Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: broadleaf

9 Extraction of Forest Plantation Resources in Selected Forest of San Manuel, Pangasinan, Philippines Using LiDAR Data for Forest Status Assessment

Authors: Mark Joseph Quinto, Roan Beronilla, Guiller Damian, Eliza Camaso, Ronaldo Alberto


Forest inventories are essential to assess the composition, structure and distribution of forest vegetation that can be used as baseline information for management decisions. Classical forest inventory is labor intensive and time-consuming and sometimes even dangerous. The use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) in forest inventory would improve and overcome these restrictions. This study was conducted to determine the possibility of using LiDAR derived data in extracting high accuracy forest biophysical parameters and as a non-destructive method for forest status analysis of San Manual, Pangasinan. Forest resources extraction was carried out using LAS tools, GIS, Envi and .bat scripts with the available LiDAR data. The process includes the generation of derivatives such as Digital Terrain Model (DTM), Canopy Height Model (CHM) and Canopy Cover Model (CCM) in .bat scripts followed by the generation of 17 composite bands to be used in the extraction of forest classification covers using ENVI 4.8 and GIS software. The Diameter in Breast Height (DBH), Above Ground Biomass (AGB) and Carbon Stock (CS) were estimated for each classified forest cover and Tree Count Extraction was carried out using GIS. Subsequently, field validation was conducted for accuracy assessment. Results showed that the forest of San Manuel has 73% Forest Cover, which is relatively much higher as compared to the 10% canopy cover requirement. On the extracted canopy height, 80% of the tree’s height ranges from 12 m to 17 m. CS of the three forest covers based on the AGB were: 20819.59 kg/20x20 m for closed broadleaf, 8609.82 kg/20x20 m for broadleaf plantation and 15545.57 kg/20x20m for open broadleaf. Average tree counts for the tree forest plantation was 413 trees/ha. As such, the forest of San Manuel has high percent forest cover and high CS.

Keywords: carbon stock, forest inventory, LiDAR, tree count

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8 High Resolution Satellite Imagery and Lidar Data for Object-Based Tree Species Classification in Quebec, Canada

Authors: Bilel Chalghaf, Mathieu Varin


Forest characterization in Quebec, Canada, is usually assessed based on photo-interpretation at the stand level. For species identification, this often results in a lack of precision. Very high spatial resolution imagery, such as DigitalGlobe, and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), have the potential to overcome the limitations of aerial imagery. To date, few studies have used that data to map a large number of species at the tree level using machine learning techniques. The main objective of this study is to map 11 individual high tree species ( > 17m) at the tree level using an object-based approach in the broadleaf forest of Kenauk Nature, Quebec. For the individual tree crown segmentation, three canopy-height models (CHMs) from LiDAR data were assessed: 1) the original, 2) a filtered, and 3) a corrected model. The corrected CHM gave the best accuracy and was then coupled with imagery to refine tree species crown identification. When compared with photo-interpretation, 90% of the objects represented a single species. For modeling, 313 variables were derived from 16-band WorldView-3 imagery and LiDAR data, using radiance, reflectance, pixel, and object-based calculation techniques. Variable selection procedures were employed to reduce their number from 313 to 16, using only 11 bands to aid reproducibility. For classification, a global approach using all 11 species was compared to a semi-hierarchical hybrid classification approach at two levels: (1) tree type (broadleaf/conifer) and (2) individual broadleaf (five) and conifer (six) species. Five different model techniques were used: (1) support vector machine (SVM), (2) classification and regression tree (CART), (3) random forest (RF), (4) k-nearest neighbors (k-NN), and (5) linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Each model was tuned separately for all approaches and levels. For the global approach, the best model was the SVM using eight variables (overall accuracy (OA): 80%, Kappa: 0.77). With the semi-hierarchical hybrid approach, at the tree type level, the best model was the k-NN using six variables (OA: 100% and Kappa: 1.00). At the level of identifying broadleaf and conifer species, the best model was the SVM, with OA of 80% and 97% and Kappa values of 0.74 and 0.97, respectively, using seven variables for both models. This paper demonstrates that a hybrid classification approach gives better results and that using 16-band WorldView-3 with LiDAR data leads to more precise predictions for tree segmentation and classification, especially when the number of tree species is large.

