural areas, criminological and policing perspectives

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2190 Place and Situational Management in Crime Prevention

Authors: Mehdi Moghimi

Abstract:

Doctrines associated with situational prevention considers 'place of committing crime' as one of the fundamental elements of a crime. Meanwhile, with regard to causing or having effect on a crime situation, 'place' can be one of the pivotal indices in situational prevention analyses. This study aims at examining the role of place in construction of a crime situation and explaining the relationship between 'place' and situational preventive measures and procedures. Also, how to identify high-crime places, types of high-crime places and the factors influencing their creation are among the most important secondary objectives of this article. Concerning the purpose, it is a practical study whose material has been written through a documentary method using original sources (English), books and written and translated articles etc. This article is written in two main parts. In the first section, cognitive-conceptual issues about 'place' as one of the main causes of crime situation, and its effective interaction with situational preventive measures will be reviewed. The second part of this paper will focus on criminological examination of places and critical locations of crime and provide situational preventive measures to deal with the situation. 'Crime displacement' and 'geographical distribution of benefits'are also considered as the possible consequences of implementing preventive strategies. The results of the study suggest that the inventory of offenses is distributed according to the spatial characteristics. Moreover, according to the criminological characteristics governing region or location, offenders choose the place of crime based on a logical calculation. Therefore, some locations, regions or neighborhoods are permanent places of occurring lots of crimes. As a result, considering "place", preventive measures and procedures can be systematically directed, and using the most effective ways, limited preventive resources are utilized in the most critical places. Finally, some suggestions for further research and application are provided in line with more favorable promotion of situational preventive measures.

Keywords: crime prevention, place, police crime, situational crime prevention

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2189 ‘Honour’ Crime and the Need for Differentiation from Domestic Violence in UK Law

Authors: Mariam Shah

Abstract:

‘Honour’ crime has commonly been perceived in the UK as being a ‘domestic violence’ related issue due to incidents perceived to take place within a domestic context, and commonly by familial perpetrators. The lack of differentiation between domestic violence and ‘honour’ related incidents has several negative implications. Firstly, the prevalence and extent of ‘honour’ related crime within the UK cannot be accurately quantified due to ‘honour’ incidents being classed statistically as domestic violence incidents. Secondly, lack of differentiation means that the negative stereotypical attitudes ascribed to domestic violence which has resulted in lower criminal conviction rates that are also impacting the conviction of perpetrators of ‘honour’ crime. Thirdly, ‘honour’ related crime is innately distinct from domestic violence due to the perpetrator’s resolute intent of cleansing perceived ‘shame’ in any way possible, often with the involvement and collusion of multiple perpetrators from within the family and/or community. Domestic violence is typically restricted to the ‘home’, but ‘honour’ crime can operate between national and international boundaries. This paper critically examines the current academic literature and concludes that the few similarities between domestic violence and ‘honour’ related crime are not sufficient to warrant identical treatment under UK criminal law. ‘Honour’ related crime is a distinct and stand-alone offence which should be recognised as such. The appropriate identification and treatment of ‘honour’ crime are crucial, particularly in light of the UK’s first ‘white’ honour killing which saw a young English woman murdered after being deemed to have brought ‘shame’ on her ex-boyfriend’s family. This incident highlights the possibility of ‘honour’ crime extending beyond its perceived ‘ethnic minority’ roots and becoming more of a ‘mainstream’ issue for the multi-cultural and multi-racial UK.

Keywords: differentiation, domestic violence, honour crime, United Kingdom

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
2188 An Analysis on the Appropriateness and Effectiveness of CCTV Location for Crime Prevention

Authors: Tae-Heon Moon, Sun-Young Heo, Sang-Ho Lee, Youn-Taik Leem, Kwang-Woo Nam

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the possibility of crime prevention through CCTV by analyzing the appropriateness of the CCTV location, whether it is installed in the hotspot of crime-prone areas, and exploring the crime prevention effect and transition effect. The real crime and CCTV locations of case city were converted into the spatial data by using GIS. The data was analyzed by hotspot analysis and weighted displacement quotient(WDQ). As study methods, it analyzed existing relevant studies for identifying the trends of CCTV and crime studies based on big data from 1800 to 2014 and understanding the relation between CCTV and crime. Second, it investigated the current situation of nationwide CCTVs and analyzed the guidelines of CCTV installation and operation to draw attention to the problems and indicating points of domestic CCTV use. Third, it investigated the crime occurrence in case areas and the current situation of CCTV installation in the spatial aspects, and analyzed the appropriateness and effectiveness of CCTV installation to suggest a rational installation of CCTV and the strategic direction of crime prevention. The results demonstrate that there was no significant effect in the installation of CCTV on crime prevention. This indicates that CCTV should be installed and managed in a more scientific way reflecting local crime situations. In terms of CCTV, the methods of spatial analysis such as GIS, which can evaluate the installation effect, and the methods of economic analysis like cost-benefit analysis should be developed. In addition, these methods should be distributed to local governments across the nation for the appropriate installation of CCTV and operation. This study intended to find a design guideline of the optimum CCTV installation. In this regard, this study is meaningful in that it will contribute to the creation of a safe city.

