Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: A. F. Braga

16 Microscopic Visualization of the Ice Slurry Ice Particles

Authors: Juan José Milón Guzmán, Herbert Jesús Del Carpio Beltrán, Sergio Leal Braga

Abstract:

Visualizations of ice particles of ice slurry are performed. The form and size of ice particles is investigated by optical microscopy. It permits to evaluate statistically the geometrical shapes of the ice crystals. The observed particle size corresponds with the different solutes (sugar, salt, propylene glycol).

Keywords: ice slurry, visualization, ice particles, solutes

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15 Simulation of Surge Protection for a Direct Current Circuit

Authors: Pedro Luis Ferrer Penalver, Edmundo da Silva Braga

Abstract:

In this paper, the performance of a simple surge protection for a direct current circuit was simulated. The protection circuit was developed from modified electric macro models of a gas discharge tube and a transient voltage suppressor diode. Moreover, a combination wave generator circuit was used as source of energy surges. The simulations showed that the circuit presented ensures immunity corresponding with test level IV of the IEC 61000-4-5:2014 international standard. The developed circuit can be modified to meet the requirements of any other equipment to be protected. Similarly, the parameters of the combination wave generator can be changed to provide different surge amplitudes.

Keywords: combination wave generator, IEC 61000-4-5, Pspice simulation, surge protection

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14 Increase of Atmosphere CO2 Concentration and Its Effects on Culture/Weed Interaction

Authors: J. I. Santos, A. E. Cesarin, C. A. R. Sales, M. B. B. Triano, P. F. R. B. Martins, A. F. Braga, N. J. Neto, A., A. M. Barroso, P. L. C. A. Alves, C. A. M. Huaman

Abstract:

Climate change projections based on the emission of greenhouse effect gases suggest an increase in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, in up to 750 ppm. In this scenario, we have significant changes in plant development, and consequently, in agricultural systems. This study aims to evaluate the interaction between culture (Glycine max) and weed (Amaranthus viridis and Euphorbia heterophylla) in two conditions of CO2, 400 and 800 ppm. The results showed that the coexistence of culture with both weed species resulted in a mutual loss, with decrease in dry mass productivity of culture + weeds, in both conditions of CO2. However, when the culture is grown in association with E. heterophylla, total dry mass of culture + weed was smaller at 800 ppm. Soybean was more aggressive in comparison to the A. viridis in both the concentrations of CO2, but not in relation to the E. heterophylla.

Keywords: plants interaction, increase of [CO₂], plants of metabolismo C3, glycine max

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13 Experience Report about the Inclusion of People with Disabilities in the Process of Testing an Accessible System for Learning Management

Authors: Marcos Devaner, Marcela Alves, Cledson Braga, Fabiano Alves, Wilton Bezerra

Abstract:

This article discusses the inclusion of people with disabilities in the process of testing an accessible system solution for distance education. The accessible system, team profile, methodologies and techniques covered in the testing process are presented. The testing process shown in this paper was designed from the experience with user. The testing process emerged from lessons learned from past experiences and the end user is present at all stages of the tests. Also, lessons learned are reported and how it was possible the maturing of the team and the methods resulting in a simple, productive and effective process.

Keywords: experience report, accessible systems, software testing, testing process, systems, e-learning

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12 Employer Learning, Statistical Discrimination and University Prestige

Authors: Paola Bordon, Breno Braga

Abstract:

This paper investigates whether firms use university prestige to statistically discriminate among college graduates. The test is based on the employer learning literature which suggests that if firms use a characteristic for statistical discrimination, this variable should become less important for earnings as a worker gains labor market experience. In this framework, we use a regression discontinuity design to estimate a 19% wage premium for recent graduates of two of the most selective universities in Chile. However, we find that this premium decreases by 3 percentage points per year of labor market experience. These results suggest that employers use college selectivity as a signal of workers' quality when they leave school. However, as workers reveal their productivity throughout their careers, they become rewarded based on their true quality rather than the prestige of their college.

