Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: Nida Haroon

27 Clarification of Taxonomic Confusions among Adulterated Drugs Coffee Seena and Seena Weed through Systematic and Pharmaceutical Markers

Authors: Shabnum Shaheen, Nida Haroon, Farah Khan, Sumera Javad, Mehreen Jalal, Samina Sarwar

Abstract:

Coffee Senna is pharmaceutically very important and used for multiple health disorders such as gastric pains, indigestion, snakebites, asthma and fever, tuberculosis and menstrual problems. However, its immense medicinal value and great demand lead to adulteration issue which could be injurious for users. Some times its adulterant Seena weed (Senna occidentalis L.) is used as its substitute which definitely not as effective as Coffee Senna. Hence, the present study was undertaken to provide some tools for systematic and pharmaceutical authentication of a shrubby plant Coffee Senna (Cassia occidentalis Linn.). These parameters included macro and micro morphological characters, anatomical and palynomorph characterization, solubility, fluorescence and phytochemical analysis. By the application of these parameters acquired results revealed that, these two plants are distinct from each other. The Coffee Seena was found to be an annual shrub with trilobed pollen, diacytic, paracytic and anisocytic stomata whereas the Seena weed stands out as an annual or perennial herb with spheroidal and circular pollen and paracytic type of stomata. The powdered drug of Coffee seena is dark grayish green whereas the powdered drug of Seena weed is light green in color. These findings are constructive in authentic identification of these plants.

Keywords: coffee senna, Senna weed, taxonomic evaluation, pharmaceutical markers

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
26 The Impact of Indigenous Architecture and the Origin of Tomb Architecture in Indian Sub-Continent: A Case Study of the Tombs of Muhmmad B. Haroon, Saif-Ud-Daula Mahmud, Khalid Walid and Sultan Ghari; An Appraisal

Authors: Tauqeer Ahmad

Abstract:

A lot of literature have been produced addressing the problem of origin and development of tomb architecture in Pakistan and India. In this attempt, the author would address this problem in the Indian prospective. Particularly, the impact of indigenous architecture would be analyzed in this research paper. As we observe that on early Muslim tombs in Indian sub-continent, to large extent, were contributed in term of architecture by local masons. So far as the material used in these early tombs is concerned was also picked from Indian tradition according to the availability and the local traditions.

Keywords: Khitti Chor, tomb of Sultan Ghari, tomb at Zairan, Lasbela

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
25 Variation in Adaptation Strategies of Commelina Communis L. Biotypes under Drought Stress Condition

Authors: Muhammad Haroon, LI Xiangju

Abstract:

C. communis L. is an important weed of many crop, but very little information about the adaptation strategies of C. communis L. biotypes under drought stress. We investigated five biotypes of C. communis L under drought stress to identify the adaptation mechanism. The expression of drought stress related genes (DRS1, EREB and HRB1) was up-regulated in biotypes, while in some biotypes their expression was down regulated. All five biotypes can thus regulate water balance to consume less water to maintain their status under drought stress condition. This result concluded that C. communis L. biotypes can survive longer under drought stress condition. Weed scientist should seek more effective management strategies to deal with C. communis L.

Keywords: C. communis, biotypes, drought stress, gene expression

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
24 Analytical Study Of Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals Using Finite Difference Time Domain Method

Authors: N. R. Mohamad, H. Ono, H. Haroon, A. Salleh, N. M. Z. Hashim

Abstract:

In this research, we have studied and analyzed the modulation of light and liquid crystal in HPDLCs using Finite Domain Time Difference (FDTD) method. HPDLCs are modeled as a mixture of polymer and liquid crystals (LCs) that categorized as an anisotropic medium. FDTD method is directly solves Maxwell’s equation with less approximation, so this method can analyze more flexible and general approach for the arbitrary anisotropic media. As the results from FDTD simulation, the highest diffraction efficiency occurred at ±19 degrees (Bragg angle) using p polarization incident beam to Bragg grating, Q > 10 when the pitch is 1µm. Therefore, the liquid crystal is assumed to be aligned parallel to the grating constant vector during these parameters.

Keywords: birefringence, diffraction efficiency, finite domain time difference, nematic liquid crystals

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
23 Numerical Modelling of Effective Diffusivity in Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Ayesha Sohail, Khadija Maqbool, Anila Asif, Haroon Ahmad

Abstract:

The field of tissue engineering is an active area of research. Bone tissue engineering helps to resolve the clinical problems of critical size and non-healing defects by the creation of man-made bone tissue. We will design and validate an efficient numerical model, which will simulate the effective diffusivity in bone tissue engineering. Our numerical model will be based on the finite element analysis of the diffusion-reaction equations. It will have the ability to optimize the diffusivity, even at multi-scale, with the variation of time. It will also have a special feature, with which we will not only be able to predict the oxygen, glucose and cell density dynamics, more accurately, but will also sort the issues arising due to anisotropy. We will fix these problems with the help of modifying the governing equations, by selecting appropriate spatio-temporal finite element schemes, by adaptive grid refinement strategy and by transient analysis.

