Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 90

Search results for: weed

90 Development of a Weed Suppression Robot for Rice Cultivation Weed Suppression and Posture Control

Authors: Shohei Nakai, Yasuhiro Yamada

Abstract:

Weed suppression and weeding are necessary measures for rice cultivation. Weed suppression precedes the process of weeding. It means suppressing the growth of young weeds and creating a weed-less environment. If we suppress the growth of weeds, we can reduce the number of weeds in a paddy field. This would result in a reduction of the weeding work load. In this paper, we will show how we developed a weed suppression robot for the purpose of reducing the weeding work load. The robot has a laser range finder for autonomous mobility and a robot arm for weed suppression. It travels along the rice rows without stepping on and injuring the rice plants in a paddy field. The robot arm applies force to the weed seedlings and thereby suppresses the growth of weeds. This paper will explain the methodology of the autonomous mobile, the experiment in weed suppression, and the method of controlling the robot’s posture on uneven ground.

Keywords: mobile robot, paddy field, robot arm, weed

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
89 Effect of Different Weed Management Strategies in Chickpea Yield

Authors: Ijaz Ahmed Khan, Zaheen Ullah, Rahamdad, Gul Hassan

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station Ahmad Wala, Karak, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province during rabi season of 2010-011 to study the effect of different weed management practices on weed control in chickpea under field conditions. The results revealed that treatments showed significant influence on weed density, seed yield kg ha-1 and other growth parameters. Significantly lower weed density (98 m-2) was recorded with the application of Isoproturon 500 EW as compared to control plots having 368.3 weeds m-2. Moreover, significantly highest seed yield (1583.3 kg ha-1) was produced in the plots assigned with Isoproturon 500 EW followed by Eucalyptus extract that produce seed yield of 1416.7 kg ha-1. It was concluded from the study that Isoproturon 500 EW is the best option for controlling weeds and increase the seed yield kg ha-1 of chickpea.

Keywords: chickpea, herbicides, weed control, weeds extracts

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
88 RoboWeedSupport-Sub Millimeter Weed Image Acquisition in Cereal Crops with Speeds up till 50 Km/H

Authors: Morten Stigaard Laursen, Rasmus Nyholm Jørgensen, Mads Dyrmann, Robert Poulsen

Abstract:

For the past three years, the Danish project, RoboWeedSupport, has sought to bridge the gap between the potential herbicide savings using a decision support system and the required weed inspections. In order to automate the weed inspections it is desired to generate a map of the weed species present within the field, to generate the map images must be captured with samples covering the field. This paper investigates the economical cost of performing this data collection based on a camera system mounted on a all-terain vehicle (ATV) able to drive and collect data at up to 50 km/h while still maintaining a image quality sufficient for identifying newly emerged grass weeds. The economical estimates are based on approximately 100 hectares recorded at three different locations in Denmark. With an average image density of 99 images per hectare the ATV had an capacity of 28 ha per hour, which is estimated to cost 6.6 EUR/ha. Alternatively relying on a boom solution for an existing tracktor it was estimated that a cost of 2.4 EUR/ha is obtainable under equal conditions.

Keywords: weed mapping, integrated weed management, weed recognition, image acquisition

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
87 RoboWeedSupport-Semi-Automated Unmanned Aerial System for Cost Efficient High Resolution in Sub-Millimeter Scale Acquisition of Weed Images

Authors: Simon L. Madsen, Mads Dyrmann, Morten S. Laursen, Rasmus N. Jørgensen

Abstract:

Recent advances in the Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) safety and perception systems enable safe low altitude autonomous terrain following flights recently demonstrated by the consumer DJI Mavic PRO and Phamtom 4 Pro drones. This paper presents the first prototype system utilizing this functionality in form of semi-automated UAS based collection of crop/weed images where the embedded perception system ensures a significantly safer and faster gathering of weed images with sub-millimeter resolution. The system is to be used when the weeds are at cotyledon stage and prior to the harvest recognizing the grass weed species, which cannot be discriminated at the cotyledon stage.

Keywords: weed mapping, UAV, DJI SDK, automation, cotyledon plants

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
86 Allelopathic Potential of Canola and Wheat to Control Weeds in Soybean (Glycine max)

Authors: Alireza Dadkhah

Abstract:

A filed experiment was done to develop management practices to reduce the use of synthetic herbicides, in the arid and semi-arid agricultural ecosystems of north east of Iran. Five treatments including I: chopped residues of canola (Brasica vulgaris), II: chopped residues of wheat (Triticum aestivum) both were separately incorporated to 25 cm depth soil, 20 days before sowing, III: shoot aqueous extract of canola, IV: shoot aqueous extract of wheat which were separately sprayed at post emergence stage and V: without any residues and spraying as control. The weed control treatments reduced the total weed cover, weed density and biomass of weed. The reduction in weed density with canola and wheat residues incorporation were up to 67.5 and 62.2% respectively, at 40 days after sowing and 65.3% and 75.6%, respectively, at 90 days after sowing, compared to control. However, post emergence spraying of shoot aqueous extract of canola and wheat, suppressed weed density up to 41.8 and 36.6% at 40 days after sowing and 54.2% and 52.7% at 90 days after sowing respectively, compared to control. Weed control treatments reduced weed cover (%), weed biomass and weeds stem length. Incorporation of canola and wheat residues in soil reduced weed cover (%) by 62.5% and 63% respectively, while spraying of shoot water extract of canola and wheat suppressed weed cover (%) by 39.6% and 40.4% respectively at 90 days after sowing. Application of canola and wheat residues increased soybean yield by 45.4% and 69.5% respectively, compared to control while post emergence application of shoot aqueous extract of canola and wheat increased soybean yield by 22% and 29.8% respectively.

