Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 52

Search results for: N. J. Neto

52 Evaluation of PTFE Composites with Mineral Tailing Considering Friction, Wear and Cost

Authors: Antônio P. de Araújo Neto, Ruy D. A. da Silva Neto, Juliana R. de Souza, Salete K. P. de Medeiros, João T. N. de Medeiros

Abstract:

The tribological test with Pin-On-Disc configuration measures friction and wear properties in dry or lubricated sliding surfaces of a variety of materials and coatings. Polymeric matrix composites loaded with mineral filler were used, 1%, 3%, 10%, 30%, and 50% mass percentage of filler, to reduce the material cost by using mineral tailings. Using a pin-on-disc tribometer to quantify coefficient of friction and wear resistance of the specimens. The parameters known to performing the test were 300 rpm rotation, normal load of 16N and duration of 33.5 minutes. The composite with 10% mineral filler performed better, considering that the wear resistance was good when compared to the other compositions and an average low coefficient of friction, in the order of μ ≤ 0.15.

Keywords: microcomposites, microparticles tailings of scheelite, PTFE, tribology

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
51 Automation of Kitchen Chemical in the Textile Industry

Authors: José Luiz da Silva Neto, Renato Sipelli Silva, Érick Aragão Ribeiro

Abstract:

The automation of industrial processes plays a vital role in industries today, becoming an integral and important part of the industrial process and modern production. The process control systems are designed to maximize production, reduce costs and minimize risks in production. However, these systems are generally not deployed methodologies and planning. So that this article describes the development of an automation system of a kitchen preparation of chemicals in the textile industry based on a retrofitting methodology that provides more quality into the process at a lower cost.

Keywords: automation, textile industry, kitchen chemical, information integration

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
50 Induced Bone Tissue Temperature in Drilling Procedures: A Comparative Laboratory Study with and without Lubrication

Authors: L. Roseiro, C. Veiga, V. Maranha, A. Neto, N. Laraqi, A. Baïri, N. Alilat

Abstract:

In orthopedic surgery there are various situations in which the surgeon needs to implement methods of cutting and drilling the bone. With this type of procedure the generated friction leads to a localized increase in temperature, which may lead to the bone necrosis. Recognizing the importance of studying this phenomenon, an experimental evaluation of the temperatures developed during the procedure of drilling bone has been done. Additionally the influence of the use of the procedure with / without additional lubrication during drilling of bone has also been done. The obtained results are presented and discussed and suggests an advantage in using additional lubrication as a way to minimize the appearance of bone tissue necrosis during bone drilling procedures.

Keywords: bone necrosis, bone drilling, thermography, surgery

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
49 Sportomics Analysis of Metabolic Responses in Olympic Sprint Canoeists

Authors: A. Magno-França, A. M. Magalhães-Neto, F. Bachini, E. Cataldi, A. Bassini, L. C. Cameron

Abstract:

Sprint canoeing (SC) is part of the Olympic Games since 1936. Athletes compete in solo or double races of 200m and 1000m (40 sec and 240 sec, respectively). Due to its high intensity and duration, SC is extremely useful to study the blood kinetics of some metabolites in high energetic demand. Sportomics is a field of study combining “-omics” sciences with classical biochemical analyses in order to understand sports induced systemic changes. Here, we compare Sportomics findings during SC training sessions to describe metabolic responses of five top-level canoeists. Five Olympic world-class male athletes were evaluated during two days of training.

Keywords: biochemistry of exercise, metabolomics, injury markers, sportomics

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48 Port Governance in Santos, Brazil: A Qualitative Approach

Authors: Guilherme B. B. Vieira, Rafael M. da Silva, Eliana T. P. Senna, Luiz A. S. Senna, Francisco J. Kliemann Neto

Abstract:

Given the importance of ports as links in the global supply chains and because they are key elements to induce competitiveness in their hinterlands, the number of studies devoted to port governance, management and operations has increased in the last decades. Some of these studies address the port governance model as an element to improve coordination among the actors of the port logistics chain and to generate a better port performance. In this context, the present study analyzes the governance of Port of Santos through individual interviews with port managers, based on a conceptual model that considers the key dimensions associated with port governance. The results reinforce the usefulness of the applied model and highlight some existing improvement opportunities in the port studied.

Keywords: port governance, model, Port of Santos, managers’ perception

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47 Increase of Atmosphere CO2 Concentration and Its Effects on Culture/Weed Interaction

Authors: J. I. Santos, A. E. Cesarin, C. A. R. Sales, M. B. B. Triano, P. F. R. B. Martins, A. F. Braga, N. J. Neto, A., A. M. Barroso, P. L. C. A. Alves, C. A. M. Huaman

Abstract:

Climate change projections based on the emission of greenhouse effect gases suggest an increase in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, in up to 750 ppm. In this scenario, we have significant changes in plant development, and consequently, in agricultural systems. This study aims to evaluate the interaction between culture (Glycine max) and weed (Amaranthus viridis and Euphorbia heterophylla) in two conditions of CO2, 400 and 800 ppm. The results showed that the coexistence of culture with both weed species resulted in a mutual loss, with decrease in dry mass productivity of culture + weeds, in both conditions of CO2. However, when the culture is grown in association with E. heterophylla, total dry mass of culture + weed was smaller at 800 ppm. Soybean was more aggressive in comparison to the A. viridis in both the concentrations of CO2, but not in relation to the E. heterophylla.

