Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1094

Search results for: pharmaceutical markers

1094 Application of Molecular Markers for Crop Improvement

Authors: Monisha Isaac

Abstract:

Use of molecular markers for selecting plants with desired traits has been started long back. Due to their heritable characteristics, they are useful for identification and characterization of specific genotypes. The study involves various types of molecular markers used to select multiple desired characters in plants, their properties, and advantages to improve crop productivity in adverse climatological conditions for the purpose of providing food security to fast-growing global population. The study shows that genetic similarities obtained from molecular markers provide more accurate information and the genetic diversity can be better estimated from the genetic relationship obtained from the dendrogram. The information obtained from markers assisted characterization is more suitable for the crops of economic importance like sugarcane.

Keywords: molecular markers, crop productivity, genetic diversity, genotype

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1093 Bioactive Chemical Markers Based Strategy for Quality Control of Herbal Medicines

Authors: Zhenzhong Yang

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Herbal medicines are important supplements to chemical drugs and usually consist of a complex mixture of constituents. The current quality control strategy of herbal medicines is mainly based on chemical markers, which largely failed to owe to the markers, not reflecting the herbal medicines’ multiple mechanisms of action. Herein, a bioactive chemical markers based strategy was proposed and applied to the quality assessment and control of herbal medicines. This strategy mainly includes the comprehensive chemical characterization of herbal medicines, bioactive chemical markers identification, and related quantitative analysis methods development. As a proof-of-concept, this strategy was applied to a Panax notoginseng derived herbal medicine. The bioactive chemical markers based strategy offers a rational approach for quality assessment and control of herbal medicines.

Keywords: bioactive chemical markers, herbal medicines, quality assessment, quality control

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1092 Comparative Assessment of ISSR and RAPD Markers among Egyptian Jojoba Shrubs

Authors: Abdelsabour G. A. Khaled, Galal A.R. El-Sherbeny, Ahmed M. Hassanein, Gameel M. G. Aly

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Classical methods of identification, based on agronomical characterization, are not always the most accurate way due to the instability of these characteristics under the influence of the different environments. In order to estimate the genetic diversity, molecular markers provided excellent tools. In this study, Genetic variation of nine Egyptian jojoba shrubs was tested using ISSR (inter simple sequences repeats), RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers and based on the morphological characterization. The average of the percentage of polymorphism (%P) ranged between 58.17% and 74.07% for ISSR and RAPD markers, respectively. The range of genetic similarity percents among shrubs based on ISSR and RAPD markers were from 82.9 to 97.9% and from 85.5 to 97.8%, respectively. The average of PIC (polymorphism information content) values were 0.19 (ISSR) and 0.24 (RAPD). In the present study, RAPD markers were more efficient than the ISSR markers. Where the RAPD technique exhibited higher marker index (MI) average (1.26) compared to ISSR one (1.11). There was an insignificant correlation between the ISSR and RAPD data (0.076, P > 0.05). The dendrogram constructed by the combined RAPD and ISSR data gave a relatively different clustering pattern.

Keywords: correlation, molecular markers, polymorphism, marker index

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1091 An Analysis of Discourse Markers Awareness in Writing Undergraduate Thesis of English Education Student in Sebelas Maret University

Authors: Oktanika Wahyu Nurjanah, Anggun Fitriana Dewi

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An undergraduate thesis is one of the academic writings which should fulfill some characteristics, one of them is coherency. Moreover, a coherence of a text depends on the usage of discourse markers. In other word, discourse markers take an essential role in writing. Therefore, the researchers aim to know the awareness of the discourse markers usage in writing the under-graduate thesis of an English Education student at Sebelas Maret University. This research uses a qualitative case study in order to obtain a deep analysis. The sample of this research is an under-graduate thesis of English Education student in Sebelas Maret University which chosen based on some criteria. Additionally, the researchers were guided by some literature attempted to group the discourse markers based on their functions. Afterward, the analysis was held based on it. From the analysis, it found that the awareness of discourse markers usage is moderate. The last point, the researcher suggest undergraduate students to familiarize themselves with discourse markers, especially for those who want to write thesis.