Keywords: CCTV, safe city, crime prevention, spatial analysis

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2187 Journey to Cybercrime and Crime Opportunity: Quantitative Analysis of Cyber Offender Spatial Decision Making

Authors: Sinchul Back, Sun Ho Kim, Jennifer LaPrade, Ilju Seong

Abstract:

Due to the advantage of using the Internet, cybercriminals can reach target(s) without border controls. Prior research on criminology and crime science has largely been void of empirical studies on journey-to-cybercrime and crime opportunity. Thus, the purpose of this study is to understand more about cyber offender spatial decision making associated with crime opportunity factors (i.e., co-offending, offender-stranger). Data utilized in this study were derived from 306 U.S. Federal court cases of cybercrime. The findings of this study indicated that there was a positive relationship between co-offending and journey-to-cybercrime, whereas there was no link between offender-stranger and journey-to-cybercrime. Also, the results showed that there was no relationship between cybercriminal sex, age, and journey-to-cybercrime. The policy implications and limitations of this study are discussed.

Keywords: co-offending, crime opportunity, journey-to-cybercrime, offender-stranger

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2186 On the Estimation of Crime Rate in the Southwest of Nigeria: Principal Component Analysis Approach

Authors: Kayode Balogun, Femi Ayoola

Abstract:

Crime is at alarming rate in this part of world and there are many factors that are contributing to this antisocietal behaviour both among the youths and old. In this work, principal component analysis (PCA) was used as a tool to reduce the dimensionality and to really know those variables that were crime prone in the study region. Data were collected on twenty-eight crime variables from National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) databank for a period of fifteen years, while retaining as much of the information as possible. We use PCA in this study to know the number of major variables and contributors to the crime in the Southwest Nigeria. The results of our analysis revealed that there were eight principal variables have been retained using the Scree plot and Loading plot which implies an eight-equation solution will be appropriate for the data. The eight components explained 93.81% of the total variation in the data set. We also found that the highest and commonly committed crimes in the Southwestern Nigeria were: Assault, Grievous Harm and Wounding, theft/stealing, burglary, house breaking, false pretence, unlawful arms possession and breach of public peace.

Keywords: crime rates, data, Southwest Nigeria, principal component analysis, variables

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
2185 A Machine Learning-Assisted Crime and Threat Intelligence Hunter

Authors: Mohammad Shameel, Peter K. K. Loh, James H. Ng

Abstract:

Cybercrime is a new category of crime which poses a different challenge for crime investigators and incident responders. Attackers can mask their identities using a suite of tools and with the help of the deep web, which makes them difficult to track down. Scouring the deep web manually takes time and is inefficient. There is a growing need for a tool to scour the deep web to obtain useful evidence or intel automatically. In this paper, we will explain the background and motivation behind the research, present a survey of existing research on related tools, describe the design of our own crime/threat intelligence hunting tool prototype, demonstrate its capability with some test cases and lastly, conclude with proposals for future enhancements.

Keywords: cybercrime, deep web, threat intelligence, web crawler

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2184 Hidden Hot Spots: Identifying and Understanding the Spatial Distribution of Crime

Authors: Lauren C. Porter, Andrew Curtis, Eric Jefferis, Susanne Mitchell

Abstract:

A wealth of research has been generated examining the variation in crime across neighborhoods. However, there is also a striking degree of crime concentration within neighborhoods. A number of studies show that a small percentage of street segments, intersections, or addresses account for a large portion of crime. Not surprisingly, a focus on these crime hot spots can be an effective strategy for reducing community level crime and related ills, such as health problems. However, research is also limited in an important respect. Studies tend to use official data to identify hot spots, such as 911 calls or calls for service. While the use of call data may be more representative of the actual level and distribution of crime than some other official measures (e.g. arrest data), call data still suffer from the 'dark figure of crime.' That is, there is most certainly a degree of error between crimes that occur versus crimes that are reported to the police. In this study, we present an alternative method of identifying crime hot spots, that does not rely on official data. In doing so, we highlight the potential utility of neighborhood-insiders to identify and understand crime dynamics within geographic spaces. Specifically, we use spatial video and geo-narratives to record the crime insights of 36 police, ex-offenders, and residents of a high crime neighborhood in northeast Ohio. Spatial mentions of crime are mapped to identify participant-identified hot spots, and these are juxtaposed with calls for service (CFS) data. While there are bound to be differences between these two sources of data, we find that one location, in particular, a corner store, emerges as a hot spot for all three groups of participants. Yet it does not emerge when we examine CFS data. A closer examination of the space around this corner store and a qualitative analysis of narrative data reveal important clues as to why this store may indeed be a hot spot, but not generate disproportionate calls to the police. In short, our results suggest that researchers who rely solely on official data to study crime hot spots may risk missing some of the most dangerous places.