Keywords: plants interaction, increase of [CO₂], plants of metabolismo C3, glycine max

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
46 Development of Ferrous-Aluminum Alloys from Recyclable Material by High Energy Milling

Authors: Arnold S. Freitas Neto, Rodrigo E. Coelho, Erick S. Mendonça

Abstract:

This study aimed to obtain an alloy of Iron and Aluminum in the proportion of 50% of atomicity for each constituent. Alloys were obtained by processing recycled aluminum and chips of 1200 series carbon steel in a high-energy mill. For the experiment, raw materials were processed thorough high energy milling before mixing the substances. Subsequently, the mixture of 1200 series carbon steel and Aluminum powder was carried out a milling process. Thereafter, hot compression was performed in a closed die in order to obtain the samples. The pieces underwent heat treatments, sintering and aging. Lastly, the composition and the mechanical properties of their hardness were analyzed. In this paper, results are compared with previous studies, which used iron powder of high purity instead of Carbon steel in the composition.

Keywords: Fe-Al alloys, high energy milling, metallography characterization, powder metallurgy

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45 Technological Development and Implementation of a Robotic Arm Motioned by Programmable Logic Controller

Authors: J. G. Batista, L. J. de Bessa Neto, M. A. F. B. Lima, J. R. Leite, J. I. de Andrade Nunes

Abstract:

The robot manipulator is an equipment that stands out for two reasons: Firstly because of its characteristics of movement and reprogramming, resembling the arm; secondly, by adding several areas of knowledge of science and engineering. The present work shows the development of the prototype of a robotic manipulator driven by a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), having two degrees of freedom, which allows the movement and displacement of mechanical parts, tools, and objects in general of small size, through an electronic system. The aim is to study direct and inverse kinematics of the robotic manipulator to describe the translation and rotation between two adjacent links of the robot through the Denavit-Hartenberg parameters. Currently, due to the many resources that microcomputer systems offer us, robotics is going through a period of continuous growth that will allow, in a short time, the development of intelligent robots with the capacity to perform operations that require flexibility, speed and precision.

Keywords: Denavit-Hartenberg, direct and inverse kinematics, microcontrollers, robotic manipulator

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44 Numerical Analysis of Rapid Drawdown in Dams Based on Brazilian Standards

Authors: Renato Santos Paulinelli Raposo, Vinicius Resende Domingues, Manoel Porfirio Cordao Neto

Abstract:

Rapid drawdown is one of the cases referred to ground stability study in dam projects. Due to the complexity generated by the combination of loads and the difficulty in determining the parameters, analyses of rapid drawdown are usually performed considering the immediate reduction of water level upstream. The proposal of a simulation, considering the gradual reduction in water level upstream, requires knowledge of parameters about consolidation and those related to unsaturated soil. In this context, the purpose of this study is to understand the methodology of collection and analysis of parameters to simulate a rapid drawdown in dams. Using a numerical tool, the study is complemented with a hypothetical case study that can assist the practical use of data compiled. The referenced dam presents homogeneous section composed of clay soil, a height of 70 meters, a width of 12 meters, and upstream slope with inclination 1V:3H.

Keywords: dam, GeoStudio, rapid drawdown, stability analysis

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43 Port Governance Model by International Freight Forwarders’ Point of View: A Study at Port of Santos - Brazil

Authors: Guilherme B. B. Vieira, Rafael M. da Silva, Eliana T. P. Senna, Luiz A. S. Senna, Francisco J. Kliemann Neto

Abstract:

Due to the importance of ports to trade and economic development of the regions in which they are inserted, in recent decades the number of studies devoted to this subject has increased. Part of these studies consider the ports as business agglomerations and focuses on port governance. This is an important approach since the port performance is the result of activities performed by actors belonging to the port-logistics chain, which need to be properly coordinated. This coordination takes place through a port governance model. Given this context, this study aims to analyze the governance model of the port of Santos from the perspective of port customers. To do this, a closed-ended questionnaire based on a conceptual model that considers the key dimensions associated with port governance was applied to the international freight forwarders that operate in the port. The results show the applicability of the considered model and highlight improvement opportunities to be implemented at the port of Santos.