Keywords: discourse markers, English education, thesis writing, undergraduate student

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1090 A Contrastive Rhetoric Study: The Use of Textual and Interpersonal Metadiscoursal Markers in Persian and English Newspaper Editorials

Authors: Habibollah Mashhady, Moslem Fatollahi

Abstract:

This study tries to contrast the use of metadiscoursal markers in English and Persian Newspaper Editorials as persuasive text types. These markers are linguistic elements in the text which do not add to the propositional content of it, rather they serve to realize the Halliday’s (1985) textual and interpersonal functions of language. At first, some of the most common markers from five subcategories of Text Connectives, Illocution Markers, Hedges, Emphatics, and Attitude Markers were identified in both English and Persian newspapers. Then, the frequency of occurrence of these markers in both English and Persian corpus consisting of 44 randomly selected editorials (18,000 words in each) from several English and Persian newspapers was recorded. After that, using a two-way chi square analysis, the overall x2 obs was found to be highly significant. So, the null hypothesis of no difference was confidently rejected. Finally, in order to determine the contribution of each subcategory to the overall x 2 value, one-way chi square analyses were applied to the individual subcategories. The results indicated that only two of the five subcategories of markers were statistically significant. This difference is then attributed to the differing spirits prevailing in the linguistic communities involved. Regarding the minor research question it was found that, in contrast to English writers, Persian writers are more writer-oriented in their writings.

Keywords: metadiscoursal markers, textual meta-function, interpersonal meta-function, persuasive texts, English and Persian newspaper editorials

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1089 An Examination of Self-Mentions and Engagement Markers on the Academic IELTS Reading Exam

Authors: Hilda Freimuth

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This study examined the interactional resources of self-mentions and engagement markers in twenty official IELTS reading exam passages to determine the passages’ similarity to academic research papers. Although the findings revealed a variation ranging from zero to 22 instances for any given passage, the study found the average number of markers (5.5) per passage in line with those found on research papers. This finding confirms that the IELTS exam’s reading passages mirror the academic nature of research papers in this regard.

Keywords: IELTS exam, IELTS reading, interpersonal resources, self-mentions, engagement markers

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1088 Image Segmentation of Visual Markers in Robotic Tracking System Based on Differential Evolution Algorithm with Connected-Component Labeling

Authors: Shu-Yu Hsu, Chen-Chien Hsu, Wei-Yen Wang

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Color segmentation is a basic and simple way for recognizing the visual markers in a robotic tracking system. In this paper, we propose a new method for color segmentation by incorporating differential evolution algorithm and connected component labeling to autonomously preset the HSV threshold of visual markers. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, a ROBOTIS OP2 humanoid robot is used to conduct the experiment, where five most commonly used color including red, purple, blue, yellow, and green in visual markers are given for comparisons.

Keywords: color segmentation, differential evolution, connected component labeling, humanoid robot

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1087 Inflammatory Markers in the Blood and Chronic Periodontitis

Authors: Saimir Heta, Ilma Robo, Nevila Alliu, Tea Meta

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Background: Plasma levels of inflammatory markers are the expression of the infectious wastes of existing periodontitis, as well as of existing inflammation everywhere in the body. Materials and Methods: The study consists of the clinical part of the measurement of inflammatory markers of 23 patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and the recording of parental periodontal parameters of patient periodontal status: hemorrhage index and probe values, before and 7-10 days after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Results: The level of fibrinogen drops according to the categorization of disease progression, active and passive, with the biggest % (18%-30%) at the fluctuation 10-20 mg/d. Fluctuations in fibrinogen level according to the age of patients in the range 0-10 mg/dL under 40 years and over 40 years was 13%-26%, in the range 10-20 mg/dL was 26%-22%, in the 20-40 mg/dL was 9%-4%. Conclusions: Non-surgical periodontal treatment significantly reduces the level of non-inflammatory markers in the blood. Oral health significantly reduces the potential source for periodontal bacteria, with the potential of promoting thromboembolism, through interaction between thrombocytes.