Keywords: tree species, object-based, classification, multispectral, machine learning, WorldView-3, LiDAR

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7 Using 3D Satellite Imagery to Generate a High Precision Canopy Height Model

Authors: M. Varin, A. M. Dubois, R. Gadbois-Langevin, B. Chalghaf


Good knowledge of the physical environment is essential for an integrated forest planning. This information enables better forecasting of operating costs, determination of cutting volumes, and preservation of ecologically sensitive areas. The use of satellite images in stereoscopic pairs gives the capacity to generate high precision 3D models, which are scale-adapted for harvesting operations. These models could represent an alternative to 3D LiDAR data, thanks to their advantageous cost of acquisition. The objective of the study was to assess the quality of stereo-derived canopy height models (CHM) in comparison to a traditional LiDAR CHM and ground tree-height samples. Two study sites harboring two different forest stand types (broadleaf and conifer) were analyzed using stereo pairs and tri-stereo images from the WorldView-3 satellite to calculate CHM. Acquisition of multispectral images from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) was also realized on a smaller part of the broadleaf study site. Different algorithms using two softwares (PCI Geomatica and Correlator3D) with various spatial resolutions and band selections were tested to select the 3D modeling technique, which offered the best performance when compared with LiDAR. In the conifer study site, the CHM produced with Corelator3D using only the 50-cm resolution panchromatic band was the one with the smallest Root-mean-square deviation (RMSE: 1.31 m). In the broadleaf study site, the tri-stereo model provided slightly better performance, with an RMSE of 1.2 m. The tri-stereo model was also compared to the UAV, which resulted in an RMSE of 1.3 m. At individual tree level, when ground samples were compared to satellite, lidar, and UAV CHM, RMSE were 2.8, 2.0, and 2.0 m, respectively. Advanced analysis was done for all of these cases, and it has been noted that RMSE is reduced when the canopy cover is higher when shadow and slopes are lower and when clouds are distant from the analyzed site.

Keywords: very high spatial resolution, satellite imagery, WorlView-3, canopy height models, CHM, LiDAR, unmanned aerial vehicle, UAV

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6 Evaluation of Broad Leaf Weed Herbicides on Weed Control and Productivity of Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.)

Authors: Kassahun Zewdie


-- A field experiment was conducted at Holetta research center and farmers fields during 2017 and 2018 to determine the effects of haulauxifen-methyl + florasulam (QULEX 200 WG) on broadleaf weeds in wheat. The design was a Randomized Complete Block with three replications. The treatments were included haulauxifen-Methyl + florasulam @ 25gm, 50gm and 75gm ha-1, (King-D) 2, 4-D dimethyl amine @1.0 L ha-1, 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid @1.0 L ha-1 rate (standard check), farmers practice twice hand weeding (25-30 and 55-60) days after sowing and weedy check. Herbicides were applied with knapsack sprayer with a spray volume of 200 L ha-1. The wheat variety “Denda” was sown at 20 cm spacing. The recommended rate of fertilizer was applied. Weed density and biomass were recorded at (25-30 and 55-60) days after sowing. The results revealed that post emergence application of haulauxifen-methyl + florasulam @50gm ha-1 had a significant (P<0.05) effect on Guizotia scabra, Polygonum nepalense, Plantago lanceolata, Galinsoga parviflora, Sonchus spp., Galium spurium, Amaranthus hybridus, Raphanus raphanistrum and Medicago polymorpha population. The magnitude ranged from two to four folds when comparing with weed densities recorded in the unweeded plot. The grain yield harvested from the untreated check plot was significantly lower than the rest treatments. The grain yield was improved by 17.3% over the standard check with better performance.