Keywords: port governance, model, Port of Santos, customers’ perception

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42 Investigation of Self-Assembling of Maghemite Nanoparticles into Chain–Like Structures Using Birefringence Measurements

Authors: C. R. Stein; K. Skeff Neto, K. L. C. Miranda, P. P. C. Sartoratto, M. E. Xavier, Z. G. M. Lacava, S. M. De Freita, P. C. Morais

Abstract:

In this study, static magnetic birefringence (SMB) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate the self-assembling of maghemite nanoparticles suspended as biocompatible magnetic fluid (BMF) while incubated or not with the Black Eyed–Pea Trypsin Chymotripsin Inhibitor–BTCI protein. The stock samples herein studied are dextran coated maghemite nanoparticles (average core diameter of 7.1 nm, diameter dispersion of 0.26, and containing 4.6×1016 particle/mL) and the dextran coated maghemite nanoparticles associated with the BTCI protein. Several samples were prepared by diluting the stock samples with deionized water while following their colloidal stability. The diluted samples were investigated using SMB measurements to assess the average sizes of the self-assembled and suspended mesoscopic structures whereas the TEM micrographs provide the morphology of the as-suspended units. The SMB data were analyzed using a model that includes the particle-particle interaction within the mean field model picture.

Keywords: biocompatible magnetic fluid, maghemite nanoparticles, self-assembling

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41 Histochemistry of Intestinal Enzymes of Juvenile Dourado Salminus brasiliensis Fed Bovine Colostrum

Authors: Debora B. Moretti, Wiolene M. Nordi, Thaline Maira P. Cruz, José Eurico P. Cyrino, Raul Machado-Neto

Abstract:

Enzyme activity was evaluated in the intestine of juvenile dourado (Salminus brasiliensis) fed with diets containing 0, 10 or 20% of lyophilized bovine colostrum (LBC) inclusion for either 30 or 60 days. The intestinal enzymes acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP and ALP, respectively), non-specific esterase (NSE), lipase (LIP), dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV (DAP IV) and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) were studied using histochemistry in four intestinal segments (S1, S2, S3 and posterior intestine). Weak proteolitic activity was observed in all intestinal segments for DAP IV and LAP. The activity of NSE and LIP was also weak in all intestines, except for the moderate activity of NSE in the S2 of 20% LBC group after 30 days and in the S1 of 0% LBC group after 60 days. The ACP was detected only in the S2 and S3 of the 10% LBC group after 30 days. Moderate and strong staining was observed in the first three intestinal segments for ALP and weak activity in the posterior intestine. The activity of DAP IV, LAP and ALP were also present in the cytoplasm of the enterocytes. In the present results, bovine colostrum feeding did not cause alterations in activity of intestinal enzymes.

Keywords: carnivorous fish, enterocyte, intestinal epithelium, teleost

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40 Broiler Chickens Meat Qualities and Death on Arrival (DOA) In-Transit in Brazilian Tropical Conditions

Authors: Arlan S. Freitas, Leila M. Carvalho, Adriana L. Soares, Arnoud Neto, Marta S. Madruga, Rafael H. Carvalho, Elza I. Ida, Massami Shimokomaki

Abstract:

The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of microclimatic profile of broiler transport trucks and holding time (340) min under commercial conditions over the breast meat quality and DOA (Dead On Arrival) in a tropical Brazilian regions as the NorthEast. In this particular region routinely the season is divided into dry and wet seasons. Three loads of 4,100 forty seven days old broiler were monitored from farm to slaughterhouse in a distance of 273 km (320 min), morning periods of August, September and October 2015 rainy days. Meat qualities were evaluated by determining the occurrence of PSE (pale, soft, exudative) meat and DFD (dark, firm, dry) meat. The percentage of DOA per loaded truck was determined by counting the dead broiler during the hanging step at the slaughtering plant. Results showed the occurrence of 26.30% of PSE and 2.49% of DFD and 0.45% of DOA. By having PSE- and DFD- meat means that the birds were under thermal and cold stress leading as consequence to a relative high DOA index.

Keywords: animal welfare, DFD, microclimatic profile, PSE

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
39 Application of the Least Squares Method in the Adjustment of Chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-142b) Regression Models

Authors: L. J. de Bessa Neto, V. S. Filho, J. V. Ferreira Nunes, G. C. Bergamo

Abstract:

There are many situations in which human activities have significant effects on the environment. Damage to the ozone layer is one of them. The objective of this work is to use the Least Squares Method, considering the linear, exponential, logarithmic, power and polynomial models of the second degree, to analyze through the coefficient of determination (R²), which model best fits the behavior of the chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-142b) in parts per trillion between 1992 and 2018, as well as estimates of future concentrations between 5 and 10 periods, i.e. the concentration of this pollutant in the years 2023 and 2028 in each of the adjustments. A total of 809 observations of the concentration of HCFC-142b in one of the monitoring stations of gases precursors of the deterioration of the ozone layer during the period of time studied were selected and, using these data, the statistical software Excel was used for make the scatter plots of each of the adjustment models. With the development of the present study, it was observed that the logarithmic fit was the model that best fit the data set, since besides having a significant R² its adjusted curve was compatible with the natural trend curve of the phenomenon.