Keywords: crime, narrative, video, neighborhood

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2183 Examining Cyber Crime and Its Impacts on E-Banking in Nigeria

Authors: Auwal Nata'ala

Abstract:

The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has had impacts in almost every area human endeavor. From business, industries, banks to none profit organizations. ICT has simplified business process such as sorting, summarizing, coding, updating and generating a report in a real-time processing mode. However, the use of these ICT facilities such as computer and internet has also brought unintended consequences of criminal activities such as spamming, credit card frauds, ATM frauds, phishing, identity theft, denial of services and other related cyber crimes. This study sought to examined cyber-crime and its impact on the banking institution in Nigeria. It also examined the existing policy framework and assessed the success of the institutional countermeasures in combating cyber crime in the banking industry. This paper X-ray’s cyber crimes, policies issues and provides insight from a Nigeria perspective.

Keywords: cyber crimes, e-banking, policies, ICT

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2182 Conceptual Model Providing More Information on the Contact Situation between Crime Victim and the Police

Authors: M. Inzunza

Abstract:

In contemporary society, victims of crime has been given more recognition, which have contributed to advancing the knowledge on the effects of crime. There exists a complexity of who gets the status of victim and that the typology of good versus bad can interfere with the contact situation of the victim with the police. The aim of this study is to identify the most central areas affecting the contact situation between crime victims and the police to develop a conceptual model to be useful empirically. By considering previously documented problem areas and different theoretical domains, a conceptual model has been developed. Preliminary findings suggest that an area that should be given attention is to get a better understanding of the victim, not only in terms of demographics but also in terms of risk behavior and social network. This area has been considered to influence the status of the crime victim. Another domain of value is the type of crime and the context of the incident in more detail. The police officer approach style in the contact situation is also a pertinent area that is influenced by how the police based victim services are organized and how individual police officers are suited for the mission. Suitability includes constructs from empathy models adapted to the police context and especially focusing on sub-constructs such as perspective taking. Discussion will focus on how these findings can be operationalized in practice and how they are used in ongoing empirical studies.

Keywords: empathy, perspective taking, police contact, victim of crime

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2181 Sociodemographic Approach to Juveniles Directed to Delinquent Behaviour in Zonguldak

Authors: Riza Yilmaz, Samet Kiyak, Sezin Nur Yilmaz, Yasemin Yilmaz

Abstract:

Child delinquency has been increasing in our country as well as in many countries of the world. Child intelligence, abilities, family's social environment and life conditions are the factors which affect the child delinquency. The reports of 73 cases ages of 12-15 which were sent to the University of Bulent Ecevit, School of Medicine, Forensic Medicine Department between January 2011-September 2015, in order to evaluate medically, children pushed to crime by the judicial authorities are examined in terms of age, gender, educational background, place of residence, reasons for being sent, whether it’s a repeating crime or not, type of intelligence test, results revealed by forensic medicine and department of mental and neurological disorders. When children pushed to crime examined in terms of their crimes, the most common type of crime was identified as theft (n = 24). The crimes with 19 physical attacks and 12 sexual abuse were seen. Following that other 12 crimes were determined as damage to property, hemp crop, insult, incitement to crime, forgery of private documents, illegal excavation, threatening, involuntary manslaughter. The alleged crimes in 6 cases were more than one. The children pushed to crime are one of the major social problems of many countries. In this sense, it is not only the responsibility of government agencies to protect children pushed to crime, also, the civil society organizations should take place in this struggle.