Keywords: employer learning, statistical discrimination, college returns, college selectivity

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11 A Full Factorial Analysis of Microhardness Variation in Bead Welds Deposited by the Process Cold Wire Gas Metal Arc Welding (CW-GMAW)

Authors: R. A. Ribeiro, P. D. Angelo Assunção, E. M. Braga

Abstract:

The microhardness in weld beads is a function of the microstructure obtained in the welding process, and this by its time is dependent of the input variables established at the outset of the process. In this study the influence of angle between the plate and the cold wire, the position in which the cold wire is introduced and the rate in which this introduction is made are assessed as input parameters in CW-GMAW process. This paper looks to show that ordinary changes in the frame of CW-GMAW can improve microhardness, which is expected to vary as the input parameters change. To properly correlate the changes in the input parameters to consequent changes in microhardness of the weld bead, a full factorial design was employed. In fact, changes in the operational parameters improved the overall microhardness of the weld bead, which in turns can be an indication of improvement in the resistance to abrasive wear, constituting a cheap way to augment the abrasion wear resistance of welds used for cladding.

Keywords: abrasion, CW-GMAW, full factorial design, microhardness

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10 Automated Irrigation System with Programmable Logic Controller and Photovoltaic Energy

Authors: J. P. Reges, L. C. S. Mazza, E. J. Braga, J. A. Bessa, A. R. Alexandria

Abstract:

This paper proposes the development of control and automation of irrigation system located sunflower harvest in the Teaching Unit, Research and Extension (UEPE), the Apodi Plateau in Limoeiro do Norte. The sunflower extraction, which in turn serves to get the produced oil from its seeds, animal feed, and is widely used in human food. Its nutritional potential is quite high what makes of foods produced from vegetal, very rich and healthy. The focus of research is to make the autonomous irrigation system sunflower crop from programmable logic control energized with alternative energy sources, solar photovoltaics. The application of automated irrigation system becomes interesting when it provides convenience and implements new forms of managements of the implementation of irrigated cropping systems. The intended use of automated addition to irrigation quality and consequently brings enormous improvement for production of small samples. Addition to applying the necessary and sufficient features of water management in irrigation systems, the system (PLC + actuators + Renewable Energy) will enable to manage the quantitative water required for each crop, and at the same time, insert the use of sources alternative energy. The entry of the automated collection will bring a new format, and in previous years, used the process of irrigation water wastage base and being the whole manual irrigation process.

Keywords: automation, control, sunflower, irrigation, programming, renewable energy

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9 Analysis of Gas Transport and Sorption Processes in Coal under Confining Pressure Conditions

Authors: Anna Pajdak, Mateusz Kudasik, Norbert Skoczylas, Leticia Teixeira Palla Braga

Abstract:

A substantial majority of gas transport and sorption researches into coal are carried out on samples that are free of stress. In natural conditions, coal occurs at considerable depths, which often exceed 1000 meters. In such conditions, coal is subjected to geostatic pressure. Thus, in natural conditions, the sorption capacity of coal subjected to geostatic pressure can differ considerably from the sorption capacity of coal, determined in laboratory conditions, which is free of stress. The work presents the results of filtration and sorption tests of gases in coal under confining pressure conditions. The tests were carried out on the author's device, which ensures: confining pressure regulation in the range of 0-30 MPa, isobaric gas pressure conditions, and registration of changes in sample volume during its gas saturation. Based on the conducted research it was found, among others, that the sorption capacity of coal relative to CO₂ was reduced by about 15% as a result of the change in the confining pressure from 1.5 MPa to 30 MPa exerted on the sample. The same change in sample load caused a significant, more than tenfold reduction in carbon permeability to CO₂. The results confirmed that a load of coal corresponding to a hydrostatic pressure of 1000 meters underground reduces its permeability and sorption properties. These results are so important that the effect of load on the sorption properties of coal should be taken into account in laboratory studies on the applicability of CO₂ Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery (CO₂-ECBM) technology.