Keywords: chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-142b), ozone, least squares method, regression models

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38 Effect of Fibres-Chemical Treatment on the Thermal Properties of Natural Composites

Authors: J. S. S. Neto, R. A. A. Lima, D. K. K. Cavalcanti, J. P. B. Souza, R. A. A. Aguiar, M. D. Banea

Abstract:

In the last decade, investments in sustainable processes and products have gained space in several segments, such as in the civil, automobile, textile and other industries. In addition to increasing concern about the development of environmentally friendly materials that reduce, energy costs and reduces environmental impact in the production of these products, as well as reducing CO2 emissions. Natural fibers offer a great alternative to replace synthetic fibers, totally or partially, because of their low cost and their renewable source. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of surface chemical treatment on the thermal properties of hybrid fiber reinforced natural fibers (NFRC), jute + ramie, jute + sisal, jute + curauá, and jute fiber in polymer matrices. Two types of chemical treatment: alkalinization and silanization were employed, besides the condition without treatment. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG) and dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA) were performed to explore the thermal stability and weight loss in the natural fiber reinforced composite as a function of chemical treatment.

Keywords: chemical treatment, hybrid composite, jute, thermal

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37 Simulator Dynamic Positioning System with Azimuthal Thruster

Authors: Robson C. Santos, Christian N. Barreto, Gerson G. Cunha, Severino J. C. Neto

Abstract:

This paper aims to project the construction of a prototype azimuthal thruster, mounted with materials of low cost and easy access, testing in a controlled environment to measure their performance, characteristics and feasibility of future projects. The construction of the simulation of dynamic positioning software, responsible for simulating a vessel and reposition it when necessary . Tests for partial and full validation of the model were conducted, operates independently of the control system and executes the commands and commands of the helix of rotation azimuth. The system provides an interface to the user and simulates the conditions unfavorable positioning of a vessel, accurately calculates the azimuth angle, the direction of rotation of the helix and the time that this should be turned on so that the vessel back to position original. There is a serial communication that connects the Simulation Dynamic Positioning System with Embedded System causing the user-generated data to simulate the DP system arrives in the form of control signals to the motors of the propellant. This article addresses issues in the marine industry employees.

Keywords: azimuthal thruster, dynamic positioning, embedded system, simulator dynamic positioning

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
36 Development of One-Axis Didactic Solar Tracker for Photovoltaic Panels

Authors: L. J. de Bessa Neto, M. R. B. Guerra Vale, F. K. O. M. Varella Guerra

Abstract:

In recent years, solar energy has established itself as one of the main sources of renewable energy, gaining a large space in electricity generation around the world. However, due to the low performance of photovoltaic panels, technologies need to be sought to maximize the production of electricity. In this regard, the present study aims to develop a prototype of solar tracker for didactics applications, controlled with the Arduino® platform, that enables the movement of photovoltaic plates in relation to the sun positions throughout the day through an electromechanical system, optimizing, thus, the efficiency of solar photovoltaic generation and improvements for the photovoltaic effect. The solar tracking technology developed in this work was presented of the shape oral and practical in two middle schools in the municipality of Mossoró/RN, being one of the public network and other of the private network, always keeping the average age of the students, in the case, around 16 years, contemplating an average of 60 students in each of the visits. Thus, it is concluded that the present study contributed substantially to the dissemination of knowledge concerning the photovoltaic solar generation, as well as the study of solar trackers, thus arousing the interest and curiosity of the students regarding the thematic approached.

Keywords: alternative energy, solar tracker, energy efficiency, photovoltaic panels

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
35 Modelling Ibuprofen with Human Albumin

Authors: U. L. Fulco, E. L. Albuquerque, José X. Lima Neto, L. R. Da Silva

Abstract:

The binding of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen (IBU) to human serum albumin (HSA) is investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations within a fragmentation strategy. Crystallographic data for the IBU–HSA supramolecular complex shows that the ligand is confined to a large cavity at the subdomain IIIA and at the interface between the subdomains IIA and IIB, whose binding sites are FA3/FA4 and FA6, respectively. The interaction energy between the IBU molecule and each amino acid residue of these HSA binding pockets was calculated using the Molecular Fractionation with Conjugate Caps (MFCC) approach employing a dispersion corrected exchange–correlation functional. Our investigation shows that the total interaction energy of IBU bound to HSA at binding sites of the fatty acids FA3/FA4 (FA6) converges only for a pocket radius of at least 8.5 °A, mainly due to the action of residues Arg410, Lys414 and Ser489 (Lys351, Ser480 and Leu481) and residues in nonhydrophobic domains, namely Ile388, Phe395, Phe403, Leu407, Leu430, Val433, and Leu453 (Phe206, Ala210, Ala213, and Leu327), which is unusual. Our simulations are valuable for a better understanding of the binding mechanism of IBU to albumin and can lead to the rational design and the development of novel IBU-derived drugs with improved potency.