Keywords: scaffolds, porosity, diffusion, transient analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 450
22 A Review of Technology Roadmaps for Commercialization of Solar Photovoltaic Energy Systems

Authors: Muhammad Usman Sardar, Muhammad Haroon Nadeem, Shahbaz Ahmad, Ashiq Hussain

Abstract:

The marketing of solar photovoltaic energy systems has one of the monetary settlements to address the higher rate to pay in advance with the purchase of two decades worth of electricity services. To deploy solar photovoltaic technologies and energy setups in areas, it’s important to create a system of credit that can ensure the availability of subsidized capital and commercial conditions for the society. Meanings of energy in developing countries like Pakistan were strongly prompted by marketable interests and industrialization trend influences within their culture. It’s going to be essential to prepare the concerned proceeding models of energy development strategies. This paper discuss the impact and share of environmental friendly solar photo-voltaic energy, researching to find the most appropriate alternate solutions for balance the energy demand and supply and current progressive position in different countries regarding to development and deployment. Based on the literature reviews, its presence found that most beneficial and concerning policies have implemented in several countries around the globe.

Keywords: photovoltaic marketing and pricing, renewable energy technology, solar photovoltaic, SPV

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
21 Impact on Vegetables Irrigated with Municipal and Industrial Wastewater from Korangi Drain near IoBM, Karachi

Authors: Nida Rabab

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to assess the Impact on Vegetables Irrigated with Municipal and Industrial wastewater from Korangi Drain near IoBM, Karachi. Some vegetables are grown using sewage and industrial wastewater laden with alarmingly high levels of heavy metals and bacteriological contamination. Maximum concentration of lead was found in spinach 8.20 mg/l as against safe limits of 0.01 mg/l and maximum nickel concentration was found in banana 3.114 mg/l as against 0.02 mg/l, whereas all vegetables were invariably bacteriologically contaminated much beyond safe limits. Appropriate legislations in Sindh and competent manpower for rigorous monitoring to gage the harmful impact on vegetables grown with untreated municipal and industrial wastewater to effectively combat the problems of growing vegetables. The emptying of untreated municipal and industrial wastewater through Korangi Drain in fresh water bodies into Karachi cost should be banned to save the coast becoming hypoxic causing irreparable loss to marine life.

Keywords: laden, concentration, hypoxic, vegetables

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
20 Socio-Demographic Predictors of Divorce Adjustment in Pakistani Women

Authors: Rukhsana Kausar, Nida Zafar

Abstract:

The present research investigated socio-demographic predictors of divorce adjustment in Pakistani women. The sample comprised of 80 divorced women from different areas of Lahore. Self developed Socio-Demographic predictor scale and Divorce Adjustment Scale by (Fisher, 2001) was used for assessment. Analyses showed that working divorced women living with joint family system are more adjusted as compared to non-working divorced women living with joint family system. Women having one child are more adjusted as compared to women having more than one child. Findings highlight importance of presence of father for healthy development of adolescents. Adjustment of divorcee women was positively associated with income, social support from the family, having favorable attitudes toward marital dissolution prior to divorce, and being the partner who initiated the divorce. In addition, older women showed some evidence of poorer adjustment than did younger women. Findings highlight importance of support for divorce adjustment.

Keywords: socio-demographic, adjustment, women, divorce

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
19 Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential of Rutin in Cheddar Cheese

Authors: Haroon Jamshaid Qazi, Namrah Wahid, Sanaullah Iqbal, Raheel Suleman

Abstract:

The aim of the current study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of Rutin in cheddar cheese. The study was conducted by adding the Rutin in the cheddar cheese in different concentrations according to experimental design, i.e., T1 (20 ppm Rutin), T2 (40 ppm Rutin), T3 (60 ppm Rutin), T4 (80 ppm Rutin). BHT was taken as a positive control at a concentration of 200 ppm, and negative control had neither Rutin nor BHT. The ripening time for cheeses was 90 days at a temperature of 8°C. The results of the various antioxidants assays (Total phenolic contents (TPC) and Antioxidant activity (AA), with storage stability tests (Anisidine value (AV) and Thiobarbituric acid value (TBARS)) performed during different storage intervals 0, 30, 60 and 90 days exhibited that AA in linoleic acid and TPC were significantly (p < 0.05) increased by the addition of rutin to cheese at all concentrations. Moreover, significant reduction in the TBARS values was also observed during the storage period. Rutin also showed a good potential to inhibit the microbial proliferation in the treated samples of cheese. There was a significant decreasing trend seen in total plate count and yeasts and molds count. The sensorial attributes i.e., color, flavor, odor and overall acceptability were increased after adding Rutin to cheddar cheese.