Keywords: allelopathy, Bio-herbicide, Brassica oleracea, plant residues, Triticum aestivum

Procedia PDF Downloads 579
85 The Effect of Precipitation on Weed Infestation of Spring Barley under Different Tillage Conditions

Authors: J. Winkler, S. Chovancová

Abstract:

The article deals with the relation between rainfall in selected months and subsequent weed infestation of spring barley. The field experiment was performed at Mendel University agricultural enterprise in Žabčice, Czech Republic. Weed infestation was measured in spring barley vegetation in years 2004 to 2012. Barley was grown in three tillage variants: conventional tillage technology (CT), minimization tillage technology (MT), and no tillage (NT). Precipitation was recorded in one-day intervals. Monthly precipitation was calculated from the measured values in the months of October through to April. The technique of canonical correspondence analysis was applied for further statistical processing. 41 different species of weeds were found in the course of the 9-year monitoring period. The results clearly show that precipitation affects the incidence of most weed species in the selected months, but acts differently in the monitored variants of tillage technologies.

Keywords: weeds, precipitation, tillage, weed infestation forecast

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
84 Increase of Atmosphere CO2 Concentration and Its Effects on Culture/Weed Interaction

Authors: J. I. Santos, A. E. Cesarin, C. A. R. Sales, M. B. B. Triano, P. F. R. B. Martins, A. F. Braga, N. J. Neto, A., A. M. Barroso, P. L. C. A. Alves, C. A. M. Huaman

Abstract:

Climate change projections based on the emission of greenhouse effect gases suggest an increase in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, in up to 750 ppm. In this scenario, we have significant changes in plant development, and consequently, in agricultural systems. This study aims to evaluate the interaction between culture (Glycine max) and weed (Amaranthus viridis and Euphorbia heterophylla) in two conditions of CO2, 400 and 800 ppm. The results showed that the coexistence of culture with both weed species resulted in a mutual loss, with decrease in dry mass productivity of culture + weeds, in both conditions of CO2. However, when the culture is grown in association with E. heterophylla, total dry mass of culture + weed was smaller at 800 ppm. Soybean was more aggressive in comparison to the A. viridis in both the concentrations of CO2, but not in relation to the E. heterophylla.

Keywords: plants interaction, increase of [CO₂], plants of metabolismo C3, glycine max

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
83 An Evaluation of Different Weed Management Techniques in Organic Arable Systems

Authors: Nicola D. Cannon

Abstract:

A range of field experiments have been conducted since 1991 to 2017 on organic land at the Royal Agricultural University’s Harnhill Manor Farm near Cirencester, UK to explore the impact of different management practices on weed infestation in organic winter and spring wheat. The experiments were designed using randomised complete block and some with split plot arrangements. Sowing date, variety choice, crop height and crop establishment technique have all shown a significant impact on weed infestations. Other techniques have also been investigated but with less clear, but, still often significant effects on weed control including grazing with sheep, undersowing with different legumes and mechanical weeding techniques. Tillage treatments included traditional plough based systems, minimum tillage and direct drilling. Direct drilling had significantly higher weed dry matter than the other two techniques. Taller wheat varieties which do not contain Rht1 or Rht2 had higher weed populations than the wheat without dwarfing genes. Early sown winter wheat had greater weed dry matter than later sown wheat. Grazing with sheep interacted strongly with sowing date, with shorter varieties and also late sowing dates providing much less forage but, grazing did reduce weed biomass in June. Undersowing had mixed impacts which were related to the success of establishment of the undersown legume crop. Weeds are most successfully controlled when a range of techniques are implemented to give the wheat crop the greatest chance of competing with weeds.

Keywords: crop establishment, drilling date, grazing, undersowing, varieties, weeds

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
82 Effect of Tillage Technology on Species Composition of Weeds in Monoculture of Maize

Authors: Svetlana Chovancova, Frantisek Illek, Jan Winkler

Abstract:

The effect of tillage technology of maize on intensity of weed infestation and weed species composition was observed at experimental field. Maize is grown consecutively since 2001. The experimental site is situated at an altitude of 230 m above sea level in the Czech Republic. Variants of tillage technology are CT: plowing – conventional tillage 0.22 m, MT: loosening – disc tillage on the depth of 0.1 – 0.12 m, NT: direct sowing – without tillage. The evaluation of weed infestation was carried out by numerical method in years 2012 and 2013. Within the monitoring were found 20 various species of weeds. Conventional tillage (CT) primarily supports the occurrence of perennial weeds (Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis). Late spring species (Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli) were more frequently noticed on variants of loosening (MT) and direct sowing (NT). Different tillage causes a significant change of weed species spectrum in maize.