Keywords: coal, confining pressure, gas transport, sorption

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8 Greenhouse Controlled with Graphical Plotting in Matlab

Authors: Bruno R. A. Oliveira, Italo V. V. Braga, Jonas P. Reges, Luiz P. O. Santos, Sidney C. Duarte, Emilson R. R. Melo, Auzuir R. Alexandria

Abstract:

This project aims to building a controlled greenhouse, or for better understanding, a structure where one can maintain a given range of temperature values (°C) coming from radiation emitted by an incandescent light, as previously defined, characterizing as a kind of on-off control and a differential, which is the plotting of temperature versus time graphs assisted by MATLAB software via serial communication. That way it is possible to connect the stove with a computer and monitor parameters. In the control, it was performed using a PIC 16F877A microprocessor which enabled convert analog signals to digital, perform serial communication with the IC MAX232 and enable signal transistors. The language used in the PIC's management is Basic. There are also a cooling system realized by two coolers 12V distributed in lateral structure, being used for venting and the other for exhaust air. To find out existing temperature inside is used LM35DZ sensor. Other mechanism used in the greenhouse construction was comprised of a reed switch and a magnet; their function is in recognition of the door position where a signal is sent to a buzzer when the door is open. Beyond it exist LEDs that help to identify the operation which the stove is located. To facilitate human-machine communication is employed an LCD display that tells real-time temperature and other information. The average range of design operating without any major problems, taking into account the limitations of the construction material and structure of electrical current conduction, is approximately 65 to 70 ° C. The project is efficient in these conditions, that is, when you wish to get information from a given material to be tested at temperatures not as high. With the implementation of the greenhouse automation, facilitating the temperature control and the development of a structure that encourages correct environment for the most diverse applications.

Keywords: greenhouse, microcontroller, temperature, control, MATLAB

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7 Res2ValHUM: Creation of Resource Management Tool and Microbial Consortia Isolation and Identification

Authors: A. Ribeiro, N. Valério, C. Vilarinho, J. Araujo, J. Carvalho

Abstract:

Res2ValHUM project involves institutions from the Spanish Autonomous Region of Galicia and the north of Portugal (districts of Porto and Braga) and has as overall objectives of promotion of composting as an process for the correct managing of organic waste, valorization of compost in different fields or applications for the constitution of products with high added value, reducing of raw materials losses, and reduction of the amount of waste throw in landfills. Three main actions were designed to achieve the objectives: development of a management tool to improve collection and residue channeling for composting, sensibilization of the population for composting and characterization of the chemical and biological properties of compost and humic and fulvic substances to envisage high-value applications of compost. Here we present the cooperative activity of Galician and northern Portuguese institutions to valorize organic waste in both regions with common socio-economic characteristics and residue management problems. Results from the creation of the resource manage tool proved the existence of a large number of agricultural wastes that could be valorized. In the North of Portugal, the wastes from maize, oats, potato, apple, grape pomace, rye, and olive pomace can be highlighted. In the Autonomous Region of Galicia the wastes from maize, wheat, potato, apple, and chestnuts can be emphasized. Regarding the isolation and identification of microbial consortia from compost samples, results proved microorganisms belong mainly to the genus Bacillus spp. Among all the species identified in compost samples, Bacillus licheniformis can be highlighted in the production of humic and fulvic acids.

Keywords: agricultural wastes, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus spp., humic-acids, fulvic-acids

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6 Beak Size and Asynchronous Hatch in Broiler Chicks

Authors: Mariana Thimotheo, Gabriel Carvalho Ripamonte, Marina De Almeida Nogueira, Silvia Camila Da Costa Aguiar, Marcelo Henrique Santana Ulian, Euclides Braga Malheiros, Isabel Cristina Boleli

Abstract:

Beak plays a fundamental role in the hatching process of the chicks, since it is used for internal and external pipping. The present study examined whether the size of the beak influences the birth period of the broiler chicks in the hatching window. It was analyzed the beak size (length, height and width) of one-hundred twenty nine newly hatched chicks from light eggs (56.22-61.05g) and one-hundred twenty six chicks from heavy eggs (64.95-70.90g), produced by 38 and 45 weeks old broiler breeders (Cobb 500®), respectively. Egg incubation occurred at 37.5°C and 60% RH, with egg turning every hour. Length, height and width of the beaks were measured using a digital caliper (Zaas precision - digital caliper 6", 0.01mm) and the data expressed in millimeters. The beak length corresponded to distance between the tip of the beak and the rictus. The height of the beak was measured in the region of the culmen and its width in the region of the nostrils. Data were analyzed following a 3x2 factorial experimental design, being three birth periods within the hatching window (early: 471.78 to 485.42h, intermediate: 485.43 to 512.27h, and late: 512.28 to 528.72h) and two egg weights (light and heavy). There was a significant interaction between birth period and egg weight for beak height (P < 0.05), which was higher in the intermediate chicks from heavy eggs than in the other chicks from the same egg weight and chicks from light eggs (P < 0.05), that did not differ (P > 0.05). The beak length was influenced only for a birth period, and decreased through the hatch window (early < intermediate < late) (P < 0.05). The width of the beaks was influenced by both main factors, birth period and egg weight (P < 0.05). Early and intermediate chicks had similar beak width, but greater than late chicks, and chicks from heavy eggs presented greater beak width than chicks from light eggs (P < 0.05). In sum, the results show that chicks with longer beak hatch first and that beak length is an important variable for hatch period determination mainly for light eggs.

Keywords: beak dimensions, egg weight, hatching period, hatching window

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5 Effect of Different Sterilization Processes on Drug Loaded Silicone-Hydrogel

Authors: Raquel Galante, Marina Braga, Daniela Ghisleni, Terezinha J. A. Pinto, Rogério Colaço, Ana Paula Serro

Abstract:

The sensitive nature of soft biomaterials, such as hydrogels, renders their sterilization a particularly challenging task for the biomedical industry. Widely used contact lenses are now studied as promising platforms for topical corneal drug delivery. However, to the best of the authors knowledge, the influence of sterilization methods on these systems has yet to be evaluated. The main goal of this study was to understand how different pairs drug-hydrogel would interact under an ozone-based sterilization method in comparison with two conventional processes (steam heat and gamma irradiation). For that, Si-Hy containing hydroxylethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and [tris(trimethylsiloxy)silyl]propyl methacrylate (TRIS) was produced and soaked in different drug solutions, commonly used for the treatment of ocular diseases (levofloxacin, chlorhexidine, diclofenac and timolol maleate). The drug release profiles and main material properties were evaluated before and after the sterilization. Namely, swelling capacity was determined by water uptake studies, transparency was accessed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, surface topography/morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical properties by performing tensile tests. The drug released was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effectiveness of the sterilization procedures was assured by performing sterility tests. Ozone gas method led to a significant reduction of drug released and to the formation of degradation products specially for diclofenac and levofloxacin. Gamma irradiation led to darkening of the loaded Si-Hys and to the complete degradation of levofloxacin. Steam heat led to smoother surfaces and to a decrease of the amount of drug released, however, with no formation of degradation products. This difference in the total drug released could be the related to drug/polymer interactions promoted by the sterilization conditions in presence of the drug. Our findings offer important insights that, in turn, could be a useful contribution to the safe development of actual products.

Keywords: drug delivery, silicone hydrogels, sterilization, gamma irradiation, steam heat, ozone gas

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4 Status of the European Atlas of Natural Radiation

Authors: G. Cinelli, T. Tollefsen, P. Bossew, V. Gruber, R. Braga, M. A. Hernández-Ceballos, M. De Cort

Abstract:

In 2006, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission started the project of the 'European Atlas of Natural Radiation'. The Atlas aims at preparing a collection of maps of Europe displaying the levels of natural radioactivity caused by different sources (indoor and outdoor radon, cosmic radiation, terrestrial radionuclides, terrestrial gamma radiation, etc). The overall goal of the project is to estimate, in geographical resolution, the annual dose that the public may receive from natural radioactivity, combining all the information from the different radiation components. The first map which has been developed is the European map of indoor radon (Rn) since in most cases Rn is the most important contribution to exposure. New versions of the map are realised when new countries join the project or when already participating countries send new data. We show the latest status of this map which currently includes 25 European countries. Second, the JRC has undertaken to map a variable which measures 'what earth delivers' in terms of Rn. The corresponding quantity is called geogenic radon potential (RP). Due to the heterogeneity of data sources across the Europe there is need to develop a harmonized quantity which at the one hand adequately measures or classifies the RP, and on the other hand is suited to accommodate the variety of input data used to estimate this target quantity. Candidates for input quantities which may serve as predictors of the RP, and for which data are available across Europe, to different extent, are Uranium (U) concentration in rocks and soils, soil gas radon and soil permeability, terrestrial gamma dose rate, geological information and indoor data from ground floor. The European Geogenic Radon Map gives the possibility to characterize areas, on European geographical scale, for radon hazard where indoor radon measurements are not available. Parallel to ongoing work on the European Indoor Radon, Geogenic Radon and Cosmic Radiation Maps, we made progress in the development of maps of terrestrial gamma radiation and U, Th and K concentrations in soil and bedrock. We show the first, preliminary map of the terrestrial gamma dose rate, estimated using the data of ambient dose equivalent rate available from the EURDEP system (about 5000 fixed monitoring stations across Europe). Also, the first maps of U, Th, and K concentrations in soil and bedrock are shown in the present work.