Keywords: ibuprofen, human serum albumin, density functional theory, binding energies

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34 Spatial Variation of Trace Elements in Suspended Sediments from Urban River

Authors: Daniel Macedo Neto, Sandro Froehner, Juan Sanez

Abstract:

Suspended sediments (SS) are an environmental constituent able to represent the effects of land use changes on watersheds. One important consideration of land use change is its implication on trace element loading. Water bodies have the capacity to retain trace elements. Spatial variation in trace elements concentrations can be associated with land occupation and sources of pollution. In this work, the spatial variation of trace elements in suspended sediments from an urban river was assessed. Time-integrated fluvial suspended sediment samples were installed in three different sites of Barigui River. The suspend solids were collected every 30 days, from May 2015 to August 2015 (total samples 12). Site P1 covers 44 km2 drainage area and has low land occupation, whilst P2 cover an area of 87 km2 and it is totally urban as P3, which area is higher than 130 km2. Trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, P, Pb and Zn) were analysed by ICP-ES. All elements analyzed showed a similar pattern, i.e., the concentration raise with the urbanization, exception for As (P1=7.75; P2=5.75; P3=5.60mg/kg). There was increase in concentration for Cd (P1=0.75; P2=0.78; P3=1.45mg/kg), Cr (P1=59.50; P2=101.75; P3=102.00 mg/kg), Zn (P1=142.25; P2=152.50; P3=223.00mg/kg), P (P1=937.50; P2=1,545.00; P3=2,355.00 mg/kg) and for Pb (P1=31.25; P2=32.75; P3=39.17±2.56 mg/kg). The variation in concentrations were as follow -27.74% (As), +93.33% (Cd), +71.43% (Cr), +151.20% (P), +25.33% (Pb) e +56.77% (Zn). Cd, Cr, P, Pb and Zn presented a clear trend of increasing the concentration from upstream to downstream. Such variation is more notorious for P, Cd and Cr, possibly due the urbanization.

Keywords: trace elements, erosion, urbanization, suspended sediments

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
33 Comparing Image Processing and AI Techniques for Disease Detection in Plants

Authors: Luiz Daniel Garay Trindade, Antonio De Freitas Valle Neto, Fabio Paulo Basso, Elder De Macedo Rodrigues, Maicon Bernardino, Daniel Welfer, Daniel Muller

Abstract:

Agriculture plays an important role in society since it is one of the main sources of food in the world. To help the production and yield of crops, precision agriculture makes use of technologies aiming at improving productivity and quality of agricultural commodities. One of the problems hampering quality of agricultural production is the disease affecting crops. Failure in detecting diseases in a short period of time can result in small or big damages to production, causing financial losses to farmers. In order to provide a map of the contributions destined to the early detection of plant diseases and a comparison of the accuracy of the selected studies, a systematic literature review of the literature was performed, showing techniques for digital image processing and neural networks. We found 35 interesting tool support alternatives to detect disease in 19 plants. Our comparison of these studies resulted in an overall average accuracy of 87.45%, with two studies very closer to obtain 100%.

Keywords: pattern recognition, image processing, deep learning, precision agriculture, smart farming, agricultural automation

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32 Intestinal Epithelium of Juvenile Dourado (Salminus brasiliensis) Fed with Bovine Colostrum

Authors: Thaline Maira P. Cruz, Debora B. Moretti, Wiolene M. Nordi, José Eurico P. Cyrino, Raul Machado-Neto

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lyophilized bovine colostrum (LBC) used as partial source of dietary protein on the histological characteristics of the intestinal epithelium of juvenile dourado (Salminus brasiliensis). Juveniles were fed with diets containing 0, 10 or 20% of lyophilized bovine colostrum (LBC) inclusion for either 30 or 60 days. For the histological study, the intestine was divided into three segments, S1, S2 and posterior intestine. In the S1 segment, interaction between treatment and period was observed in the number of goblet cells containing sialomucin, effect of treatment in the total number of goblet cells and effect of period in the number of goblet cells containing sulphomucins (P<0.05). In the S2 segment, effect of period was observed in the number of goblet cells containing acid, neutral and total mucins, sialomucins and Vv (P<0.05). In the posterior intestine, effect of period was observed in the thickness of muscle layer and number of goblet cells containing sialomucins and sulphomucins (P<0.05). Considering the aspects studied, the presence of lyophilized bovine colostrum in the diet did not significantly influence the enteric histological characteristics of juvenile dourado during the period of the study.