Keywords: weeds, maize, tillage, loosening, direct sowing

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
81 Evaluation of Commercial Herbicides for Weed Control and Yield under Direct Dry Seeded Rice Cultivation System in Pakistan

Authors: Sanaullah Jalil, Abid Majeed, Syed Haider Abbas

Abstract:

Direct dry seeded rice cultivation system is an emerging production technology in Pakistan. Weeds are a major constraint to the success of direct dry seeded rice (DDSR). Studies were carried out for two years during 2015 and 2016 to evaluate the performance of applications of pre-emergence herbicides (Top Max @ 2.25 lit/ha, Click @1.5 lit/ha and Pendimethaline @ 1.25 lit/ha) and post-emergence herbicides (Clover @ 200 g/ha, Pyranex Gold @ 250 g/ha, Basagran @ 2.50 lit/ha, Sunstar Gold @ 50 g/ha and Wardan @ 1.25 lit/ha) at rice research field area of National Agriculture Research Center (NARC), Islamabad. The experiments were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. All evaluated herbicides reduced weed density and biomass by a significant amount. The net plot size was 2.5 x 5 m with 10 rows. Basmati-385 was used as test variety of rice. Data indicated that Top Max and Click provided best weed control efficiency but suppressed the germination of rice seed which causes the lowest grain yield production (680.6 kg/ha and 314.5 kg/ha respectively). A weedy check plot contributed 524.7 kg/ha paddy yield with highest weed density. Pyranex Gold provided better weed control efficiency and contributed to significantly higher paddy yield 5116.6 kg/ha than that of all other herbicide applications followed by the Clover which give paddy yield 4241.7 kg/ha. The results of our study suggest that pre-emergence herbicides provided best weed control but not fit for direct dry seeded rice (DDSR) cultivation system, and therefore post-emergence herbicides (Pyranex Gold and Clover) can be suggested for weed control and higher yield.

Keywords: pyranex gold, clover, direct dry seeded rice (DDSR), yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
80 Clarification of Taxonomic Confusions among Adulterated Drugs Coffee Seena and Seena Weed through Systematic and Pharmaceutical Markers

Authors: Shabnum Shaheen, Nida Haroon, Farah Khan, Sumera Javad, Mehreen Jalal, Samina Sarwar

Abstract:

Coffee Senna is pharmaceutically very important and used for multiple health disorders such as gastric pains, indigestion, snakebites, asthma and fever, tuberculosis and menstrual problems. However, its immense medicinal value and great demand lead to adulteration issue which could be injurious for users. Some times its adulterant Seena weed (Senna occidentalis L.) is used as its substitute which definitely not as effective as Coffee Senna. Hence, the present study was undertaken to provide some tools for systematic and pharmaceutical authentication of a shrubby plant Coffee Senna (Cassia occidentalis Linn.). These parameters included macro and micro morphological characters, anatomical and palynomorph characterization, solubility, fluorescence and phytochemical analysis. By the application of these parameters acquired results revealed that, these two plants are distinct from each other. The Coffee Seena was found to be an annual shrub with trilobed pollen, diacytic, paracytic and anisocytic stomata whereas the Seena weed stands out as an annual or perennial herb with spheroidal and circular pollen and paracytic type of stomata. The powdered drug of Coffee seena is dark grayish green whereas the powdered drug of Seena weed is light green in color. These findings are constructive in authentic identification of these plants.

Keywords: coffee senna, Senna weed, taxonomic evaluation, pharmaceutical markers

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
79 Mesotrione and Tembotrione Applied Alone or in Tank-Mix with Atrazine on Weed Control in Elephant Grass

Authors: Alexandre M. Brighenti

Abstract:

The experiment was carried out in Valença, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, to evaluate the selectivity and weed control of carotenoid biosynthesis inhibiting herbicides applied alone or in combination with atrazine in elephant grass crop. The treatments were as follows: mesotrione (0.072 and 0.144 kg ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil - Assist®), tembotrione (0.075 and 0.100 kg ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil - Aureo®), atrazine + mesotrione (1.25 + 0.072 kg ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil - Assist®), atrazine + tembotrione (1.25 + 0.100 kg ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil - Aureo®), atrazine + mesotrione (1.25 + 0.072 kg ha-1), atrazine + tembotrione (1.25 + 0.100 kg ha-1) and two controls (hoed and unhoed check). Two application rates of mesotrione with the addition of mineral oil or the tank mixture of atrazine plus mesotrione, with or without the addition of mineral oil, did not provide injuries capable to reduce elephant grass forage yield. Tembotrione was phytotoxic to elephant grass when applied with mineral oil. Atrazine and tembotrione in a tank-mix, with or without mineral oil, were also phytotoxic to elephant grass. All treatments provided satisfactory weed control.

Keywords: forage, Napier grass, pasture, Pennisetum purpureum, weeds

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
78 The Effect of a Weed-Killer Sulfonylurea on Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum Desf)

Authors: L. Meksem Amara, M. Ferfar, N. Meksem, M. R. Djebar

Abstract:

The wheat is the cereal the most consumed in the world. In Algeria, the production of this cereal covers only 20 in 25 % of the needs for the country, the rest being imported. To improve the efficiency and the productivity of the durum wheat, the farmers turn to the use of pesticides: weed-killers, fungicides and insecticides. However this use often entrains losses of products more at least important contaminating the environment and all the food chain. Weed-killers are substances developed to control or destroy plants considered unwanted. That they are natural or produced by the human being (molecule of synthesis), the absorption and the metabolization of weed-killers by plants cause the death of these plants. In this work, we set as goal the evaluation of the effect of a weed-killer sulfonylurea, the CossackOD with various concentrations (0, 2, 4 and 9 µg) on variety of Triticum durum: Cirta. We evaluated the plant growth by measuring the leaves and root length, compared with the witness as well as the content of proline and analyze the level of one of the antioxydative enzymes: catalase, after 14 days of treatment. Sulfonylurea is foliar and root weed-killers inhibiting the acetolactate synthase: a vegetable enzyme essential to the development of the plant. This inhibition causes the ruling of the growth then the death. The obtained results show a diminution of the average length of leaves and roots this can be explained by the fact that the ALS inhibitors are more active in the young and increasing regions of the plant, what inhibits the cellular division and talks a limitation of the foliar and root’s growth. We also recorded a highly significant increase in the proline levels and a stimulation of the catalase activity. As a response to increasing the herbicide concentrations a particular increases in antioxidative mechanisms in wheat cultivar Cirta suggest that the high sensitivity of Cirta to this sulfonylurea herbicide is related to the enhanced production and oxidative damage of reactive oxygen species.

Keywords: sulfonylurea, triticum durum, oxydative stress, toxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
77 Effect of Weed Control and Different Plant Densities the Yield and Quality of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

Authors: Hasan Dalgic, Fikret Akinerdem

Abstract:

This trial was made to determine effect of different plant density and weed control on yield and quality of winter sowing safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) in Selcuk University, Agricultural Faculty trial fields and the effective substance of Trifluran was used as herbicide. Field trial was made during the vegetation period of 2009-2010 with three replications according to 'Split Plots in Randomized Blocks' design. The weed control techniques were made on main plots and row distances was set up on sub-plots. The trial subjects were consisting from three weed control techniques as fallowing: herbicide application (Trifluran), hoeing and control beside the row distances of 15 cm and 30 cm. The results were ranged between 59.0-76.73 cm in plant height, 40.00-47.07 cm in first branch height, 5.00-7.20 in number of branch per plant, 6.00-14.73 number of head per plant, 19.57-21.87 mm in head diameter, 2125.0-3968.3 kg ha-1 in seed yield, 27.10-28.08 % in crude oil rate and 531.7-1070.3 kg ha-1. According to the results, Remzibey safflower cultivar showed the highest seed yield on 30 cm of row distance and herbicide application by means of the direct effects of plant height, first branch height, number of branch per plant, number of head per plant, table diameter, crude oil rate and crude oil yield.

Keywords: safflower, herbicide, row spacing, seed yield, oil ratio, oil yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
76 Efficacy of Sea Water with Reduced Rate Herbicide to Control Weeds in Tropical Turf

Authors: Md. Kamal Uddin, Abdul Shukor Juraimi, Md. Parvez Anwar

Abstract:

Seawater with reduced herbicide could be considered as a low cost environment friendly alternative method for weed control in turfgrass. Different concentration of sea water in combination with trifloxysulfuron-sodium and quinclorac were used to determine weed control level in turfgrass field. The weed species S. diander, C. aromaticus, and C. rotundus except E. atrovirens were fully controlled when treated with ¾ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium with sea water, ¾ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium with ¾ sea water, ½ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium with sea water, ¾ recommended quinclorac with sea water and ¾ recommended quinclorac with ¾ sea water. Eragrostis atrovirens showed maximum 48% injury when treated with ¾ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium and sea water. Among the tested turf grasses, P. vaginatum showed only 8% injury to sea water in combination with ¾ recommended quinclorac, indicating greater salt tolerance. Zoysia japonica also showed no more than 14% injury when treated with sea water in combination with ¾ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium or quinclorac.

Keywords: sea water, trifloxysulfuron–sodium, quinclorac, turf

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
75 The Evaluation of the Effect of a Weed-Killer Sulfonylurea on Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf)

Authors: Meksem Amara Leila, Ferfar Meriem, Meksem Nabila, Djebar Mohammed Reda

Abstract:

The wheat is the cereal the most consumed in the world. In Algeria, the production of this cereal covers only 20 in 25 % of the needs for the country, the rest being imported. To improve the efficiency and the productivity of the durum wheat, the farmers turn to the use of pesticides: weed-killers, fungicides and insecticides. However this use often entrains losses of products more at least important contaminating the environment and all the food chain. Weed-killers are substances developed to control or destroy plants considered unwanted. That they are natural or produced by the human being (molecule of synthesis), the absorption and the metabolization of weed-killers by plants cause the death of these plants.In this work, we set as goal the evaluation of the effect of a weed-killer sulfonylurea, the CossackOD with various concentrations (0, 2, 4 and 9 µg) on variety of Triticum durum: Cirta. We evaluated the plant growth by measuring the leaves and root length, compared with the witness as well as the content of proline and analyze the level of one of the antioxydative enzymes: catalse, after 14 days of treatment. Sulfonylurea is foliar and root weed-killers inhibiting the acetolactate synthase: a vegetable enzyme essential to the development of the plant. This inhibition causes the ruling of the growth then the death. The obtained results show a diminution of the average length of leaves and roots this can be explained by the fact that the ALS inhibitors are more active in the young and increasing regions of the plant, what inhibits the cellular division and talks a limitation of the foliar and root’s growth. We also recorded a highly significant increase in the proline levels and a stimulation of the catalase activity. As a response to increasing the herbicide concentrations a particular increases in antioxidative mechanisms in wheat cultivar Cirta suggest that the high sensitivity of Cirta to this sulfonylurea herbicide is related to the enhanced production and oxidative damage of reactive oxygen species.