Keywords: Europe, natural radiation, mapping, indoor radon

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3 Quantitative Seismic Interpretation in the LP3D Concession, Central of the Sirte Basin, Libya

Authors: Tawfig Alghbaili

Abstract:

LP3D Field is located near the center of the Sirt Basin in the Marada Trough approximately 215 km south Marsa Al Braga City. The Marada Trough is bounded on the west by a major fault, which forms the edge of the Beda Platform, while on the east, a bounding fault marks the edge of the Zelten Platform. The main reservoir in the LP3D Field is Upper Paleocene Beda Formation. The Beda Formation is mainly limestone interbedded with shale. The reservoir average thickness is 117.5 feet. To develop a better understanding of the characterization and distribution of the Beda reservoir, quantitative seismic data interpretation has been done, and also, well logs data were analyzed. Six reflectors corresponding to the tops of the Beda, Hagfa Shale, Gir, Kheir Shale, Khalifa Shale, and Zelten Formations were picked and mapped. Special work was done on fault interpretation part because of the complexities of the faults at the structure area. Different attribute analyses were done to build up more understanding of structures lateral extension and to view a clear image of the fault blocks. Time to depth conversion was computed using velocity modeling generated from check shot and sonic data. The simplified stratigraphic cross-section was drawn through the wells A1, A2, A3, and A4-LP3D. The distribution and the thickness variations of the Beda reservoir along the study area had been demonstrating. Petrophysical analysis of wireline logging also was done and Cross plots of some petrophysical parameters are generated to evaluate the lithology of reservoir interval. Structure and Stratigraphic Framework was designed and run to generate different model like faults, facies, and petrophysical models and calculate the reservoir volumetric. This study concluded that the depth structure map of the Beda formation shows the main structure in the area of study, which is north to south faulted anticline. Based on the Beda reservoir models, volumetric for the base case has been calculated and it has STOIIP of 41MMSTB and Recoverable oil of 10MMSTB. Seismic attributes confirm the structure trend and build a better understanding of the fault system in the area.

Keywords: LP3D Field, Beda Formation, reservoir models, Seismic attributes

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2 Most Recent Lifespan Estimate for the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant Computed by Using Borland and Miller Method and Mass Balance in Brazil, Paraguay

Authors: Anderson Braga Mendes

Abstract:

Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant is settled on the Paraná River, which is a natural boundary between Brazil and Paraguay; thus, the facility is shared by both countries. Itaipu Power Plant is the biggest hydroelectric generator in the world, and provides clean and renewable electrical energy supply for 17% and 76% of Brazil and Paraguay, respectively. The plant started its generation in 1984. It counts on 20 Francis turbines and has installed capacity of 14,000 MWh. Its historic generation record occurred in 2016 (103,098,366 MWh), and since the beginning of its operation until the last day of 2016 the plant has achieved the sum of 2,415,789,823 MWh. The distinct sedimentologic aspects of the drainage area of Itaipu Power Plant, from its stretch upstream (Porto Primavera and Rosana dams) to downstream (Itaipu dam itself), were taken into account in order to best estimate the increase/decrease in the sediment yield by using data from 2001 to 2016. Such data are collected through a network of 14 automatic sedimentometric stations managed by the company itself and operating in an hourly basis, covering an area of around 136,000 km² (92% of the incremental drainage area of the undertaking). Since 1972, a series of lifespan studies for the Itaipu Power Plant have been made, being first assessed by Sir Hans Albert Einstein, at the time of the feasibility studies for the enterprise. From that date onwards, eight further studies were made through the last 44 years aiming to confer more precision upon the estimates based on more updated data sets. From the analysis of each monitoring station, it was clearly noticed strong increase tendencies in the sediment yield through the last 14 years, mainly in the Iguatemi, Ivaí, São Francisco Falso and Carapá Rivers, the latter situated in Paraguay, whereas the others are utterly in Brazilian territory. Five lifespan scenarios considering different sediment yield tendencies were simulated with the aid of the softwares SEDIMENT and DPOSIT, both developed by the author of the present work. Such softwares thoroughly follow the Borland & Miller methodology (empirical method of area-reduction). The soundest scenario out of the five ones under analysis indicated a lifespan foresight of 168 years, being the reservoir only 1.8% silted by the end of 2016, after 32 years of operation. Besides, the mass balance in the reservoir (water inflows minus outflows) between 1986 and 2016 shows that 2% of the whole Itaipu lake is silted nowadays. Owing to the convergence of both results, which were acquired by using different methodologies and independent input data, it is worth concluding that the mathematical modeling is satisfactory and calibrated, thus assigning credibility to this most recent lifespan estimate.

Keywords: Borland and Miller method, hydroelectricity, Itaipu Power Plant, lifespan, mass balance

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1 Lifespan Assessment of the Fish Crossing System of Itaipu Power Plant (Brazil/Paraguay) Based on the Reaching of Its Sedimentological Equilibrium Computed by 3D Modeling and Churchill Trapping Efficiency

Authors: Anderson Braga Mendes, Wallington Felipe de Almeida, Cicero Medeiros da Silva

Abstract:

This study aimed to assess the lifespan of the fish transposition system of the Itaipu Power Plant (Brazil/Paraguay) by using 3D hydrodynamic modeling and Churchill trapping effiency in order to identify the sedimentological equilibrium configuration in the main pond of the Piracema Channel, which is part of a 10 km hydraulic circuit that enables fish migration from downstream to upstream (and vice-versa) the Itaipu Dam, overcoming a 120 m water drop. For that, bottom data from 2002 (its opening year) and 2015 were collected and analyzed, besides bed material at 12 stations to the purpose of identifying their granulometric profiles. The Shields and Yalin and Karahan diagrams for initiation of motion of bed material were used to determine the critical bed shear stress for the sedimentological equilibrium state based on the sort of sediment (grain size) to be found at the bottom once the balance is reached. Such granulometry was inferred by analyzing the grosser material (fine and medium sands) which inflows the pond and deposits in its backwater zone, being adopted a range of diameters within the upper and lower limits of that sand stratification. The software Delft 3D was used in an attempt to compute the bed shear stress at every station under analysis. By modifying the input bathymetry of the main pond of the Piracema Channel so as to the computed bed shear stress at each station fell within the intervals of acceptable critical stresses simultaneously, it was possible to foresee the bed configuration of the main pond when the sedimentological equilibrium is reached. Under such condition, 97% of the whole pond capacity will be silted, and a shallow water course with depths ranging from 0.2 m to 1.5 m will be formed; in 2002, depths ranged from 2 m to 10 m. Out of that water path, the new bottom will be practically flat and covered by a layer of water 0.05 m thick. Thus, in the future the main pond of the Piracema Channel will lack its purpose of providing a resting place for migrating fish species, added to the fact that it may become an insurmountable barrier for medium and large sized specimens. Everything considered, it was estimated that its lifespan, from the year of its opening to the moment of the sedimentological equilibrium configuration, will be approximately 95 years–almost half of the computed lifespan of Itaipu Power Plant itself. However, it is worth mentioning that drawbacks concerning the silting in the main pond will start being noticed much earlier than such time interval owing to the reasons previously mentioned.

Keywords: 3D hydrodynamic modeling, Churchill trapping efficiency, fish crossing system, Itaipu power plant, lifespan, sedimentological equilibrium

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