Keywords: cheddar cheese, Rutin, antioxidant, antimicrobial

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
18 Effects of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on the Yield and Nutritive Quality of Tomato Fruits

Authors: Narjes Dashti, Nida Ali, Magdy Montasser, Vineetha Cherian

Abstract:

The influence of two PGPR strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas rhizophilia, on fruit yields, pomological traits and chemical contents of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits were studied. The study was conducted separately on two different cultivar varieties of tomato, namely Supermarmande and UC82B. The results indicated that the presence of the PGPR almost doubled the average yield per plant. There was a significant improvement in the pomological qualities of the PGPR treated tomato fruits compared to the corresponding healthy treatments especially in traits such as the average fruit weight, height, and fruit volume. The chemical analysis of tomato fruits revealed that the presence of the PGPRs increased the total protein, lycopene, alkalinity and phenol content of the tomato fruits compared to the healthy controls. They had no influence on the reduced sugar, total soluble solids or the titerable acid content of fruits. However their presence reduced the amount of ascorbic acid in tomato fruits compared to the healthy controls.

Keywords: PGPR, tomato, fruit quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
17 Social Media Marketing Efforts to Influence Brand Equity and Consumer Behavior: The Case of Luxury Fashion Brands in Pakistan

Authors: Syed Rashid Hussain Shah, Sumera Syed, Nida Mushtaq

Abstract:

Social media is not only acting as a medium of communication; rather it has provided a platform where customers can actually live with the brands they so dearly envy and interact with others with same interest. Organizations are making social media marketing efforts (SMME) to convert this opportunity into a meaningful experience. It may be resembled or considered as an act of branding where the notion is not only to understand the consumer behavior but also developing a strong link with them. Ultimately the quest is to influence and bend it into a mutual benefit of the stakeholders. This study investigates SMME of brands with the help of five dimensions (i.e., entertainment, interaction, trendiness, customization and word of mouth). The study has found that there is no significant impact of SMME as a construct on brand equity and consumer behavior. However, few of the dimensions (i.e. customization and word of mouth), have been found to have influence on brand equity (brand association, brand image) and consumer response (brand preferences).

Keywords: social media marketing efforts (SMME), brand equity, preference, loyalty price premium, luxury brands, international

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
16 Analysis of Wire Coating for Heat Transfer Flow of a Viscoelastic PTT Fluid with Slip Boundary Conditions

Authors: Rehan Ali Shah, A. M. Siddiqui, T. Haroon

Abstract:

Slip boundary value problem in wire coating analysis with heat transfer is examined. The fluid is assumed to be viscoelastic PTT (Phan-Thien and Tanner). The rheological constitutive equation of PTT fluid model simulates various polymer melts. Therefore, the current consequences are valuable in a number of realistic situations. Effects of slip parameter γ as well as εDec^2 (viscoelastic index) on the axial velocity, shear stress, normal stress, average velocity, volume flux, thickness of coated wire, shear stress, force on the total wire and temperature distribution profiles have been investigated. A new direction is explored to analyze the flow with the slip parameter. The slippage at the boundaries plays an important role in thickness of coated wire. It is noted that as the slip parameter increases the flow rate and thickness of coated wire increases while, temperature distribution decreases. The results reduce to no slip when the slip parameter is vanished. Furthermore, we can obtain the results for Maxwell and viscous model by setting ε and λ equal to zero respectively.

Keywords: wire coating, straight annular die, PTT fluid, heat transfer, slip boundary conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
15 A Brain Controlled Robotic Gait Trainer for Neurorehabilitation

Authors: Qazi Umer Jamil, Abubakr Siddique, Mubeen Ur Rehman, Nida Aziz, Mohsin I. Tiwana

Abstract:

This paper discusses a brain controlled robotic gait trainer for neurorehabilitation of Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) patients. Patients suffering from Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI) become unable to execute motion control of their lower proximities due to degeneration of spinal cord neurons. The presented approach can help SCI patients in neuro-rehabilitation training by directly translating patient motor imagery into walkers motion commands and thus bypassing spinal cord neurons completely. A non-invasive EEG based brain-computer interface is used for capturing patient neural activity. For signal processing and classification, an open source software (OpenVibe) is used. Classifiers categorize the patient motor imagery (MI) into a specific set of commands that are further translated into walker motion commands. The robotic walker also employs fall detection for ensuring safety of patient during gait training and can act as a support for SCI patients. The gait trainer is tested with subjects, and satisfactory results were achieved.