Keywords: sulfonylurea, Triticum durum, oxydative stress, Toxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
74 An Efficient Design of Static Synchronous Series Compensator Based Fractional Order PID Controller Using Invasive Weed Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Abdelghani Choucha, Lakhdar Chaib, Salem Arif

Abstract:

This paper treated the problem of power system stability with the aid of Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) installed in the transmission line of single machine infinite bus (SMIB) power system. A fractional order PID (FOPID) controller has been applied as a robust controller for optimal SSSC design to control the power system characteristics. Additionally, the SSSC based FOPID parameters are smoothly tuned using Invasive Weed Optimization algorithm (IWO). To verify the strength of the proposed controller, SSSC based FOPID controller is validated in a wide range of operating condition and compared with the conventional scheme SSSC-POD controller. The main purpose of the proposed process is greatly enhanced the dynamic states of the tested system. Simulation results clearly prove the superiority and performance of the proposed controller design.

Keywords: SSSC-FOPID, SSSC-POD, SMIB power system, invasive weed optimization algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
73 Evaluation of Broad Leaf Weed Herbicides on Weed Control and Productivity of Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.)

Authors: Kassahun Zewdie

Abstract:

-- A field experiment was conducted at Holetta research center and farmers fields during 2017 and 2018 to determine the effects of haulauxifen-methyl + florasulam (QULEX 200 WG) on broadleaf weeds in wheat. The design was a Randomized Complete Block with three replications. The treatments were included haulauxifen-Methyl + florasulam @ 25gm, 50gm and 75gm ha-1, (King-D) 2, 4-D dimethyl amine @1.0 L ha-1, 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid @1.0 L ha-1 rate (standard check), farmers practice twice hand weeding (25-30 and 55-60) days after sowing and weedy check. Herbicides were applied with knapsack sprayer with a spray volume of 200 L ha-1. The wheat variety “Denda” was sown at 20 cm spacing. The recommended rate of fertilizer was applied. Weed density and biomass were recorded at (25-30 and 55-60) days after sowing. The results revealed that post emergence application of haulauxifen-methyl + florasulam @50gm ha-1 had a significant (P<0.05) effect on Guizotia scabra, Polygonum nepalense, Plantago lanceolata, Galinsoga parviflora, Sonchus spp., Galium spurium, Amaranthus hybridus, Raphanus raphanistrum and Medicago polymorpha population. The magnitude ranged from two to four folds when comparing with weed densities recorded in the unweeded plot. The grain yield harvested from the untreated check plot was significantly lower than the rest treatments. The grain yield was improved by 17.3% over the standard check with better performance.

Keywords: broadleaf, grass, weeds, control

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
72 The Efficiency of Mechanization in Weed Control in Artificial Regeneration of Oriental Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.)

Authors: Tuğrul Varol, Halil Barış Özel

Abstract:

In this study which has been conducted in Akçasu Forest Range District of Devrek Forest Directorate; 3 methods (cover removal with human force, cover removal with Hitachi F20 Excavator, and cover removal with agricultural equipment mounted on a Ferguson 240S agriculture tractor) utilized in weed control efforts in regeneration of degraded oriental beech forests have been compared. In this respect, 3 methods have been compared by determining certain work hours and standard durations of unit areas (1 hectare). For this purpose, evaluating the tasks made with human and machine force from the aspects of duration, productivity and costs, it has been aimed to determine the most productive method in accordance with the actual ecological conditions of research field. Within the scope of the study, the time studies have been conducted for 3 methods used in weed control efforts. While carrying out those studies, the performed implementations have been evaluated by dividing them into business stages. Also, the actual data have been used while calculating the cost accounts. In those calculations, the latest formulas and equations which are also used in developed countries have been utilized. The variance of analysis (ANOVA) was used in order to determine whether there is any statistically significant difference among obtained results, and the Duncan test was used for grouping if there is significant difference. According to the measurements and findings carried out within the scope of this study, it has been found during living cover removal efforts in regeneration efforts in demolished oriental beech forests that the removal of weed layer in 1 hectare of field has taken 920 hours with human force, 15.1 hours with excavator and 60 hours with an equipment mounted on a tractor. On the other hand, it has been determined that the cost of removal of living cover in unit area (1 hectare) was 3220.00 TL for man power, 788.70 TL for excavator and 2227.20 TL for equipment mounted on a tractor. According to the obtained results, it has been found that the utilization of excavator in weed control effort in regeneration of degraded oriental beech regions under actual ecological conditions of research field has been found to be more productive from both of aspects of duration and costs. These determinations carried out should be repeated in weed control efforts in degraded forest fields with different ecological conditions, it is compulsory for finding the most efficient weed control method. These findings will light the way of technical staff of forestry directorate in determination of the most effective and economic weed contol method. Thus, the more actual data will be used while preparing the weed control budgets, and there will be significant contributions to national economy. Also the results of this and similar studies are very important for developing the policies for our forestry in short and long term.

