Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: Kassahun Zewdie

11 Evaluation of Broad Leaf Weed Herbicides on Weed Control and Productivity of Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.)

Authors: Kassahun Zewdie


-- A field experiment was conducted at Holetta research center and farmers fields during 2017 and 2018 to determine the effects of haulauxifen-methyl + florasulam (QULEX 200 WG) on broadleaf weeds in wheat. The design was a Randomized Complete Block with three replications. The treatments were included haulauxifen-Methyl + florasulam @ 25gm, 50gm and 75gm ha-1, (King-D) 2, 4-D dimethyl amine @1.0 L ha-1, 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid @1.0 L ha-1 rate (standard check), farmers practice twice hand weeding (25-30 and 55-60) days after sowing and weedy check. Herbicides were applied with knapsack sprayer with a spray volume of 200 L ha-1. The wheat variety “Denda” was sown at 20 cm spacing. The recommended rate of fertilizer was applied. Weed density and biomass were recorded at (25-30 and 55-60) days after sowing. The results revealed that post emergence application of haulauxifen-methyl + florasulam @50gm ha-1 had a significant (P<0.05) effect on Guizotia scabra, Polygonum nepalense, Plantago lanceolata, Galinsoga parviflora, Sonchus spp., Galium spurium, Amaranthus hybridus, Raphanus raphanistrum and Medicago polymorpha population. The magnitude ranged from two to four folds when comparing with weed densities recorded in the unweeded plot. The grain yield harvested from the untreated check plot was significantly lower than the rest treatments. The grain yield was improved by 17.3% over the standard check with better performance.

Keywords: broadleaf, grass, weeds, control

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10 Design a Small-Scale Irrigation Wind-Powered Water Pump Using a Savonius Type VAWT

Authors: Getnet Ayele Kebede, Tasew Tadiwose Zewdie


In this study, a novel design of a wind-powered water pump for small-scale irrigation application by using the Savonius wind turbine of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine(VAWT) with 2 blades has been used. Calculations have been made on the energy available in the wind and an energy analysis was then performed to see what wind speed is required for the system to work. The rotor has a radius of 0.53 m giving a swept area of 1.27 m2 and this gives a solidity of 0.5, which is the minimum theoretical optimum value for wind turbine. The average extracted torque of the wind turbine is 0.922 Nm and Tip speed ratio is one this shows, the tips are moving at equal the speed of the wind and by 2 rotating of blades. This is sufficient to sustain the desired flow rate of (0.3125X 10-3) m3 per second with a maximum head of 10m and the expected working is 4hr/day, and also overcome other barriers to motion such as friction. Based on this novel design, we are able to achieve a cost-effective solution and simultaneously effective in self-starting under low wind speeds and it can catch the wind from all directions.

Keywords: Savonius wind turbine, Small-scale irrigation, Vertical Axis Wind Turbine, Water pump

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9 A Milky-White Stream Water Suitability for Drinking Purpose

Authors: Kassahun Tadesse, Megersa O. Dinka


Drinking water suitability study was conducted for a milky-white stream in remote areas of Ethiopia in order to understand its effect on human health. Water samples were taken from the water source and physicochemical properties were analyzed based on standard methods. The mean values of pH, total dissolved solids, sodium, magnesium, potassium, manganese, chloride, boron, and fluoride were within maximum permissible limits set for health. Whereas turbidity, calcium, irons, hardness, alkalinity, nitrate, and sulfate contents were above the limits. The water is very hard water due to high calcium content. High sulfate content can cause noticeable taste and a laxative (gastrointestinal) effect. The nitrate content was very high and can cause methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome) which is a temporary blood disorder in the bottle fed infants. Hence, parents should be advised not to give this water to infants. In conclusion, all physicochemical parameters except for nitrate are safe for health but may affect the appearance and taste, and wear water infrastructures. A high value of turbidity due to suspended minerals is the cause for milky-white colour. However, a mineralogical analysis of suspended sediments is required to identify the exact cause for white colour, and a study on sediment source was recommended.