Keywords: carnivorous fish, goblet cells, mucins, teleost

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31 Strategies for Student Recruitment in Civil Engineering

Authors: Diogo Ribeiro, Teresa Neto, Ricardo Santos, Maria Portela, Alexandra Trincão

Abstract:

This article describes a set of innovating student recruitment strategies in a 1st cycle course of Civil Engineering, in particular the Civil Engineering Degree from the School of Engineering - Polytechnic of Porto (ISEP-PP). The strategies described were two-fold, targeting, for one, the increment on the number of admissions for the degree’s first year and two, promoting the re-entry of students who, for whatever reason, interrupted their studies. For the first objective, teacher-student binomials were set, whilst for the second, personalized contacts and assistance were provided. The main initiatives were promoted by the team of degree directors and were upheld with the participation and in consonance with the School’s external relations office. These initiatives were put forward as an attempt to minimize the impact of a national and international crisis on the AEC industry when the sustainability of the course was at risk. The implementation of these strategies was assessed on basis of a statistical analysis of the data collected from official sources and by surveys promoted. The results showed that the re-entry boost of former students, attending classes scattered on the three curricular years, secured registrations on some Curricular Units (UC’s) which more than doubled their numbers. Accompanied by a still incipient but regained interest on Civil Engineering it was possible in the short span of three years to reset the number of new students from less than 10 to the currently maximum allowed of 75, and so invert the tendency of an abrupt decline on the total number of students enrolled on the degree.

Keywords: civil engineering, monitoring, performance indicators, strategies, student recruitment

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30 Partnerships between Public Administration and Private Social Investment for Territorial Development: Lessons after 15 Brazilian Cases

Authors: Graziela D. de Azevedo, Livia M. Pagotto, Mario P. Monzoni, Neto

Abstract:

This article aims to discuss partnerships between public administration and private social investment aimed at territorial development. There has been some approximation in Brazil from private social investors with initiatives aiming at territorial development policies in highly vulnerable territories or in places where the business sector operates. This represents this paper’s major justification: on the advance of academic debate about how businesses, institutes, and foundations have been working alongside local governments, taking the territory as the reference for joint action. The research was based on the literature on governance and territorial development and adopted a mixed iterative approach (inductive and deductive) through an interpretative lens so as to develop an analysis structure that complements and expands knowledge about the contribution of public policies and private social investments for territorial development in Brazil. The analysis of 15 cases based on three distinct blocks (territorial development plans, articulation for education, and thematic approaches) has made it possible to identify common elements regarding the motivations of partnerships, the specific needs of the actors involved, and the priority drivers for stimulating development. Findings include discussion on the leading role of territories in their development paths, on the institutionalization and strengthening of capacities, and on long-term perspectives in development strategies.

Keywords: private social investment, public administration, territorial governance, territorial development

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29 Algorithm for Quantification of Pulmonary Fibrosis in Chest X-Ray Exams

Authors: Marcela de Oliveira, Guilherme Giacomini, Allan Felipe Fattori Alves, Ana Luiza Menegatti Pavan, Maria Eugenia Dela Rosa, Fernando Antonio Bacchim Neto, Diana Rodrigues de Pina

Abstract:

It is estimated that each year one death every 10 seconds (about 2 million deaths) in the world is attributed to tuberculosis (TB). Even after effective treatment, TB leaves sequelae such as, for example, pulmonary fibrosis, compromising the quality of life of patients. Evaluations of the aforementioned sequel are usually performed subjectively by radiology specialists. Subjective evaluation may indicate variations inter and intra observers. The examination of x-rays is the diagnostic imaging method most accomplished in the monitoring of patients diagnosed with TB and of least cost to the institution. The application of computational algorithms is of utmost importance to make a more objective quantification of pulmonary impairment in individuals with tuberculosis. The purpose of this research is the use of computer algorithms to quantify the pulmonary impairment pre and post-treatment of patients with pulmonary TB. The x-ray images of 10 patients with TB diagnosis confirmed by examination of sputum smears were studied. Initially the segmentation of the total lung area was performed (posteroanterior and lateral views) then targeted to the compromised region by pulmonary sequel. Through morphological operators and the application of signal noise tool, it was possible to determine the compromised lung volume. The largest difference found pre- and post-treatment was 85.85% and the smallest was 54.08%.

Keywords: algorithm, radiology, tuberculosis, x-rays exam

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28 The Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Brain Oxygenation and Pleasure during Exercise

Authors: Alexandre H. Okano, Pedro M. D. Agrícola, Daniel G. Da S. Machado, Luiz I. Do N. Neto, Luiz F. Farias Junior, Paulo H. D. Nascimento, Rickson C. Mesquita, John F. Araujo, Eduardo B. Fontes, Hassan M. Elsangedy, Shinsuke Shimojo, Li M. Li

Abstract:

The prefrontal cortex is involved in the reward system and the insular cortex integrates the afferent inputs arriving from the body’ systems and turns into feelings. Therefore, modulating neuronal activity in these regions may change individuals’ perception in a given situation such as exercise. We tested whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) change cerebral oxygenation and pleasure during exercise. Fourteen volunteer healthy adult men were assessed into five different sessions. First, subjects underwent to a maximum incremental test on a cycle ergometer. Then, subjects were randomly assigned to a transcranial direct current stimulation (2mA for 15 min) intervention in a cross over design in four different conditions: anode and cathode electrodes on T3 and Fp2 targeting the insular cortex, and Fpz and F4 targeting prefrontal cortex, respectively; and their respective sham. These sessions were followed by 30 min of moderate intensity exercise. Brain oxygenation was measured in prefrontal cortex with a near infrared spectroscopy. Perceived exertion and pleasure were also measured during exercise. The asymmetry in prefrontal cortex oxygenation before the stimulation decreased only when it was applied over this region which did not occur after insular cortex or sham stimulation. Furthermore, pleasure was maintained during exercise only after prefrontal cortex stimulation (P > 0.7), while there was a decrease throughout exercise (P < 0.03) during the other conditions. We conclude that tDCS over the prefrontal cortex changes brain oxygenation in ventromedial prefrontal cortex and maintains perceived pleasure during exercise. Therefore, this technique might be used to enhance effective responses related to exercise.