Keywords: broadleaf, grass, weeds, control

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5 Functional Traits and Agroecosystem Multifunctionality in Summer Cover Crop Mixtures and Monocultures

Authors: Etienne Herrick


As an economically and ecologically feasible method for farmers to introduce greater diversity into their crop rotations, cover cropping presents a valuable opportunity for improving the sustainability of food production. Planted in-between cash crop growing seasons, cover crops serve to enhance agroecosystem functioning, rather than being destined for sale or consumption. In fact, cover crops may hold the capacity to deliver multiple ecosystem functions or services simultaneously (multifunctionality). Building upon this line of research will not only benefit society at present, but also support its continued survival through its potential for restoring depleted soils and reducing the need for energy-intensive and harmful external inputs like fertilizers and pesticides. This study utilizes a trait-based approach to explore the influence of inter- and intra-specific interactions in summer cover crop mixtures and monocultures on functional trait expression and ecosystem services. Functional traits that enhance ecosystem services related to agricultural production include height, specific leaf area (SLA), root, shoot ratio, leaf C and N concentrations, and flowering phenology. Ecosystem services include biomass production, weed suppression, reduced N leaching, N recycling, and support of pollinators. Employing a trait-based approach may allow for the elucidation of mechanistic links between plant structure and resulting ecosystem service delivery. While relationships between some functional traits and the delivery of particular ecosystem services may be readily apparent through existing ecological knowledge (e.g. height positively correlating with weed suppression), this study will begin to quantify those relationships so as to gain further understanding of whether and how measurable variation in functional trait expression across cover crop mixtures and monocultures can serve as a reliable predictor of variation in the types and abundances of ecosystem services delivered. Six cover crop species, including legume, grass, and broadleaf functional types, were selected for growth in six mixtures and their component monocultures based upon the principle of trait complementarity. The tricultures (three-way mixtures) are comprised of a legume, grass, and broadleaf species, and include cowpea/sudex/buckwheat, sunnhemp/sudex/buckwheat, and chickling vetch/oat/buckwheat combinations; the dicultures contain the same legume and grass combinations as above, without the buckwheat broadleaf. By combining species with expectedly complimentary traits (for example, legumes are N suppliers and grasses are N acquirers, creating a nutrient cycling loop) the cover crop mixtures may elicit a broader range of ecosystem services than that provided by a monoculture, though trade-offs could exist. Collecting functional trait data will enable the investigation of the types of interactions driving these ecosystem service outcomes. It also allows for generalizability across a broader range of species than just those selected for this study, which may aid in informing further research efforts exploring species and ecosystem functioning, as well as on-farm management decisions.

Keywords: agroecology, cover crops, functional traits, multifunctionality, trait complementarity

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4 Historical Tree Height Growth Associated with Climate Change in Western North America

Authors: Yassine Messaoud, Gordon Nigh, Faouzi Messaoud, Han Chen


The effect of climate change on tree growth in boreal and temperate forests has received increased interest in the context of global warming. However, most studies were conducted in small areas and with a limited number of tree species. Here, we examined the height growth responses of seventeen tree species to climate change in Western North America. 37009 stands from forest inventory databases in Canada and USA with varying establishment date were selected. Dominant and co-dominant trees from each stand were sampled to determine top tree height at 50 years breast height age. Height was related to historical mean annual and summer temperatures, annual and summer Palmer Drought Severity Index, tree establishment date, slope, aspect, soil fertility as determined by the rate of carbon organic matter decomposition (carbon/nitrogen), geographic locations (latitude, longitude, and elevation), species range (coastal, interior, and both ranges), shade tolerance and leaf form (needle leaves, deciduous needle leaves, and broadleaves). Climate change had mostly a positive effect on tree height growth. The results explained 62.4% of the height growth variance. Since 1880, height growth increase was greater for coastal, high shade tolerant, and broadleaf species. Height growth increased more on steep slopes and high soil fertility soils. Greater height growth was mostly observed at the leading range and upward. Conversely, some species showed the opposite pattern probably due to the increase of drought (coastal Mediterranean area), precipitation and cloudiness (Alaska and British Columbia) and peculiarity (higher latitudes-lower elevations and vice versa) of western North America topography. This study highlights the role of the species ecological amplitude and traits, and geographic locations as the main factors determining the growth response and its magnitude to the recent global climate change.