Keywords: hard water, laxative effect, methemoglobinemia, nitrate, physicochemical, water quality

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8 Sociocultural Foundations of Psychological Well-Being among Ethiopian Adults

Authors: Kassahun Tilahun


Most of the studies available on adult psychological well-being have been centered on Western countries. However, psychological well-being does not have the same meaning across the world. The Euro-American and African conceptions and experiences of psychological well-being differ systematically. As a result, questions like, how do people living in developing African countries, like Ethiopia, report their psychological well-being; what would the context-specific prominent determinants of their psychological well-being be, needs a definitive answer. This study was, therefore, aimed at developing a new theory that would address these socio-cultural issues of psychological well-being. Consequently, data were obtained through interview and open ended questionnaire. A total of 438 adults, working in governmental and non-governmental organizations situated in Addis Ababa, participated in the study. Appropriate qualitative method of data analysis, i.e. thematic content analysis, was employed for analyzing the data. The thematic analysis involves a type of abductive analysis, driven both by theoretical interest and the nature of the data. Reliability and credibility issues were addressed appropriately. The finding identified five major categories of themes, which are viewed as essential in determining the conceptions and experiences of psychological well-being of Ethiopian adults. These were; socio-cultural harmony, social cohesion, security, competence and accomplishment, and the self. Detailed discussion on the rational for including these themes was made and appropriate positive psychology interventions were proposed. Researchers are also encouraged to expand this qualitative research and in turn develop a suitable instrument taping the psychological well-being of adults with different sociocultural orientations.

Keywords: sociocultural, psychological, well-being Ethiopia, adults

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7 Conjunctive Use of Shallow Groundwater for Irrigation Purpose: The Case of Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia

Authors: Megersa Olumana Dinka, Kassahun Birhanu Tadesse


Irrigation suitability of shallow groundwater (SGW) was investigated by taking thirty groundwater samples from piezometers and hand-dug wells in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate (WSSE) (Ethiopia). Many physicochemical parameters (Mg²⁺, Na⁺, Ca²⁺, K⁺, CO₃-, SO4²⁻, HCO₃⁻, Cl⁻, TH, EC, TDS and pH) were analyzed following standard procedures. Different irrigation indices (MAR, SSP, SAR, RSC, KR, and PI) were also used for SGW suitability assessment. If all SGW are blended and used for irrigation, the salinity problem would be slight to moderate, and 100% of potential sugarcane yield could be obtained. The infiltration and sodium ion toxicity problems of the blended water would be none to moderate, and slight to moderate, respectively. As sugarcane is semi-tolerant to sodium toxicity, no significant sodium toxicity problem would be expected from the use of blended water. Blending SGW would also reduce each chloride and boron ion toxicity to none. In general, the rating of SGW was good to excellent for irrigation in terms of average EC (salinity), and excellent in terms of average SAR (infiltration). The SGW of the WSSE was categorized under C3S1 (high salinity and low sodium hazard). In conclusion, the conjunctive use of groundwater for irrigation would help to reduce the potential effect of waterlogging and salinization and their associated problems on soil and sugarcane production and productivity. However, a high value of SSP and RSC indicate a high possibility of infiltration problem. Hence, it is advisable to use the SGW for irrigation after blending with surface water. In this case, the optimum blending ratio of the surface to SGW sources has to be determined for sustainable sugarcane productivity.

Keywords: blending, infiltration, salinity, sodicity, sugarcane, toxicity

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6 Application of Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Model for Forecasting Monthly Flows in Waterval River, South Africa

Authors: Kassahun Birhanu Tadesse, Megersa Olumana Dinka


Reliable future river flow information is basic for planning and management of any river systems. For data scarce river system having only a river flow records like the Waterval River, a univariate time series models are appropriate for river flow forecasting. In this study, a univariate Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model was applied for forecasting Waterval River flow using GRETL statistical software. Mean monthly river flows from 1960 to 2016 were used for modeling. Different unit root tests and Mann-Kendall trend analysis were performed to test the stationarity of the observed flow time series. The time series was differenced to remove the seasonality. Using the correlogram of seasonally differenced time series, different SARIMA models were identified, their parameters were estimated, and diagnostic check-up of model forecasts was performed using white noise and heteroscedasticity tests. Finally, based on minimum Akaike Information (AIc) and Hannan-Quinn (HQc) criteria, SARIMA (3, 0, 2) x (3, 1, 3)12 was selected as the best model for Waterval River flow forecasting. Therefore, this model can be used to generate future river information for water resources development and management in Waterval River system. SARIMA model can also be used for forecasting other similar univariate time series with seasonality characteristics.

Keywords: heteroscedasticity, stationarity test, trend analysis, validation, white noise

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5 Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis in Multiple Sorghum Mapping Populations Facilitates the Dissection of Genetic Control of Drought Tolerance Related Traits in Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (Moench)]

Authors: Techale B., Hongxu Dong, Mihrete Getinet, Aregash Gabizew, Andrew H. Paterson, Kassahun Bantte