Keywords: chronic periodontitis, atherosclerosis, risk factor, inflammatory markers

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1086 Investigation of Genetic Diversity in Bread Wheat by RAPD and SSR Markers

Authors: Mohammad Sadegh Khavarinejad

Abstract:

In this study, genetic diversity of 10 bread wheat genotypes by SSR and RAPD markers was evaluated. 11 primers were used included 6 RAPD primers and 5 SSR primers. RAPDs and SSRs could find 33 and 17 polymorphism respectively. In RAPDs, primers UBC 350 and UBC 109 and in SSRs, Primers Xgwm 469-6D and Xgwm120-2B showed genetic diversity among genotypes more than others.

Keywords: wheat, molecular markers, SSR, RAPD

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1085 Clarification of Taxonomic Confusions among Adulterated Drugs Coffee Seena and Seena Weed through Systematic and Pharmaceutical Markers

Authors: Shabnum Shaheen, Nida Haroon, Farah Khan, Sumera Javad, Mehreen Jalal, Samina Sarwar

Abstract:

Coffee Senna is pharmaceutically very important and used for multiple health disorders such as gastric pains, indigestion, snakebites, asthma and fever, tuberculosis and menstrual problems. However, its immense medicinal value and great demand lead to adulteration issue which could be injurious for users. Some times its adulterant Seena weed (Senna occidentalis L.) is used as its substitute which definitely not as effective as Coffee Senna. Hence, the present study was undertaken to provide some tools for systematic and pharmaceutical authentication of a shrubby plant Coffee Senna (Cassia occidentalis Linn.). These parameters included macro and micro morphological characters, anatomical and palynomorph characterization, solubility, fluorescence and phytochemical analysis. By the application of these parameters acquired results revealed that, these two plants are distinct from each other. The Coffee Seena was found to be an annual shrub with trilobed pollen, diacytic, paracytic and anisocytic stomata whereas the Seena weed stands out as an annual or perennial herb with spheroidal and circular pollen and paracytic type of stomata. The powdered drug of Coffee seena is dark grayish green whereas the powdered drug of Seena weed is light green in color. These findings are constructive in authentic identification of these plants.

Keywords: coffee senna, Senna weed, taxonomic evaluation, pharmaceutical markers

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1084 Communicative Roles of English Discourse Markers on Facebook among Umaru Musa Yar’Adua University Members of Academic Staff

Authors: Ibrahim Sani

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This paper examines the use of English discourse markers with the aim of investigating their communicative functions on Facebook as used by UMYUK members of academic staff. The paper uses the qualitative approach and relevance theory by Sperber and Wilson (1995) to highlight and examine DMs in different communicative contexts. In the course of data collection, five (5) academic staff from the five faculties of the university who are already Facebook friends of the researcher are used as the participants with their consent. The paper examines the communicative functions of English DMs among UMYUK academic staff on Facebook and reveals a number of communicative functions used in different contexts. One of the major findings indicates that 'contrastive markers' such as 'but', 'however', 'although' etc. are the dominant communicative functions employed by UMYUK academic staff on Facebook with 42% occurrence; it also shows that a single DM can function differently in the same linguistic environment.

Keywords: role, communicative, discourse markers, facebook, academic staff

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1083 Characterization of Some Bread Wheat Genotypes for Drought Tolerance Using Molecular Markers

Authors: Begüm Terzi, Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Ahmet Yildirim

Abstract:

Drought is the most important factor that limiting the production and productivity of wheat in the world. The yield of wheat, which is one of the most important crop in the world, reduced depend on drought. Researches to minimize effects of drought are one of the most important about breeding of drought resistant varieties. In recent years, benefiting from the drought resistance wild species and rapid advances in molecular biology studies, researches about drought have been accelerated and number of studies were made on molecular plant breeding which included the molecular mechanisms related to drought resistance. The aim of the present study was characterization of some bread wheat lines for drought tolerance which commonly cultivated in different location of Turkey. In this study, registered 9 bread wheat varieties which on the physiological tests about drought tolerance and 10 bread wheat line has been developed by Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute were used. SSR, STS, RAPD and SNP markers that associated with drought tolerance were used. The polymorphisms of the markers were determined by screening of two control varieties. For these purpose 40 molecular markers were used and 12 markers of them were polymorphic among the drought tolerance and the drought sensitive varieties. Control varieties were screened using polymorphic markers. All the DNAs on the genotypes will be searched for the presence of QTLs mapped to different chromosomes. Result of the research, the studied genotypes will be grouped according to drought tolerance and will be detected drought tolerance varieties by molecular markers. In addition, the results will be compared also with physiological tests. The drought tolerant wheat genotypes may be used in breeding studies related to drought stress.