Keywords: brain computer interface (BCI), gait trainer, spinal cord injury (SCI), neurorehabilitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
14 Maturity Transformation Risk Factors in Islamic Banking: An Implication of Basel III Liquidity Regulations

Authors: Haroon Mahmood, Christopher Gan, Cuong Nguyen

Abstract:

Maturity transformation risk is highlighted as one of the major causes of recent global financial crisis. Basel III has proposed new liquidity regulations for transformation function of banks and hence to monitor this risk. Specifically, net stable funding ratio (NSFR) is introduced to enhance medium- and long-term resilience against liquidity shocks. Islamic banking is widely accepted in many parts of the world and contributes to a significant portion of the financial sector in many countries. Using a dataset of 68 fully fledged Islamic banks from 11 different countries, over a period from 2005 – 2014, this study has attempted to analyze various factors that may significantly affect the maturity transformation risk in these banks. We utilize 2-step system GMM estimation technique on unbalanced panel and find bank capital, credit risk, financing, size and market power are most significant among the bank specific factors. Also, gross domestic product and inflation are the significant macro-economic factors influencing this risk. However, bank profitability, asset efficiency, and income diversity are found insignificant in determining the maturity transformation risk in Islamic banking model.

Keywords: Basel III, Islamic banking, maturity transformation risk, net stable funding ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
13 Tibyan Automated Arabic Correction Using Machine-Learning in Detecting Syntactical Mistakes

Authors: Ashwag O. Maghraby, Nida N. Khan, Hosnia A. Ahmed, Ghufran N. Brohi, Hind F. Assouli, Jawaher S. Melibari

Abstract:

The Arabic language is one of the most important languages. Learning it is so important for many people around the world because of its religious and economic importance and the real challenge lies in practicing it without grammatical or syntactical mistakes. This research focused on detecting and correcting the syntactic mistakes of Arabic syntax according to their position in the sentence and focused on two of the main syntactical rules in Arabic: Dual and Plural. It analyzes each sentence in the text, using Stanford CoreNLP morphological analyzer and machine-learning approach in order to detect the syntactical mistakes and then correct it. A prototype of the proposed system was implemented and evaluated. It uses support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to detect Arabic grammatical errors and correct them using the rule-based approach. The prototype system has a far accuracy 81%. In general, it shows a set of useful grammatical suggestions that the user may forget about while writing due to lack of familiarity with grammar or as a result of the speed of writing such as alerting the user when using a plural term to indicate one person.

Keywords: Arabic language acquisition and learning, natural language processing, morphological analyzer, part-of-speech

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
12 Sustainable Improvement in Soil Properties and Maize Performance by Organic Fertilizers at Different Levels

Authors: Shahid Iqbal, Haroon Z. Khan, Muhammad Arif

Abstract:

A sustainable agricultural system involving the improvement in soil properties and crop performance cannot be developed without organic fertilizer use. The effects of poultry manure compost (PMC) and pressmud compost (PrMC) at different levels on improving the soil properties and maize performance has not been yet described by any study comprehensively. Thus, field experiments (2011 and 2012) were conducted at Agronomy Research Area, University of Agriculture Faisalabad (31°26'5" N and 73°4'6" E) in sandy loam soil to determine the improvement in soil properties and maize performance due to application of PMC and PrMC each at five different levels (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 t ha-1). A control (unamended) treatment was also included for comparison. The results indicated that performance of PMC levels was superior to PrMC levels. Increasing both composts levels improved soil properties, maize growth, and stover yield. Results showed that during both years’ highest rates of PMC i.e. 10 and 8 t ha-1 improved the soil properties: ECe, pH, inorganic N, OM, and WHC higher than other treatments. While, 10 and 8 t PMC ha-1 also significantly increased leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR), and stover yield. Similarly, 10 and 8 t PMC ha-1 also improved the grain protein content, but contrarily, grain oil was lowest for 10 and 8 t ha-1 PMC during both years. Moreover, in both years highest gross and net income, and benefit cost ratio was also achieved by 10 and 8 t ha-1 PMC. It is concluded that PMC at rate of 10 and 8 t ha-1 sustainably improved soil properties and maize performance.

Keywords: compost, soil, maize, growth, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
11 Moho Undulations beneath South of Egypt, Using the Seismic Waves Generated by Tele Earthquakes

Authors: Ahmed Hosny, Haroon Elshaikh, Gaber Hassib, Yassin Ali

Abstract:

The Moho discontinuity undulations beneath the southern part of Egypt have been defined using the seismic waves generated by tele earthquakes. These earthquakes have been recorded by the Aswan seismic network, which consists of 10 seismic stations established around the lake of Nasser. An additional seismic station was located towards the east of the Lake of Nasser by about ~ 150 km. Receiver functions and H-k stacking methods were used for obtaining the depths of Moho discontinuity and the Vp/Vs ratios beneath each seismic station. Our results revealed that, the depths of Moho discontinuity beneath the stations located around the Lake of Nasser range from 36 to 39 km, with an average value of 37.5 km. These results are consistent with the previous works done on the same area. The obtained Vp/Vs ratios for the crust of this area were ranged from 1.73 to 1.86, with an average value of 1.79. While beneath the station located towards the east, the Moho discontinuity was detected at a shallowest depth of 27 km and the Vp/Vs ratio was 1.82. The difference in the Moho depths beneath the stations located around the Lake of Nasser and the station located to the east revealed the boundary position between the Saharan Metacraton to the west and the Nubian-Arabian Shield to the east. This structural boundary delineates the position of the old collision of the Oceanic crust of the Nubian-Arabian Shield to the east with the Continental crust of the Saharan Metacraton to the west.