Keywords: artificial regeneration, weed control, oriental beech, productivity, mechanization, man power, cost analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
71 Evaluation of the exIWO Algorithm Based on the Traveling Salesman Problem

Authors: Daniel Kostrzewa, Henryk Josiński

Abstract:

The expanded Invasive Weed Optimization algorithm (exIWO) is an optimization metaheuristic modelled on the original IWO version created by the researchers from the University of Tehran. The authors of the present paper have extended the exIWO algorithm introducing a set of both deterministic and non-deterministic strategies of individuals’ selection. The goal of the project was to evaluate the exIWO by testing its usefulness for solving some test instances of the traveling salesman problem (TSP) taken from the TSPLIB collection which allows comparing the experimental results with optimal values.

Keywords: expanded invasive weed optimization algorithm (exIWO), traveling salesman problem (TSP), heuristic approach, inversion operator

Procedia PDF Downloads 470
70 Yield Enhancement and Reduced Nutrient Removal by Weeds in Winter Irrigated Cotton Using Potassium Salt Based Glyphosate

Authors: N. Viji, K. Siddeswaran

Abstract:

Field experiment was conducted at Eastern Block farm, Department of Farm Management, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during winter season of 2011-2012 to evaluate potassium salt based glyphosate (Roundup Crop Shield 460 SL) with and without intercultural operations on seed cotton yield and weed nutrient removal in irrigated cotton. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with treatments replicated thrice. The treatments consisted of POE glyphosate (Roundup Crop Shield 460 SL) at 1350 (T1), 1800 (T2), 2250 (T3) g a.e. ha-1, 1800 g a.e. ha-1 + IC (T4), PE pendimethalin at 750 g a.i. ha-1 + IC (T5), HW at 35 and 70 DAS + IC (T6), HWW at 35 and 70 DAS + IC (T7), PWW at 35 and 70 DAS + IC (T8), HW at 25 and 45 DAS (T9) and Unweeded control (T10). Among the weed management methods, decreased nutrient removal by weeds were observed with POE glyphosate at 1800 g a.e. ha-1 + IC which was comparable with PE pendimethalin at 750 g a.i. ha-1 + IC. Higher seed cotton yield was obtained with POE glyphosate at 1800 g a.e. ha-1 at 35 and 70 DAS with + IC at 45 and 55 DAS which was comparable with PE pendimethalin at 750 g a.i. ha-1 + IC at 45 and 55 DAS. Comparing treatments without intercultural operation, intercultural operation carried out treatments performed better and recorded more seed cotton yield.

Keywords: cotton, weed, glyphosate, nutrient

Procedia PDF Downloads 502
69 Weeds Density Affects Yield and Quality of Wheat Crop under Different Crop Densities

Authors: Ijaz Ahmad

Abstract:

Weed competition is one of the major biotic constraints in wheat crop productivity. Avena fatua L. and Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. are among the worst weeds of wheat, greatly deteriorating wheat quality subsequently reducing its market value. In this connection, two-year experiments were conducted in 2018 & 2019. Different seeding rate wheat viz; 80, 100, 120 and 140 kg ha-1 and different weeds ratio (A. fatua: S. marianum ) sown at the rate 1:8, 2:7, 3:6, 4:5, 5:4, 6:3, 7:2, 8:1 and 0:0 respectively. The weeds ratio and wheat densities are indirectly proportional. However, the wheat seed at the rate of 140 kg ha-1 has minimal weeds interference. Yield losses were 17.5% at weeds density 1:8 while 7.2% at 8:1. However, in wheat density, the highest percent losses were computed on 80 kg ha-1 while the lowest was recorded on 140 kg ha-1. Since due to the large leaf canopy of S. marianum other species can't sustain their growth. Hence, it has been concluded that S. marianum is the hotspot that causes reduction to the yield-related parameters, followed by A. fatua and the other weeds. Due to the morphological mimicry of A. fatua with wheat crop during the vegetative growth stage, it cannot be easily distinguished. Therefore, managing A. fatua and S. marianum before seed setting is recommended for reducing the future weed problem. Based on current studies, it is suggested that sowing wheat seed at the rate of 140 kg ha-1 is recommended to better compete with all the field weeds.

Keywords: fat content, holly thistle, protein content, weed competition, wheat, wild oat

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
68 Seed Germination, Seedling Emergence and Response to Herbicides of Papaver Species (Papaver rhoeas and P. dubium)

Authors: Faezeh Zaefarian1, Sajedeh Golmohammadzadeh, Mohammad Rezvani

Abstract:

Weed management decisions for weed species can be derived from knowledge of seed germination biology. Experiments were conducted in laboratory and greenhouse to determine the effects of light, temperature, salt and water stress, seed burial depth on seed germination and seedling emergence of Papaver rhoeas and P.dubium and to assay the response of these species to commonly available POST herbicides. Germination of the Papaver seeds was influenced by the tested temperatures (day/night temperatures of 20 and 25 °C) and light. The concentrations of sodium chloride, ranging from 0 to 80 mM, influence germination of seeds. The osmotic potential required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination of P. rhoeas was -0.27 MPa and for P. dubium species was 0.25 MPa. Seedling emergence was greatest for the seeds placed at 1 cm and emergence declined with increased burial depth in the soil. No seedlings emerged from a burial depth of 6 cm. The herbicide 2,4-D at 400 g ai ha-1 provided excellent control of both species when applied at the four-leaf and six-leaf stages. However, at the six-leaf stage, percent control was reduced. The information gained from this study could contribute to developing components of integrated weed management strategies for Papaver species.