Keywords: bread wheat, drought, molecular marker, Triticum aestivum

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1082 CD133 and CD44 - Stem Cell Markers for Prediction of Clinically Aggressive Form of Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Ognen Kostovski, Svetozar Antovic, Rubens Jovanovic, Irena Kostovska, Nikola Jankulovski

Abstract:

Introduction:Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world. The cancer stem cell (CSC) markers are associated with aggressive cancer types and poor prognosis. The aim of study was to determine whether the expression of colorectal cancer stem cell markers CD133 and CD44 could be significant in prediction of clinically aggressive form of CRC. Materials and methods: Our study included ninety patients (n=90) with CRC. Patients were divided into two subgroups: with metatstatic CRC and non-metastatic CRC. Tumor samples were analyzed with standard histopathological methods, than was performed immunohistochemical analysis with monoclonal antibodies against CD133 and CD44 stem cell markers. Results: High coexpression of CD133 and CD44 was observed in 71.4% of patients with metastatic disease, compared to 37.9% in patients without metastases. Discordant expression of both markers was found in 8% of the subgroup with metastatic CRC, and in 13.4% of the subgroup without metastatic CRC. Statistical analyses showed a significant association of increased expression of CD133 and CD44 with the disease stage, T - category and N - nodal status. With multiple regression analysis the stage of disease was designate as a factor with the greatest statistically significant influence on expression of CD133 (p <0.0001) and CD44 (p <0.0001). Conclusion: Our results suggest that the coexpression of CD133 and CD44 have an important role in prediction of clinically aggressive form of CRC. Both stem cell markers can be routinely implemented in standard pathohistological diagnostics and can be useful markers for pre-therapeutic oncology screening.

Keywords: colorectal carcinoma, stem cells, CD133+, CD44+

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1081 Effect of High-Pressure and Thermal Treatments on Quality Markers of Strawberry Nectars

Authors: Karen Louise Lacey, Dario Javier Pavon Vargas, Massimiliano Rinaldi, Luca Cattani, Sara Rainieri

Abstract:

The effects of high-pressure processing (HPP) and thermal treatments (TT) on quality markers of strawberry nectar (12 °Brix, 3,3 pH) was studied before and after treatments. TT and HPP treatments ensured a 3-log aerobic bacteria inactivation. No significant difference was detected in terms of pH and °Brix. TT samples were less red (a* less positive) than all HPP treated samples, while all samples were less red than the control. Apparent viscosity was significantly increased in all the HPP treatments, at 10 1/s shear rate, control was 79.04±7.94 mPa•s and the 600 MPa-20 min treatment were 327.10±1.64 mPa•s. This work suggests that HPP treatments may maintain the quality markers of strawberry nectar better.

Keywords: HPP, strawberry nectar, colour , viscosity

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1080 Development and Characterization of Polymorphic Genomic-SSR Markers in Asian Long-Horned Beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis)

Authors: Zhao Yang Liu, Jing Tao

Abstract:

The Asian long-horned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae), is a wood-borer and polyphagous xylophages native to Asia and killing healthy trees. As it causes serious danger to trees, the beetle has been paid close attention in the world. However, the genetic markers limited, especially microsatellite. In this study, 24 novel simple sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers, a powerful tool for genetic diversity studies and linkage map construction, were developed and characterized from whole genome shotgun sequences. We developed SSR loci of 2 to 6 repeated and perfect units including 9895 points, the density of SSRs was found one SSR per 56.57 kb and the abundance of SSR was 0.02/kb, besides 140 types of repeats motifs were found. Half of the 48 pairs SSR primers (containing 4 di-, 7 tri-, 2 tetra- and 11 hexamers SSRs) we selected randomly from 1222 pairs of primers were polymorphism. The number of alleles for these markers in 48 individuals varied from 3 to 21 with an average of 7.71, the number of effective alleles ranged from 1.22 to 9.97 with an average of 3.54. Besides this, the polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.18 to 0.89 with a mean of 0.65, And Shannon's Information index (I) ranged from 0.46 to 2.62 with an average of 1.44. The results suggest that the method for screening of SSR in the whole genome is feasible and efficient. SSR markers developed in this study can be used for population genetic studies of A. glabripennis. Moreover, they may also be helpful for the development of microsatellites for other Coleoptera.

Keywords: SSR markers, Anoplophora glabripennis, genetic diversity, whole genome

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1079 Molecular Characterization of Polyploid Bamboo (Dendrocalamus hamiltonii) Using Microsatellite Markers

Authors: Rajendra K. Meena, Maneesh S. Bhandari, Santan Barthwal, Harish S. Ginwal

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Microsatellite markers are the most valuable tools for the characterization of plant genetic resources or population genetic analysis. Since it is codominant and allelic markers, utilizing them in polyploid species remained doubtful. In such cases, the microsatellite marker is usually analyzed by treating them as a dominant marker. In the current study, it has been showed that despite losing the advantage of co-dominance, microsatellite markers are still a powerful tool for genotyping of polyploid species because of availability of large number of reproducible alleles per locus. It has been studied by genotyping of 19 subpopulations of Dendrocalamus hamiltonii (hexaploid bamboo species) with 17 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs. Among these, ten primers gave typical banding pattern of microsatellite marker as expected in diploid species, but rest 7 gave an unusual pattern, i.e., more than two bands per locus per genotype. In such case, genotyping data are generally analyzed by considering as dominant markers. In the current study, data were analyzed in both ways as dominant and co-dominant. All the 17 primers were first scored as nonallelic data and analyzed; later, the ten primers giving standard banding patterns were analyzed as allelic data and the results were compared. The UPGMA clustering and genetic structure showed that results obtained with both the data sets are very similar with slight variation, and therefore the SSR marker could be utilized to characterize polyploid species by considering them as a dominant marker. The study is highly useful to widen the scope for SSR markers applications and beneficial to the researchers dealing with polyploid species.

Keywords: microsatellite markers, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, dominant and codominant, polyploids

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1078 Phylogenetic Relationships between the Whole Sets of Individual Flow Sorted U, M, S and C Chromosomes of Aegilops and Wheat as Revealed by COS Markers

Authors: András Farkas, István Molnár, Jan Vrána, Veronika Burešová, Petr Cápal, András Cseh, Márta Molnár-Láng, Jaroslav Doležel

Abstract:

Species of Aegilops played a central role in the evolution of wheat and are sources of traits related to yield quality and tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses. These wild genes and alleles are desirable to use in crop improvement programs via introgressive hybridization. However, the success of chromosome mediated gene transfer to wheat are hampered by the pour knowledge on the genome structure of Aegilops relative to wheat and by the low number of cost-effective molecular markers specific for Aegilops chromosomes. The COS markers specific for genes conserved throughout evolution in both sequence and copy number between Triticeae/Aegilops taxa and define orthologous regions, thus enabling the comparison of regions on the chromosomes of related species. The present study compared individual chromosomes of Aegilops umbellulata (UU), Ae. comosa (MM), Ae. speltoides (SS) and Ae. caudata (CC) purified by flourescent labelling with oligonucleotid SSR repeats and biparametric flow cytometry with wheat by identifying orthologous chromosomal regions by COS markers. The linear order of bin-mapped COS markers along the wheat D chromosomes was identified by the use of chromosome-specific sequence data and virtual gene order. Syntenic regions of wheat identifying genome rearrangements differentiating the U, M, S or C genomes from the D genome of wheat were detected. The conserved orthologous set markers assigned to Aegilops chromosomes promise to accelerate gene introgression by facilitating the identification of alien chromatin. The syntenic relationships between the Aegilops species and wheat will facilitate the targeted development of new markers specific for U, M, S and C genomic regions and will contribute to the understanding of molecular processes related to the evolution of Aegilops.