Keywords: affect, brain stimulation, dopamine neuromodulation, pleasure, reward, transcranial direct current stimulation

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27 Toxicological Interactions of Silver Nanoparticles and Non-Essential Metals in Human Hepatocarcinoma Cell Line

Authors: Renata Rank Miranda, Arandi Ginane Bezerra, Ciro Alberto Oliveira Ribeiro, Marco AntôNio Ferreira Randi, Carmen Lúcia Voigt, Lilian Skytte, Kaare Lund Rasmussen, Francisco Filipak Neto, Frank Kjeldsen

Abstract:

Synergetic and antagonistic effects of drugs are well-known concerns in pharmacological assessments of dose and toxicity. Similar approach should be used in assessing cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of nanoparticles. Since nanoparticles are released into the aquatic environment they may interact with existing xenobiotics. Here we used biochemical assays and quantitative proteomics to assess the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) when human hepatoma HepG2 cells were co-exposed to 2 nm AgNP together with either Cd2+ or Hg2+ ions. Time-course experiments (2h, 4h, and 24h) were conducted to assess the first response to the exposure studies. The general trend was that a synergetic toxicological response was observed in cells exposed to both AgNP and Cd2+ or Hg2+, with AgNP and Cd2+ being more toxic. This was observed by a significant increase in the ROS and superoxide level of >35% in the case of AgNP+Cd2+ compared to the sum of responses of AgNP and Cd2+, individually. Metabolic activity and viability also dropped more for AgNP+Cd2+ (>10%) than for AgNP and Cd2+ combined. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to investigate if AgNP facilitates larger influx of toxic metal ions into HepG2 cells. Only Hg2+ ions was found to be more efficiently engulfed as the concentration of Hg2+ was found 2.8 times larger compared to exposure experiments with only Hg2+. This effect was not observed for Cd2+. We now continue with deep proteomics studies to obtain wider details on the mechanism of the toxicity related to AgNP, Cd2+, and AgNP+Cd2+, respectively.

Keywords: nanotoxicology, silver nanoparticles, proteomics, human cell line

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26 Further Evidence for the Existence of Broiler Chicken PFN (Pale, Firm and Non-Exudative Meat) and PSE (Pale, Soft and Exudative) in Brazilian Commercial Flocks

Authors: Leila M. Carvalho, Maria Erica S. Oliveira, Arnoud C. Neto, Elza I. Ida, Massami Shimokomaki, Marta S. Madruga

Abstract:

The quality of broiler breast meat is changing as a result of the continuing emphasis on genetic selection for a more efficient meat production. Breast meat has been classified as PSE (pale, soft, exudative), DFD (dark, firm, dry) and normal color meat, and recently a third group has emerged: the so-called PFN (pale, firm, non-exudative) meat. This classification was based on pH, color and functional properties. The aim of this work was to confirm the existence of PFN and PSE meat by biochemical characterization and functional properties. Twenty four hours of refrigerated fillet, Pectoralis major, m. samples (n= 838) were taken from Cobb flocks 42-48 days old, obtained in Northeastern Brazil tropical region, the Northeastern, considered to have only dry and wet seasons. Color (L*), pH, water holding capacity (WHC), values were evaluated and compared with PSE group samples. These samples were classified as Normal (465.8), PSE meat (L*≥53; pH<5.8) and PFN (L*≥53; pH>5.8). The occurrence of control meat, PSE and PFN was 69.09%, 11.10% and 19.81%, respectively. Samples from PFN presented 4.0-5.0% higher WHC in relation to PSE meat and similar to control group. These results are explained by the fact that PSE meat syndrome occurs because of higher protein denaturation as the consequence of a simultaneous lower pH values under warm carcass sooner after slaughtering impairing the myofibril proteins functional properties. Conversely, PFN samples follow normal glycolysis rate maintaining the normal proteins activities. In conclusion, the results reported herein confirm the existence of this emerging broiler meat group with similar properties as control group and it should be considered as normal breast meat group.