The genetic architecture of drought tolerance is expected to involve multiple loci that are unlikely to all segregate for alternative alleles in a single bi-parental population. Therefore, the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) that are expressed in diverse genetic backgrounds of multiple bi-parental populations provides evidence about both background-specific and common genetic variants. The purpose of this study was to map QTL related to drought tolerance using three connected mapping populations of different genetic backgrounds to gain insight into the genomic landscape of this important trait in elite Ethiopian germplasm. The three bi-parental populations, each with 207 F₂:₃ lines, were evaluated using an alpha lattice design with two replications under two moisture stress environments. Drought tolerance related traits were analyzed separately for each population using composite interval mapping, finding a total of 105 QTLs. All the QTLs identified from individual populations were projected on a combined consensus map, comprising a total of 25 meta QTLs for seven traits. The consensus map allowed us to deduce locations of a larger number of markers than possible in any individual map, providing a reference for genetic studies in different genetic backgrounds. The mQTL identified in this study could be used for marker-assisted breeding programs in sorghum after validation. Only one trait, reduced leaf senescence, showed a striking bias of allele distribution, indicating substantial standing variation among present varieties that might be employed in improving drought tolerance of Ethiopian and other sorghums.

Keywords: Drought tolerance , Mapping populations, Meta QTL, QTL mapping, Sorghum

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4 Teachers’ Conception of and Perception towards the New Curriculum of Ethiopian Higher Education: A Case of Debre Birhan University

Authors: Kassahun Tilahun Dessie


The purpose of this study was to explore the awareness of teachers and the attitude they have to the curriculum they implement as well as to assess the actual and desired magnitude of teachers' participation in curriculum development process. It also aimed at investigating the factors that affect teachers' level of conception and perception towards the new higher education curriculum. The study was carried out in Debre Birhan University. Teachers, course coordinators, team leaders and presidents were included in the study as research subjects. Teachers were proportionally selected from each department (of the six faculties) based on available sampling technique. Accordingly, a total of 103 teachers were chosen as a subject of the study. In order to collect first hand data from the teachers, a questionnaire with four parts was developed by the researcher. To this end, scales were designed for measuring the extent of teachers' awareness and attitude. Each of the scales encompasses 11 and 17 items respectively. An open ended questionnaire was also attached for the purpose of obtaining elaborated data on the issue. Information was also obtained from interviews with presidents, team leaders and course coordinators. The data obtained were analyzed qualitatively using descriptive statistical tools. The overall results of the analysis revealed that the awareness of teachers on the curriculum was low. The meager participation of teachers in the process of curriculum development and the deficiency of trainings on the concern were major factors. Teachers' perception towards the existence and implementation of the new curriculum was also inclined to the negative, though difficult to generalize. Lack of awareness, administrators poor approach and lack of facilitating appropriate incentives as well as absence of room for evaluating the curriculum etc plays big role in endangering teachers attitude while the up to datedness of the new curriculum, involvement of teachers in the curriculum development process, the wide ranging quality of the new curriculum etc laid a better ground to boost teachers attitude towards the curriculum. This may have implication to the university in that there is a need to facilitate workshops or awareness creation trainings, to have positive and cooperative administrators, and embracing committed teachers to implement the curriculum efficiently.

Keywords: conception, perception, curriculum, higher education, Ethiopia

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3 Prevalence of Malnutrition and Associated Factors among Children Aged 6-59 Months at Hidabu Abote District, North Shewa, Oromia Regional State

Authors: Kebede Mengistu, Kassahun Alemu, Bikes Destaw


Introduction: Malnutrition continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries. It is the most important risk factor for the burden of diseases. It causes about 300, 000 deaths per year and responsible for more than half of all deaths in children. In Ethiopia, child malnutrition rate is one of the most serious public health problem and the highest in the world. High malnutrition rates in the country pose a significant obstacle to achieving better child health outcomes. Objective: To assess prevalence of malnutrition and associated factors among children aged 6-59 months at Hidabu Abote district, North shewa, Oromia. Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted on 820 children aged 6-59 months from September 8-23, 2012 at Hidabu Abote district. Multistage sampling method was used to select households. Children were selected from each kebeles by simple random sampling. Anthropometric measurements and structured questioners were used. Data was processed using EPi-info soft ware and exported to SPSS for analysis. Then after, sex, age, months, height, and weight transferred with HHs number to ENA for SMART 2007software to convert nutritional data into Z-scores of the indices; H/A, W/H and W/A. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associated factors of malnutrition. Results: The analysis this study revealed that, 47.6%, 30.9% and 16.7% of children were stunted, underweight and wasted, respectively. The main associated factors of stunting were found to be child age, family monthly income, children were received butter as pre-lacteal feeding and family planning. Underweight was associated with number of children HHs and children were received butter as per-lacteal feeding but un treatment of water in HHs only associated with wasting. Conclusion and recommendation: From the findings of this study, it is concluded that malnutrition is still an important problem among children aged 6-59 months. Therefore, especial attention should be given on intervention of malnutrition.