Keywords: Moho undulations, south of Egypt, seismic waves, earthquakes

Procedia PDF Downloads 430
10 High Catalytic Activity and Stability of Ginger Peroxidase Immobilized on Amino Functionalized Silica Coated Titanium Dioxide Nanocomposite: A Promising Tool for Bioremediation

Authors: Misha Ali, Qayyum Husain, Nida Alam, Masood Ahmad

Abstract:

Improving the activity and stability of the enzyme is an important aspect in bioremediation processes. Immobilization of enzyme is an efficient approach to amend the properties of biocatalyst required during wastewater treatment. The present study was done to immobilize partially purified ginger peroxidase on amino functionalized silica coated titanium dioxide nanocomposite. Interestingly there was an enhancement in enzyme activity after immobilization on nanosupport which was evident from effectiveness factor (η) value of 1.76. Immobilized enzyme was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Immobilized peroxidase exhibited higher activity in a broad range of pH and temperature as compared to free enzyme. Also, the thermostability of peroxidase was strikingly improved upon immobilization. After six repeated uses, the immobilized peroxidase retained around 62% of its dye decolorization activity. There was a 4 fold increase in Vmax of immobilized peroxidase as compared to free enzyme. Circular dichroism spectroscopy demonstrated conformational changes in the secondary structure of enzyme, a possible reason for the enhanced enzyme activity after immobilization. Immobilized peroxidase was highly efficient in the removal of acid yellow 42 dye in a stirred batch process. Our study shows that this bio-remediating system has remarkable potential for treatment of aromatic pollutants present in wastewater.

Keywords: acid yellow 42, decolorization, ginger peroxidase, immobilization

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
9 Analyzing the Sensation of Jogja Kembali Monument (Monjali): Case Study of Yogyakarta as the Implementation of Attraction Tour

Authors: Hutomo Abdurrohman, Muhammad Latief, Waridatun Nida, Ranta Dwi Irawati

Abstract:

Yogyakarta Kembali Monument (Monjali) is one of the most popular tourist attraction in Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta is known as ‘Student City’, and Monjali is a right place to learn and explore more about Yogyakarta, especially for students in elementary and junior high school to do the study tour. Monjali is located in North Ringroad, Jongkang, Sariharjo village, Ngaglik Subdistrict, Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta. Monjali offers many historical replicas, and also the story behind them. That is about the war between Indonesia's fighter, called TNI (Indonesian national army) and the colonizer of Netherlands in Yogyakarta, on March, 1st 1949. That event could open the eyes of the whole of Indonesia, because at that time the TNI was placed by the invaders. This research is an effort to evaluate the visitor's interest in Monjali as a special tourist attraction. The substance that we use in this research is the Monjali's visitors whom up to 17 years old by taking a respondent in every 15 persons who visit Monjali, and we need 200 respondents to know the condition and facilities of Monjali. This research has been collected since January 2017 until October 2017. We do the interview and spread the questionnaire which has been tested all of its validity and reliability. This data analysis is descriptive statistic analysis by using the qualitative data, which is converted into the quantitative data, use the Linkert Scale. The result of this research shows that the interest of Monjali's visitors is higher 75,6%. Based on the result, we know that Monjali is being an attractiveness for people which always experience its improvements and the development. Monjali is the success to be a place which combines the entertainment with its education as a vision of Yogyakarta as a Student City.

Keywords: descriptive statistical analysis, Jogja Kembali monument, Linkert scale, sensation

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
8 A Multivariate Statistical Approach for Water Quality Assessment of River Hindon, India

Authors: Nida Rizvi, Deeksha Katyal, Varun Joshi

Abstract:

River Hindon is an important river catering the demand of highly populated rural and industrial cluster of western Uttar Pradesh, India. Water quality of river Hindon is deteriorating at an alarming rate due to various industrial, municipal and agricultural activities. The present study aimed at identifying the pollution sources and quantifying the degree to which these sources are responsible for the deteriorating water quality of the river. Various water quality parameters, like pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium, chloride, nitrate, sulphate, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and total alkalinity were assessed. Water quality data obtained from eight study sites for one year has been subjected to the two multivariate techniques, namely, principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Principal component analysis was applied with the aim to find out spatial variability and to identify the sources responsible for the water quality of the river. Three Varifactors were obtained after varimax rotation of initial principal components using principal component analysis. Cluster analysis was carried out to classify sampling stations of certain similarity, which grouped eight different sites into two clusters. The study reveals that the anthropogenic influence (municipal, industrial, waste water and agricultural runoff) was the major source of river water pollution. Thus, this study illustrates the utility of multivariate statistical techniques for analysis and elucidation of multifaceted data sets, recognition of pollution sources/factors and understanding temporal/spatial variations in water quality for effective river water quality management.