Keywords: Aegilops, cos-markers, flow-sorting, wheat

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1077 Implementation of Metabolomics in Conjunction with Chemometrics for the Dentification of the Differential Chemical Markers of Different Grades of Sri Lankan White, Green and Black Tea: Camellia Sinenesis L.

Authors: Dina A. Selim, Eman Shawky, Rasha M. Abu El-Khair

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In the current study, UPLC-MS/MS combined to chemometrics were applied on seven Sri Lankan tea grades; Orange Pekoe, Flowery Pekoe, Broken Orange Pekoe Fannings, Broken Orange Pekoe black tea, green tea, silver tips and golden tips white tea grades for their comprehensive metabolic profiling. Certain metabolites, namely, Theasensinin C and E, theaflavin and theacitrin appeared to be the main chemical markers of black tea type, catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, methyl epigallocatechin were the main discriminatory markers of green tea type, while theanine, oolongotheanine and quercetin glycosides were the main chemical markers of white tea type. Theogalloflavin, epigallocatechin and flavonoid glycosides were the main down-accumulated metabolites while theaflavin gallate, and N-ethyl pyrrolidinone epicatechin were the chief up- accumulated metabolites between whole and broken black tea leave grades while puerin A and C and gallic acid was the main down- accumulated metabolites and N-ethyl pyrrolidinone epicatechin gallate was the main up-accumulated one between broken and fanning black tea grades.

Keywords: tea grading, Sri Lankan tea, chemometrics, metabolomics, chemical markers

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1076 Development of Microsatellite Markers for Genetic Variation Analysis in House Cricket, Acheta domesticus

Authors: Yash M. Gupta, Kittisak Buddhachat, Surin Peyachoknagul, Somjit Homchan

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The house cricket, Acheta domesticus is one of the commonly found species of field crickets. Although it is very commonly used as food and feed, the genomic information of house cricket is still missing for genetic investigation. DNA sequencing technology has evolved over the decades, and it has also revolutionized the molecular marker development for genetic analysis. In the present study, we have sequenced the whole genome of A. domesticus using illumina platform based HiSeq X Ten sequencing technology for searching simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in DNA to develop polymorphic microsatellite markers for population genetic analysis. A total of 112,157 SSRs with primer pairs were identified, 91 randomly selected SSRs used to check DNA amplification, of which nine primers were polymorphic. These microsatellite markers have shown cross-amplification with other three species of crickets which are Gryllus bimaculatus, Gryllus testaceus and Brachytrupes portentosus. These nine polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to check genetic variation for forty-five individuals of A. domesticus, Phitsanulok population, Thailand. For nine loci, the number of alleles was ranging from 5 to 15. The observed heterozygosity was ranged from 0.4091 to 0.7556. These microsatellite markers will facilitate population genetic analysis for future studies of A. domesticus populations. Moreover, the transferability of these SSR makers would also enable researchers to conduct genetic studies for other closely related species.

Keywords: cross-amplification, microsatellite markers, observed heterozygosity, population genetic, simple sequence repeats

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1075 Genetic Diversity Analysis in Triticum Aestivum Using Microsatellite Markers

Authors: Prachi Sharma, Mukesh Kumar Rana

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In the present study, the simple sequence repeat(SSR) markers have been used in analysis of genetic diversity of 37 genotypes of Triticum aestivum. The DNA was extracted using cTAB method. The DNA was quantified using the fluorimeter. The annealing temperatures for 27 primer pairs were standardized using gradient PCR, out of which 16 primers gave satisfactory amplification at temperature ranging from 50-62⁰ C. Out of 16 polymorphic SSR markers only 10 SSR primer pairs were used in the study generating 34 reproducible amplicons among 37 genotypes out of which 30 were polymorphic. Primer pairs Xgwm533, Xgwm 160, Xgwm 408, Xgwm 120, Xgwm 186, Xgwm 261 produced maximum percent of polymorphic bands (100%). The bands ranged on an average of 3.4 bands per primer. The genetic relationship was determined using Jaccard pair wise similarity co-efficient and UPGMA cluster analysis with NTSYS Pc.2 software. The values of similarity index range from 0-1. The similarity coefficient ranged from 0.13 to 0.97. A minimum genetic similarity (0.13) was observed between VL 804 and HPW 288, meaning they are only 13% similar. More number of available SSR markers can be useful for supporting the genetic diversity analysis in the above wheat genotypes.