Keywords: children, Hidabu Abote district, malnutrition, public health

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2 Agro-Morphological Traits Based Genetic Diversity Analysis of ‘Ethiopian Dinich’ Plectranthus edulis (Vatke) Agnew Populations Collected from Diverse Agro-Ecologies in Ethiopia

Authors: Fekadu Gadissa, Kassahun Tesfaye, Kifle Dagne, Mulatu Geleta


‘Ethiopian dinich’ also called ‘Ethiopian potato’ is one of the economically important ‘orphan’ edible tuber crops indigenous to Ethiopia. We evaluated the morphological and agronomic traits performances of 174 samples from Ethiopia at multiple locations using 12 qualitative and 16 quantitative traits, recorded at the correct growth stages. We observed several morphotypes and phenotypic variations for qualitative traits along with a wide range of mean performance values for all quantitative traits. Analysis of variance for each quantitative trait showed a highly significant (p<0.001) variation among the collections with eventually non-significant variation for environment-traits interaction for all but flower length. A comparatively high phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation was observed for plant height, days to flower initiation, days to 50% flowering and tuber number per hill. Moreover, the variability and coefficients of variation due to genotype-environment interaction was nearly zero for all the traits except flower length. High genotypic coefficients of variation coupled with a high estimate of broad sense heritability and high genetic advance as a percent of collection mean were obtained for tuber weight per hill, number of primary branches per plant, tuber number per hill and number of plants per hill. Association of tuber yield per hectare of land showed a large magnitude of positive phenotypic and genotypic correlation with those traits. Principal components analysis revealed 76% of the total variation for the first six principal axes with high factor loadings again from tuber number per hill, number of primary branches per plant and tuber weight. The collections were grouped into four clusters with the weak region (zone) of origin based pattern. In general, there is high genetic-based variability for ‘Ethiopian dinich’ improvement and conservation. DNA based markers are recommended for further genetic diversity estimation for use in breeding and conservation.

Keywords: agro-morphological traits, Ethiopian dinich, genetic diversity, variance components

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1 The Psychological and Subjective Well-being of Ethiopian adults: Correlates, Explanations, and Cross-Cultural Constructions

Authors: Kassahun Tilahun


The purpose of the study was two-fold: to examine the socio-demographic and psychological predictors of well-being and formulate a socio-culturally sound approach explaining the meaning and experience of psychological well-being among Ethiopian adults. Ryan and Deci’s Self-Determination Theory was duly considered as a theoretical framework of the study. The study followed a sequential explanatory mixed method design. Both quantitative and qualitative data were obtained, via scales and open-ended questionnaires, from 438 civil servants working in Addis Ababa. 30 interviews were also conducted to gain further information. An in-depth analysis of the reliability and validity of instruments was made before employing them to the main study. The results showed that adults were better off in both their scores of psychological and subjective well-being. Besides, adults’ well-being was found to be quite a function of their gender, age, marital status, educational level and household income. Males had a healthier psychological well-being status than females, where as females were better in their subjective well-being. A significant difference in psychological well-being was also observed between emerging and young adults, in favor of the young; and between cohabitated and married adults, married being advantageous. A significant difference in subjective well-being measures was also noticed among single, cohabitated and married adults, in favor of the married adults in all measures. The finding revealed that happiness level of adults decrease as their educational status increases while the reverse is true to psychological well-being. Besides, as adults’ household income boosts, so do their psychological well-being and satisfaction in life. The regression analysis also produced significant independent contributions of household income to overall well-being of adults. As such, subjective well-being was significantly predicted by dummy variable of sex and marital status. Likewise, the agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness dimensions of personality were notable significant predictors of adults’ psychological well-being where as extraversion and agreeableness were significant predictors of their subjective well-being. Religiosity was also a significant predictor of adults’ psychological well-being. Besides, adults’ well-being was significantly predicted by the interaction between conscientiousness and religiosity. From goal pursuit dimensions, attainment of extrinsic life goals was a significant predictor of both psychological and subjective well-being. Importance and attainment of intrinsic life goals also significantly predicts adults’ psychological well-being. Finally, the subjective well-being of adults was significantly predicted by environmental mastery, positive relations with others, self-acceptance and overall psychological well-being scores of adults. The thematic analysis identified five major categories of themes, which are essential in explaining the psychological well-being of Ethiopian adults. These were; socio-cultural harmony, social cohesion, security, competence and accomplishment, and the self. Detailed discussion on the rational for including these themes was made and appropriate implications were proposed. Researchers are encouraged to expand the findings of this research and in turn develop a suitable approach taping the psychological well-being of adults living in countries like Ethiopia.

Keywords: psychological well-being, subjective well-being, adulthood, Ethiopia

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