Keywords: germination, papaver species, planting depth, POST herbicides

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67 Variation in Adaptation Strategies of Commelina Communis L. Biotypes under Drought Stress Condition

Authors: Muhammad Haroon, LI Xiangju

Abstract:

C. communis L. is an important weed of many crop, but very little information about the adaptation strategies of C. communis L. biotypes under drought stress. We investigated five biotypes of C. communis L under drought stress to identify the adaptation mechanism. The expression of drought stress related genes (DRS1, EREB and HRB1) was up-regulated in biotypes, while in some biotypes their expression was down regulated. All five biotypes can thus regulate water balance to consume less water to maintain their status under drought stress condition. This result concluded that C. communis L. biotypes can survive longer under drought stress condition. Weed scientist should seek more effective management strategies to deal with C. communis L.

Keywords: C. communis, biotypes, drought stress, gene expression

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
66 The Marker Active Compound Identification of Calotropis gigantea Roots Extract as an Anticancer

Authors: Roihatul Mutiah, Sukardiman, Aty Widyawaruyanti

Abstract:

Calotropis gigantiea (L.) R. Br (Apocynaceae) commonly called as “Biduri” or “giant milk weed” is a well-known weed to many cultures for treating various disorders. Several studies reported that C.gigantea roots has anticancer activity. The main aim of this research was to isolate and identify an active marker compound of C.gigantea roots for quality control purpose of its extract in the development as anticancer natural product. The isolation methods was bioactivity guided column chromatography, TLC, and HPLC. Evaluated anticancer activity of there substances using MTT assay methods. Identification structure active compound by UV, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, HMBC, HMQC spectral and other references. The result showed that the marker active compound was identical as Calotropin.

Keywords: calotropin, Calotropis gigantea, anticancer, marker active

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
65 Biological Methods to Control Parasitic Weed Phelipanche ramosa L. Pomel in the Field Tomato Crop

Authors: F. Lops, G. Disciglio, A. Carlucci, G. Gatta, L. Frabboni, A. Tarantino, E. Tarantino

Abstract:

Phelipanche ramosa L. Pomel is a root holoparasitic weed plant of many cultivations, particularly of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.) crop. In Italy, Phelipanche problem is increasing, both in density and in acreage. The biological control of this parasitic weed involves the use of living organisms as numerous fungi and bacteria that can infect the parasitic weed, while it may improve the crop growth. This paper deals with the biocontrol with microorganism, including Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and fungal pathogens as Fusarium oxisporum spp. Colonization of crop roots by AM fungi can provide protection of crops against parasitic weeds because of a reduction in their seed germination and attachment, while F. oxisporum, isolated from diseased broomrape tubercles, proved to be highly virulent on P. ramosa. The experimental trial was carried out in open field at Foggia province (Apulia Region, Southern Italy), during the spring-summer season 2016, in order to evaluate the effect of four biological treatments: AM fungi and Fusarium oxisporum applied in the soil alone or combined together, and Rizosum Max® product, compared with the untreated control, to reduce the P. ramosa infestation in processing tomato crop. The principal results to be drawn from this study under field condition, in contrast of those reported previously under laboratory and greenhouse conditions, show that both AM fungi and F. oxisporum do not provide the reduction of the number of emerged shoots of P. ramosa. This can arise probably from the low efficacy seedling of the agent pathogens for the control of this parasite in the field. On the contrary, the Rizosum Max® product, containing AM fungi and some rizophere bacteria combined with several minerals and organic substances, appears to be most effective for the reduction of P. ramosa infestation.

Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhized fungi, biocontrol methods, Phelipanche ramosa, tomato crop

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
64 Dicotyledon Weed Quantification Algorithm for Selective Herbicide Application in Maize Crops: Statistical Evaluation of the Potential Herbicide Savings

Authors: Morten Stigaard Laursen, Rasmus Nyholm Jørgensen, Henrik Skov Midtiby, Anders Krogh Mortensen, Sanmohan Baby

Abstract:

This work contributes a statistical model and simulation framework yielding the best estimate possible for the potential herbicide reduction when using the MoDiCoVi algorithm all the while requiring a efficacy comparable to conventional spraying. In June 2013 a maize field located in Denmark were seeded. The field was divided into parcels which was assigned to one of two main groups: 1) Control, consisting of subgroups of no spray and full dose spraty; 2) MoDiCoVi algorithm subdivided into five different leaf cover thresholds for spray activation. In addition approximately 25% of the parcels were seeded with additional weeds perpendicular to the maize rows. In total 299 parcels were randomly assigned with the 28 different treatment combinations. In the statistical analysis, bootstrapping was used for balancing the number of replicates. The achieved potential herbicide savings was found to be 70% to 95% depending on the initial weed coverage. However additional field trials covering more seasons and locations are needed to verify the generalisation of these results. There is a potential for further herbicide savings as the time interval between the first and second spraying session was not long enough for the weeds to turn yellow, instead they only stagnated in growth.

Keywords: herbicide reduction, macrosprayer, weed crop discrimination, site-specific, sprayer boom

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
63 Effect of Different Methods to Control the Parasitic Weed Phelipanche ramosa (L. Pomel) in Tomato Crop

Authors: Disciglio G., Lops F., Carlucci A., Gatta G., Tarantino A., Frabboni L, Tarantino E.