Keywords: delinquent behaviour, forensic medicine, crime, punishment

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2180 Compensation for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power in Nigeria

Authors: Kolawole Oyekan Jamiu

Abstract:

In Nigerian criminal law, a victim of an offence plays little or no role in the prosecution of an offender. The state concentrates only on imposing punishment on the offender while the victims of crime and abuse of power by security agencies are abandoned without any compensation either from the State or the offender. It has been stated that the victim of crime is the forgotten man in our criminal justice system. He sets the criminal law in motion but then goes into oblivion. Our present criminal law does not recognise the right of the victim to take part in the prosecution of the case or his right to compensation. The victim is merely a witness in a state versus case. This paper examines the meaning of the phrase ‘the victims of crime and abuse of power’. It needs to be noted that there is no definition of these two categories of victims in any statute in Nigeria. The paper also considers the United Nations General Assembly Declaration of Basic Principle of Justice for Victims and abuse of power. This declaration was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on the 25th of November 1985. The declaration contains copious provisions on compensation for the victims of crime and abuse of power. Unfortunately, the declaration is not, in itself a legally binding instrument and has been given little or no attention since the coming into effect in1985. This paper examines the role of the judiciary in ensuring that victims of crime and abuse of power in Nigeria are compensated. While some Judges found it difficult to award damages to victims of abuse of power others have given some landmark rulings and awarded substantial damages. The criminal justice ( victim’s remedies) Bill shall also be examined. The Bill comprises of 74 sections and it spelt out the procedures for compensating the victims of crime and abuse of power in Nigeria. Finally, the paper also examines the practicability of awarding damages to victims of crime whether the offender is convicted or not and in addition, the possibility of granting all equitable remedies available in civil cases to victims of crime and abuse of power so that the victims will be restored to the earlier position before the crime.

Keywords: compensation, damages, restitution, victims

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2179 Tiebout and Crime: How Crime Affect the Income Tax Capacity

Authors: Nik Smits, Stijn Goeminne

Abstract:

Despite the extensive literature on the relation between crime and migration, not much is known about how crime affects the tax capacity of local communities. This paper empirically investigates whether the Flemish local income tax base yield is sensitive to changes in the local crime level. The underlying assumptions are threefold. In a Tiebout world, rational voters holding the local government accountable for the safety of its citizens, move out when the local level of security gets too much alienated from what they want it to be (first assumption). If migration is due to crime, then the more wealthy citizens are expected to move first (second assumption). Looking for a place elsewhere implies transaction costs, which the more wealthy citizens are more likely to be able to pay. As a consequence, the average income per capita and so the income distribution will be affected, which in turn, will influence the local income tax base yield (third assumption). The decreasing average income per capita, if not compensated by increasing earnings by the citizens that are staying or by the new citizens entering the locality, must result in a decreasing local income tax base yield. In the absence of a higher level governments’ compensation, decreasing local tax revenues could prove to be disastrous for a crime-ridden municipality. When communities do not succeed in forcing back the number of offences, this can be the onset of a cumulative process of urban deterioration. A spatial panel data model containing several proxies for the local level of crime in 306 Flemish municipalities covering the period 2000-2014 is used to test the relation between crime and the local income tax base yield. In addition to this direct relation, the underlying assumptions are investigated as well. Preliminary results show a modest, but positive relation between local violent crime rates and the efflux of citizens, persistent up until a 2 year lag. This positive effect is dampened by possible increasing crime rates in neighboring municipalities. The change in violent crimes -and to a lesser extent- thefts and extortions reduce the influx of citizens with a one year lag. Again this effect is diminished by external effects from neighboring municipalities, meaning that increasing crime rates in neighboring municipalities (especially violent crimes) have a positive effect on the local influx of citizens. Crime also has a depressing effect on the average income per capita within a municipality, whereas increasing crime rates in neighboring municipalities increase it. Notwithstanding the previous results, crime does not seem to significantly affect the local tax base yield. The results suggest that the depressing effect of crime on the income basis has to be compensated by a limited, but a wealthier influx of new citizens.

Keywords: crime, local taxes, migration, Tiebout mobility

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2178 Criminal Liability for Criminal Tax

Authors: Theresia Simatupang dan Rahmayanti

Abstract:

Tax Law is a legal product and therefore should be subject to the legal norms, both about this actions, implementation, and about the material. Law has always aimed at providing justice, and besides that the law as a tool used to organize the order or rule of law. tax classification of a crime in this is very necessary, because the crime of taxation is very detrimental to the country and is still very high in society and socialization associated with punishment in sentencing that would have to provide a deterrent for the perpetrators, so refer to the this, these criminal offenses can endanger the stability of the nation's economy and the country that require special snacks. The application of legal sanctions against the perpetrators of the crime of taxation already has a strong legal basis, namely UU KUP. UU KUP have loaded threat (sanctions) severe punishment for tax payers who commit offenses and crimes in the field of taxation, which is contained in Article 38, and Article 39, Article 41, Article 41 A, and 41 B as well as Article 43 of Law and Law No. 12 KUP about 1985 Land Tax and Building. Criminal sanctions against violators of the tax provision are important because tax payers sanctions for violating tax laws.

Keywords: accountability, tax crime, criminal liability, taxation

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