Keywords: cluster analysis, multivariate statistical techniques, river Hindon, water quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
7 Fabrication of Glucose/O₂ Microfluidic Biofuel Cell with Double Layer of Electrodes

Authors: Haroon Khan, Chul Min Kim, Sung Yeol Kim, Sanket Goel, Prabhat K. Dwivedi, Ashutosh Sharma, Gyu Man Kim

Abstract:

Enzymatic biofuel cells (EBFCs) have drawn the attention of researchers due to its demanding application in medical implants. In EBFCs, electricity is produced with the help of redox enzymes. In this study, we report the fabrication of membraneless EBFC with new design of electrodes to overcome microchannel related limitations. The device consists of double layer of electrodes on both sides of Y-shaped microchannel to reduce the effect of oxygen depletion layer and diffusion of fuel and oxidant at the end of microchannel. Moreover, the length of microchannel was reduced by half keeping the same area of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) electrodes. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stencils were used to pattern MWCNT electrodes on etched Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) glass. PDMS casting was used to fabricate microchannel of the device. Both anode and cathode were modified with glucose oxidase and laccase. Furthermore, these enzymes were covalently bound to carboxyl MWCNTs with the help of EDC/NHS. Glucose used as fuel was oxidized by glucose oxidase at anode while oxygen was reduced to water at the cathode side. The resulted devices were investigated with the help of polarization curves obtained from Chronopotentiometry technique by using potentiostat. From results, we conclude that the performance of double layer EBFC is improved 15 % as compared to single layer EBFC delivering maximum power density of 71.25 µW cm-2 at a cell potential of 0.3 V and current density of 250 µA cm-2 at micro channel height of 450-µm and flow rate of 25 ml hr-1. However, the new device was stable only for three days after which its power output was rapidly dropped by 75 %. This work demonstrates that the power output of membraneless EBFC is improved comparatively, but still efforts will be needed to make the device stable over long period of time.

Keywords: EBFC, glucose, MWCNT, microfluidic

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
6 Intraoperative ICG-NIR Fluorescence Angiography Visualization of Intestinal Perfusion in Primary Pull-Through for Hirschsprung Disease

Authors: Mohammad Emran, Colton Wayne, Shannon M Koehler, P. Stephen Almond, Haroon Patel

Abstract:

Purpose: Assessment of anastomotic perfusion in Hirschsprung disease using Indocyanine Green (ICG)-near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence angiography. Introduction: Anastomotic stricture and leak are well-known complications of Hirschsprung pull-through procedures. Complications are due to tension, infection, and/or poor perfusion. While a surgeon can visually determine and control the amount of tension and contamination, assessment of perfusion is subject to surgeon determination. Intraoperative use of ICG-NIR enhances this decision-making process by illustrating perfusion intensity and adequacy in the pulled-through bowel segment. This technique, proven to reduce anastomotic stricture and leak in adults, has not been studied in children to our knowledge. ICG, an FDA approved, nontoxic, non-immunogenic, intravascular (IV) dye, has been used in adults and children for over 60 years, with few side effects. ICG-NIR was used in this report to demonstrate the adequacy of perfusion during transanal pullthrough for Hirschsprung’s disease. Method: 8 patients with Hirschsprung disease were evaluated with ICG-NIR technology. Levels of affected area ranged from sigmoid to total colonic Hirschsprung disease. After leveling, but prior to anastomosis, ICG was administered at 1.25 mg (< 2 mg/kg) and perfusion visualized using an NIR camera, before and during anastomosis. Video and photo imaging was performed and perfusion of the bowel was compared to surrounding tissues. This showed the degree of perfusion and demarcation of perfused and non-perfused bowel. The anastomosis was completed uneventfully and the patients all did well. Results: There were no complications of stricture or leak. 5 of 8 patients (62.5%) had modification of the plan based on ICG-NIR imaging. Conclusion: Technologies that enhance surgeons’ ability to visualize bowel perfusion prior to anastomosis in Hirschsprung’s patients may help reduce post-operative complications. Further studies are needed to assess the potential benefits.