Keywords: broiler breast meat, funcional properties, PFN, PSE

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25 Study and Simulation of a Dynamic System Using Digital Twin

Authors: J.P. Henriques, E. R. Neto, G. Almeida, G. Ribeiro, J.V. Coutinho, A.B. Lugli

Abstract:

Industry 4.0, or the Fourth Industrial Revolution, is transforming the relationship between people and machines. In this scenario, some technologies such as Cloud Computing, Internet of Things, Augmented Reality, Artificial Intelligence, Additive Manufacturing, among others, are making industries and devices increasingly intelligent. One of the most powerful technologies of this new revolution is the Digital Twin, which allows the virtualization of a real system or process. In this context, the present paper addresses the linear and nonlinear dynamic study of a didactic level plant using Digital Twin. In the first part of the work, the level plant is identified at a fixed point of operation, BY using the existing method of least squares means. The linearized model is embedded in a Digital Twin using Automation Studio® from Famous Technologies. Finally, in order to validate the usage of the Digital Twin in the linearized study of the plant, the dynamic response of the real system is compared to the Digital Twin. Furthermore, in order to develop the nonlinear model on a Digital Twin, the didactic level plant is identified by using the method proposed by Hammerstein. Different steps are applied to the plant, and from the Hammerstein algorithm, the nonlinear model is obtained for all operating ranges of the plant. As for the linear approach, the nonlinear model is embedded in the Digital Twin, and the dynamic response is compared to the real system in different points of operation. Finally, yet importantly, from the practical results obtained, one can conclude that the usage of Digital Twin to study the dynamic systems is extremely useful in the industrial environment, taking into account that it is possible to develop and tune controllers BY using the virtual model of the real systems.

Keywords: industry 4.0, digital twin, system identification, linear and nonlinear models

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24 Steel Industry Waste as Recyclable Raw Material for the Development of Ferrous-Aluminum Alloys

Authors: Arnold S. Freitas Neto, Rodrigo E. Coelho, Erick S. Mendonça

Abstract:

The study aims to assess if high-purity iron powder in iron-aluminum alloys can be replaced by SAE 1020 steel chips with an atomicity proportion of 50% for each element. Chips of SAE 1020 are rejected in industrial processes. Thus, the use of SAE 1020 as a replaceable composite for iron increase the sustainability of ferrous alloys by recycling industrial waste. The alloys were processed by high energy milling, of which the main advantage is the minimal loss of raw material. The raw material for three of the six samples were high purity iron powder and recyclable aluminum cans. For the other three samples, the high purity iron powder has been replaced with chips of SAE 1020 steel. The process started with the separate milling of chips of aluminum and SAE 1020 steel to obtain the powder. Subsequently, the raw material was mixed in the pre-defined proportions, milled together for five hours and then underwent a closed-die hot compaction at the temperature of 500 °C. Thereafter, the compacted samples underwent heat treatments known as sintering and solubilization. All samples were sintered one hour, and 4 samples were solubilized for either 4 or 10 hours under well-controlled atmosphere conditions. Lastly, the composition and the mechanical properties of their hardness were analyzed. The samples were analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and hardness testing. The results of the analysis showed a similar chemical composition and interesting hardness levels with low standard deviations. This verified that the use of SAE 1020 steel chips can be a low-cost alternative for high-purity iron powder and could possibly replace high-purity Iron in industrial applications.

Keywords: Fe-Al alloys, high energy milling, iron-aluminum alloys, metallography characterization, powder metallurgy, recycling ferrous alloy, SAE 1020 steel recycling

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
23 Life Cycle Assessment of Rare Earth Metals Production: Hotspot Analysis of Didymium Electrolysis Process

Authors: Sandra H. Fukurozaki, Andre L. N. Silva, Joao B. F. Neto, Fernando J. G. Landgraf

Abstract:

Nowadays, the rare earth (RE) metals play an important role in emerging technologies that are crucial for the decarbonisation of the energy sector. Their unique properties have led to increasing clean energy applications, such as wind turbine generators, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Despite the substantial media coverage that has recently surrounded the mining and processing of rare earth metals, very little quantitative information is available concerning their subsequent life stages, especially related to the metallic production of didymium (Nd-Pr) in fluoride molten salt system. Here we investigate a gate to gate scale life cycle assessment (LCA) of the didymium electrolysis based on three different scenarios of operational conditions. The product system is modeled with SimaPro Analyst 8.0.2 software, and IMPACT 2002+ was applied as an impact assessment tool. In order to develop a life cycle inventories built in software databases, patents, and other published sources together with energy/mass balance were utilized. Analysis indicates that from the 14 midpoint impact categories evaluated, the global warming potential (GWP) is the main contributors to the total environmental burden, ranging from 2.7E2 to 3.2E2 kg CO2eq/kg Nd-Pr. At the damage step assessment, the results suggest that slight changes in materials flows associated with enhancement of current efficiency (between 2.5% and 5%), could lead a reduction up to 12% and 15% of human health and climate change damage, respectively. Additionally, this paper highlights the knowledge gaps and future research efforts needing to understand the environmental impacts of Nd-Pr electrolysis process from the life cycle perspective.

Keywords: didymium electrolysis, environmental impacts, life cycle assessment, rare earth metals

Procedia PDF Downloads 47