Keywords: Height growth, global climate change, species range, species characteristics, species ecological amplitude, geographic locations, western North America

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3 Evaluation of Medicinal Plants, Catunaregam spinosa, Houttuynia cordata, and Rhapis excelsa from Malaysia for Antibacterial, Antifungal and Antiviral Properties

Authors: Yik Sin Chan, Bee Ling Chuah, Wei Quan Chan, Ri Jin Cheng, Yan Hang Oon, Kong Soo Khoo, Nam Weng Sit


Traditionally, medicinal plants have been used to treat different kinds of ailments including infectious diseases. They serve as a good source of lead compounds for the development of new and safer anti-infective agents. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial potential of the leaves of three medicinal plants, namely Catunaregam spinosa (Rubiaceae; Mountain pomegranate), Houttuynia cordata (Saururaceae; "fishy-smell herb") and Rhapis excelsa (Arecaceae; “broadleaf lady palm”). The leaves extracts were obtained by sequential extraction using hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and water. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were assessed using a colorimetric broth microdilution method against a panel of human pathogenic bacteria (Gram-positive: Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus; Gram-negative: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungi (yeasts: Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans; Moulds: Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes) respectively; while antiviral activity was evaluated against the Chikungunya virus on monkey kidney epithelial (Vero) cells by neutral red uptake assay. All the plant extracts showed bacteriostatic activity, however, only 72% of the extracts (13/18) were found to have bactericidal activity. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were given by the hexane extract of C. spinosa against S. aureus with the values of 0.16 and 0.31 mg/mL respectively. All the extracts also possessed fungistatic activity. Only the hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of H. cordata exerted inhibitory activity against A. fumigatus, giving the lowest fungal susceptibility index of 16.7%. In contrast, only 61% of the extracts (11/18) showed fungicidal activity. The ethanol extract of R. excelsa exhibited the strongest fungicidal activity against C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and T. mentagrophytes with minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of 0.04–0.08 mg/mL, in addition to its methanol extract against T. mentagrophytes (MFC=0.02 mg/mL). For anti-Chikungunya virus activity, only chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of R. excelsa showed significant antiviral activity with 50% effective concentrations (EC50) of 29.9 and 78.1 g/mL respectively. Extracts of R. excelsa warrant further investigations into their active principles responsible for antifungal and antiviral properties.

Keywords: bactericidal, Chikungunya virus, extraction, fungicidal

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2 Inverted Diameter-Limit Thinning: A Promising Alternative for Mixed Populus tremuloides Stands Management

Authors: Ablo Paul Igor Hounzandji, Benoit Lafleur, Annie DesRochers


Introduction: Populus tremuloides [Michx] regenerates rapidly and abundantly by root suckering after harvest, creating stands with interconnected stems. Pre-commercial thinning can be used to concentrate growth on fewer stems to reach merchantability faster than un-thinned stands. However, conventional thinning methods are typically designed to reach even spacing between residual stems (1,100 stem ha⁻¹, evenly distributed), which can lead to treated stands consisting of weaker/smaller stems compared to the original stands. Considering the nature of P. tremuloides's regeneration, with large underground biomass of interconnected roots, aiming to keep the most vigorous and largest stems, regardless of their spatial distribution, inverted diameter-limit thinning could be more beneficial to post-thinning stand productivity because it would reduce the imbalance between roots and leaf area caused by thinning. Aims: This study aimed to compare stand and stem productivity of P. tremuloides stands thinned with a conventional thinning treatment (CT; 1,100 stem ha⁻¹, evenly distributed), two levels of inverted diameter-limit thinning (DL1 and DL2, keeping the largest 1100 or 2200 stems ha⁻¹, respectively, regardless of their spatial distribution) and a control unthinned treatment. Because DL treatments can create substantial or frequent gaps in the thinned stands, we also aimed to evaluate the potential of this treatment to recreate mixed conifer-broadleaf stands by fill-planting Picea glauca seedlings. Methods: Three replicate 21 year-old sucker-regenerated aspen stands were thinned in 2010 according to four treatments: CT, DL1, DL2, and un-thinned control. Picea glauca seedlings were underplanted in gaps created by the DL1 and DL2 treatments. Stand productivity per hectare, stem quality (diameter and height, volume stem⁻¹) and survival and height growth of fill-planted P. glauca seedlings were measured 8 year post-treatments. Results: Productivity, volume, diameter, and height were better in the treated stands (CT, DL1, and DL2) than in the un-thinned control. Productivity of CT and DL1 stands was similar 4.8 m³ ha⁻¹ year⁻¹. At the tree level, diameter and height of the trees in the DL1 treatment were 5% greater than those in the CT treatment. The average volume of trees in the DL1 treatment was 11% higher than the CT treatment. Survival after 8 years of fill planted P. glauca seedlings was 2% greater in the DL1 than in the DL2 treatment. DL1 treatment also produced taller seedlings (+20 cm). Discussion: Results showed that DL treatments were effective in producing post-thinned stands with larger stems without affecting stand productivity. In addition, we showed that these treatments were suitable to introduce slower growing conifer seedlings such as Picea glauca in order to re-create or maintain mixed stands despite the aggressive nature of P. tremuloides sucker regeneration.