Keywords: colonic anastomosis, fluorescence angiography, Hirschsprung disease, pediatric surgery, SPY

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
5 Multi-Criteria Bid/No Bid Decision Support Framework for General Contractors: A Case of Pakistan

Authors: Nida Iftikhar, Jamaluddin Thaheem, Bilal Iftikhar

Abstract:

In the construction industry, adequate and effective decision-making can mean the difference between success and failure. Bidding is the most important element of the construction business since it is a mean by which contractors obtain work. This is probably the only option for any contractor firm to sustain in the market and achieve its objective of earning the profits by winning tenders. The capability to select most appropriate ventures not only defines the success and wellbeing of contractor firms but also their survival and sustainability in the industry. The construction practitioners are usually on their own when it comes to deciding on bidding for a project or not. Usually, experience-based solutions are offered where a lot of subjectivity is involved. This research has been opted considering the local construction industry of Pakistan in order to examine the critical success factors from contractors’ perspective while making bidding decisions, listing and evaluating critical factors in order of their importance, categorization of these factors into decision support & decision oppose groups and to develop a framework to help contractors in the decision-making process. Literature review, questionnaires, and structured interviews are used for identification and quantification of factors affecting bid/no bid decision-making. Statistical methods of ranking analysis and analytical hierarchy process of multi-criteria decision-making method are used for analysis. It is found that profitability, need for work and financial health of client are the most decisive factors in bid/no bid decision-making while project size, project type, fulfilling the tender conditions imposed by the client and relationship, identity & reputation of the client are least impact factors in bid/no bid decision-making. Further, to verify the developed framework, case studies have been conducted to evaluate the bid/no bid decision-making in building procurement. This is the first of its nature study in the context of the local construction industry and recommends using a holistic decision-making framework for such business-critical deliberations.

Keywords: bidding, bid decision-making, construction procurement, contractor

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
4 The Determination of Self-Esteem, Life Satisfaction, Anxiety and Depression Levels among Patients with Stoma

Authors: Tugba Cinarli, Tugba Kavalali Erdogan, Sevil Masat, Dilek Kiymaz, Nida Kiyici, Zeliha Koc

Abstract:

This study was conducted in a descriptive and cross-sectional manner, in order to determine the self-esteem, life satisfaction and depression/anxiety levels of the patients with stoma. The study was conducted between June 15, 2016 and June 15, 2017 among 196 oncology patients that were hospitalized in the general surgery clinic of a public hospital in Turkey. The case group consisted of 98 cancer patients with stoma and the control group consisted of 98 cancer patients without stoma. The data were collected through the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and a 21-question survey that aimed to determine the sociodemographic and clinical properties of the patients. The data were analyzed with percentage analysis, Mann Whitney U-test, Chi-square test and Spearmen’s correlation test. It was determined that for the case group; 44.9% had colon cancer, 29.6% had rectal cancer; 50% underwent temporary colostomia, 15.3% underwent permanent colostomia, 34.7% underwent temporary ileostomy. The experimental group's findings for the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale, the Anxiety Subscale and the Depression subscale were 64 (20 - 84), 17 (5 - 38), 10 (1 - 18), and 9 (1 - 19), respectively. The control group's findings for the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale, the Anxiety Subscale and the Depression Subscale were 68 (32 - 92), 21 (7 - 31), 8.5 (1 - 18), and 8 (1 - 18), respectively. It was found that the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale, and the Anxiety Subscale findings were significantly different for the experimental and control groups (p<0.05). It was determined that the self-esteem levels were positively correlated with life satisfaction and negatively correlated with anxiety and depression; also, the life satisfaction levels were negatively correlated with anxiety and depression. It is suggested that the nursing interventions should be planned in order to improve life-satisfaction and self-esteem levels of the patients, and to decrease depression and anxiety.

Keywords: anxiety, cancer, life satisfaction, self-esteem

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
3 Examining Social Connectivity through Email Network Analysis: Study of Librarians' Emailing Groups in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Arif Khan, Haroon Idrees, Imran Aziz, Sidra Mushtaq

Abstract:

Social platforms like online discussion and mailing groups are well aligned with academic as well as professional learning spaces. Professional communities are increasingly moving to online forums for sharing and capturing the intellectual abilities. This study investigated dynamics of social connectivity of yahoo mailing groups of Pakistani Library and Information Science (LIS) professionals using Graph Theory technique. Design/Methodology: Social Network Analysis is the increasingly concerned domain for scientists in identifying whether people grow together through online social interaction or, whether they just reflect connectivity. We have conducted a longitudinal study using Network Graph Theory technique to analyze the large data-set of email communication. The data was collected from three yahoo mailing groups using network analysis software over a period of six months i.e. January to June 2016. Findings of the network analysis were reviewed through focus group discussion with LIS experts and selected respondents of the study. Data were analyzed in Microsoft Excel and network diagrams were visualized using NodeXL and ORA-Net Scene package. Findings: Findings demonstrate that professionals and students exhibit intellectual growth the more they get tied within a network by interacting and participating in communication through online forums. The study reports on dynamics of the large network by visualizing the email correspondence among group members in a network consisting vertices (members) and edges (randomized correspondence). The model pair wise relationship between group members was illustrated to show characteristics, reasons, and strength of ties. Connectivity of nodes illustrated the frequency of communication among group members through examining node coupling, diffusion of networks, and node clustering has been demonstrated in-depth. Network analysis was found to be a useful technique in investigating the dynamics of the large network.