Abstract:

The Phelipanche ramosa is considered the most damaging obligate flowering parasitic weed on a wide species of cultivated plants. The semiarid regions of the world are considered the main center of this parasitic weed, where heavy infestation are due to the ability to produce high numbers of seeds (up to 200,000), that remain viable for extended period (more than 19 years). In this paper 13 treatments of parasitic weed control, as physical, chemical, biological and agronomic methods, including the use of the resistant plants, have been carried out. In 2014 a trial was performed on processing tomato (cv Docet), grown in pots filled with soil taken from a plot heavily infested by Phelipanche ramosa, at the Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Foggia (southern Italy). Tomato seedlings were transplanted on August 8, 2014 on a clay soil (USDA) 100 kg ha-1 of N; 60 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and 20 kg ha-1 of S. Afterwards, top dressing was performed with 70 kg ha-1 of N. The randomized block design with 3 replicates was adopted. During the growing cycle of the tomato, at 70-75-81 and 88 days after transplantation the number of parasitic shoots emerged in each pot was detected. Also values of leaf chlorophyll Meter SPAD of tomato plants were measured. All data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the JMP software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA), and for comparison of means was used Tukey's test. The results show lower values of the color index SPAD in tomato plants parasitized compared to those healthy. In addition, each treatment studied did not provide complete control against Phelipanche ramosa. However the virulence of the attacks was mitigated by some treatments: radicon product, compost activated with Fusarium, mineral fertilizer nitrogen, sulfur, enzone and resistant tomato genotype. It is assumed that these effects can be improved by combining some of these treatments each other, especially for a gradual and continuing reduction of the “seed bank” of the parasite in the soil.

Keywords: control methods, Phelipanche ramose, tomato crop

Procedia PDF Downloads 521
62 Influence of Dryer Autumn Conditions on Weed Control Based on Soil Active Herbicides

Authors: Juergen Junk, Franz Ronellenfitsch, Michael Eickermann

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An appropriate weed management in autumn is a prerequisite for an economically successful harvest in the following year. In Luxembourg oilseed rape, wheat and barley is sown from August until October, accompanied by a chemical weed control with soil active herbicides, depending on the state of the weeds and the meteorological conditions. Based on regular ground and surface water-analysis, high levels of contamination by transformation products of respective herbicide compounds have been found in Luxembourg. The most ideal conditions for incorporating soil active herbicides are single rain events. Weed control may be reduced if application is made when weeds are under drought stress or if repeated light rain events followed by dry spells, because the herbicides tend to bind tightly to the soil particles. These effects have been frequently reported for Luxembourg throughout the last years. In the framework of a multisite long-term field experiment (EFFO) weed monitoring, plants observations and corresponding meteorological measurements were conducted. Long-term time series (1947-2016) from the SYNOP station Findel-Airport (WMO ID = 06590) showed a decrease in the number of days with precipitation. As the total precipitation amount has not significantly changed, this indicates a trend towards rain events with higher intensity. All analyses are based on decades (10-day periods) for September and October of each individual year. To assess the future meteorological conditions for Luxembourg, two different approaches were applied. First, multi-model ensembles from the CORDEX experiments (spatial resolution ~12.5 km; transient projections until 2100) were analysed for two different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP8.5 and RCP4.5), covering the time span from 2005 until 2100. The multi-model ensemble approach allows for the quantification of the uncertainties and also to assess the differences between the two emission scenarios. Second, to assess smaller scale differences within the country a high resolution model projection using the COSMO-LM model was used (spatial resolution 1.3 km). To account for the higher computational demands, caused by the increased spatial resolution, only 10-year time slices have been simulated (reference period 1991-2000; near future 2041-2050 and far future 2091-2100). Statistically significant trends towards higher air temperatures, +1.6 K for September (+5.3 K far future) and +1.3 K for October (+4.3 K), were predicted for the near future compared to the reference period. Precipitation simultaneously decreased by 9.4 mm (September) and 5.0 mm (October) for the near future and -49 mm (September) and -10 mm (October) in the far future. Beside the monthly values also decades were analyzed for the two future time periods of the CLM model. For all decades of September and October the number of days with precipitation decreased for the projected near and far future. Changes in meteorological variables such as air temperature and precipitation did already induce transformations in weed societies (composition, late-emerging etc.) of arable ecosystems in Europe. Therefore, adaptations of agronomic practices as well as effective weed control strategies must be developed to maintain crop yield.

Keywords: CORDEX projections, dry spells, ensembles, weed management

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
61 Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Using Hybrid IWO/PSO Algorithm in Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Deepa Das, Susmita Das

Abstract:

Cognitive Radio (CR) is an emerging technology to combat the spectrum scarcity issues. This is achieved by consistently sensing the spectrum, and detecting the under-utilized frequency bands without causing undue interference to the primary user (PU). In soft decision fusion (SDF) based cooperative spectrum sensing, various evolutionary algorithms have been discussed, which optimize the weight coefficient vector for maximizing the detection performance. In this paper, we propose the hybrid invasive weed optimization and particle swarm optimization (IWO/PSO) algorithm as a fast and global optimization method, which improves the detection probability with a lesser sensing time. Then, the efficiency of this algorithm is compared with the standard invasive weed optimization (IWO), particle swarm optimization (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA) and other conventional SDF based methods on the basis of convergence and detection probability.

Keywords: cognitive radio, spectrum sensing, soft decision fusion, GA, PSO, IWO, hybrid IWO/PSO

Procedia PDF Downloads 317