Keywords: Aspen, inverted diameter-limit, mixed forest, populus tremuloides, silviculture, thinning

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1 Classification Using Worldview-2 Imagery of Giant Panda Habitat in Wolong, Sichuan Province, China

Authors: Yunwei Tang, Linhai Jing, Hui Li, Qingjie Liu, Xiuxia Li, Qi Yan, Haifeng Ding


The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is an endangered species, mainly live in central China, where bamboos act as the main food source of wild giant pandas. Knowledge of spatial distribution of bamboos therefore becomes important for identifying the habitat of giant pandas. There have been ongoing studies for mapping bamboos and other tree species using remote sensing. WorldView-2 (WV-2) is the first high resolution commercial satellite with eight Multi-Spectral (MS) bands. Recent studies demonstrated that WV-2 imagery has a high potential in classification of tree species. The advanced classification techniques are important for utilising high spatial resolution imagery. It is generally agreed that object-based image analysis is a more desirable method than pixel-based analysis in processing high spatial resolution remotely sensed data. Classifiers that use spatial information combined with spectral information are known as contextual classifiers. It is suggested that contextual classifiers can achieve greater accuracy than non-contextual classifiers. Thus, spatial correlation can be incorporated into classifiers to improve classification results. The study area is located at Wuyipeng area in Wolong, Sichuan Province. The complex environment makes it difficult for information extraction since bamboos are sparsely distributed, mixed with brushes, and covered by other trees. Extensive fieldworks in Wuyingpeng were carried out twice. The first one was on 11th June, 2014, aiming at sampling feature locations for geometric correction and collecting training samples for classification. The second fieldwork was on 11th September, 2014, for the purposes of testing the classification results. In this study, spectral separability analysis was first performed to select appropriate MS bands for classification. Also, the reflectance analysis provided information for expanding sample points under the circumstance of knowing only a few. Then, a spatially weighted object-based k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) classifier was applied to the selected MS bands to identify seven land cover types (bamboo, conifer, broadleaf, mixed forest, brush, bare land, and shadow), accounting for spatial correlation within classes using geostatistical modelling. The spatially weighted k-NN method was compared with three alternatives: the traditional k-NN classifier, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) method and the Classification and Regression Tree (CART). Through field validation, it was proved that the classification result obtained using the spatially weighted k-NN method has the highest overall classification accuracy (77.61%) and Kappa coefficient (0.729); the producer’s accuracy and user’s accuracy achieve 81.25% and 95.12% for the bamboo class, respectively, also higher than the other methods. Photos of tree crowns were taken at sample locations using a fisheye camera, so the canopy density could be estimated. It is found that it is difficult to identify bamboo in the areas with a large canopy density (over 0.70); it is possible to extract bamboos in the areas with a median canopy density (from 0.2 to 0.7) and in a sparse forest (canopy density is less than 0.2). In summary, this study explores the ability of WV-2 imagery for bamboo extraction in a mountainous region in Sichuan. The study successfully identified the bamboo distribution, providing supporting knowledge for assessing the habitats of giant pandas.

Keywords: bamboo mapping, classification, geostatistics, k-NN, worldview-2

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