Keywords: emailing networks, network graph theory, online social platforms, yahoo mailing groups

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
2 Knowledge Management in Public Sector Employees: A Case Study of Training Participants at National Institute of Management, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Arif Khan, Haroon Idrees, Imran Aziz, Sidra Mushtaq

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the current level of knowledge mapping skills of the public sector employees in Pakistan. National Institute of Management is one of the premiere public sector training organization for mid-career public sector employees in Pakistan. This study is conducted on participants of fourteen weeks long training course called Mid-Career Management Course (MCMC) which is mandatory for public sector employees in order to ascertain how to enhance their knowledge mapping skills. Methodology: Researcher used both qualitative and quantitative approach to conduct this study. Primary data about current level of participants’ understanding of knowledge mapping was collected through structured questionnaire. Later on, Participant Observation method was used where researchers acted as part of the group to gathered data from the trainees during their performance in training activities and tasks. Findings: Respondents of the study were examined for skills and abilities to organizing ideas, helping groups to develop conceptual framework, identifying critical knowledge areas of an organization, study large networks and identifying the knowledge flow using nodes and vertices, visualizing information, represent organizational structure etc. Overall, the responses varied in different skills depending on the performance and presentations. However, generally all participants have demonstrated average level of using both the IT and Non-IT K-mapping tools and techniques during simulation exercises, analysis paper de-briefing, case study reports, post visit presentation, course review, current issue presentation, syndicate meetings, and daily synopsis. Research Limitations: This study is conducted on a small-scale population of 67 public sector employees nominated by federal government to undergo 14 weeks extensive training program called MCMC (Mid-Career Management Course) at National Institute of Management, Peshawar, Pakistan. Results, however, reflects only a specific class of public sector employees i.e. working in grade 18 and having more than 5 years of work. Practical Implications: Research findings are useful for trainers, training agencies, government functionaries, and organizations working for capacity building of public sector employees.

Keywords: knowledge management, km in public sector, knowledge management and professional development, knowledge management in training, knowledge mapping

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
1 A Demonstration of How to Employ and Interpret Binary IRT Models Using the New IRT Procedure in SAS 9.4

Authors: Ryan A. Black, Stacey A. McCaffrey

Abstract:

Over the past few decades, great strides have been made towards improving the science in the measurement of psychological constructs. Item Response Theory (IRT) has been the foundation upon which statistical models have been derived to increase both precision and accuracy in psychological measurement. These models are now being used widely to develop and refine tests intended to measure an individual's level of academic achievement, aptitude, and intelligence. Recently, the field of clinical psychology has adopted IRT models to measure psychopathological phenomena such as depression, anxiety, and addiction. Because advances in IRT measurement models are being made so rapidly across various fields, it has become quite challenging for psychologists and other behavioral scientists to keep abreast of the most recent developments, much less learn how to employ and decide which models are the most appropriate to use in their line of work. In the same vein, IRT measurement models vary greatly in complexity in several interrelated ways including but not limited to the number of item-specific parameters estimated in a given model, the function which links the expected response and the predictor, response option formats, as well as dimensionality. As a result, inferior methods (a.k.a. Classical Test Theory methods) continue to be employed in efforts to measure psychological constructs, despite evidence showing that IRT methods yield more precise and accurate measurement. To increase the use of IRT methods, this study endeavors to provide a comprehensive overview of binary IRT models; that is, measurement models employed on test data consisting of binary response options (e.g., correct/incorrect, true/false, agree/disagree). Specifically, this study will cover the most basic binary IRT model, known as the 1-parameter logistic (1-PL) model dating back to over 50 years ago, up until the most recent complex, 4-parameter logistic (4-PL) model. Binary IRT models will be defined mathematically and the interpretation of each parameter will be provided. Next, all four binary IRT models will be employed on two sets of data: 1. Simulated data of N=500,000 subjects who responded to four dichotomous items and 2. A pilot analysis of real-world data collected from a sample of approximately 770 subjects who responded to four self-report dichotomous items pertaining to emotional consequences to alcohol use. Real-world data were based on responses collected on items administered to subjects as part of a scale-development study (NIDA Grant No. R44 DA023322). IRT analyses conducted on both the simulated data and analyses of real-world pilot will provide a clear demonstration of how to construct, evaluate, and compare binary IRT measurement models. All analyses will be performed using the new IRT procedure in SAS 9.4. SAS code to generate simulated data and analyses will be available upon request to allow for replication of results.

Keywords: instrument development, item response theory, latent trait theory, psychometrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 279