Keywords: wheat, genetic diversity, microsatellite, polymorphism

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1074 Genetic Variation of Shvicezebuvides Cattle in Tajikistan Based on Microsatellite Markers

Authors: Norezzine Abdelaziz, Rebouh Nazih Yacer, Kezimana Parfait, Parpura D. I., Gadzhikurbanov A., Anastasios Dranidis

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The genetic variation of Shvicezebuvides cattle from three different farms in the Tajikistan Republic was studied using 10 microsatellite markers (SSR). The trials were laid out using a multi- locus analysis system for the analysis of cattle microsatellite locus. An estimated genetic variability of the examined livestock is given in the article. The results of our SSR analysis as well as the numbers and frequencies of common alleles in studied samples, we established a high genetic similarity of studied samples. These results can also be furthermore useful in the decision making for preservation and rational genetic resources usage of the Tajik Shvicezebuvides cattle.

Keywords: genetic characteristic, frequencies of the occurrence alleles, microsatellite markers, Swiss cattle

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1073 To Individualisation of Subject, Donar, by Determination of Serological Markers from Obtain Biological Fluid at Crime Scene

Authors: Arun Kumar, Ravindra Pal Verma, Harsh Sharma, Shani Kumar

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For the present study samples was collected from 20 donors with unknown blood group and secretor status had been determined from saliva by using biological fluid. ABO typing on the concentrated samples was successfully performed after 1 month of storage. Urine stained clothing samples are often submitted to forensic science laboratories for ABH blood group antigen determination. The serogenetic markers of semen stains submitted can be used to determine the origin of any of these samples. ABH blood group substances have previously been identified from urine. ABH blood group substance is low in urine in comparison with other body fluids.

Keywords: ABH blood group, crime scene, serological markers, body fluids and urine

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1072 A Set of Microsatellite Markers for Population Genetics of Copper-Winged Bat (Myotis rufoniger) Using Saliva DNA

Authors: Junghwa An, Sungkyoung Choi, Eun Ye, San Hoon Han, Young-Gun Choi, Chul Oun Jung

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The copper-winged bat (Myotis rufoniger) is the widely distributed medium body-sized bat in Asia, including Korea. This bat population has been decreasing because of habitat loss. This study reported the isolation and characterization of ten polymorphic microsatellite loci in endangered M. rufoniger. To do genetic studies, we use saliva DNA of bats during winter sleep period. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 9, and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.063 to 0.750 and from 0.063 to 0.865, respectively. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) value of these markers was 0.37. Two loci of M. rufoniger showed departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium(HWE). This demonstrated that the ten microsatellite loci can be used as genetic markers for further investigation of the copper-winged bat.

Keywords: copper-winged bat, microsatellite, population genetics, South Korea

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1071 Phenotypic Characterization of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Isolated from Irreversible Pulpitis with Dental Pulp Stem Cells from Impacted Teeth

Authors: Soumya S., Manju Nidagodu Jayakumar, Vellore Kannan Gopinath

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Dental pulp inflammation resulting from dental caries often leads to a pathologic condition known as irreversible pulpitis and the currently managed by root canal treatment. Extirpation of the entire pulp tissue is done during this procedure, and the canal space is filled with synthetic materials. Recent studies in the stem cell biology state that some portion of the irreversibly inflamed pulp tissue could be viable with progenitor cells, having the properties similar to that of Mesenchymal stem cells. Hence, we aim to isolate Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) from patients diagnosed with severe irreversible pulpitis and characterize the cells for the MSC specific markers. The pulp tissue was collected from the dental clinic and subjected to collagenase/dispase digestion. The isolated cells were expanded in culture, and the phenotypic characterization was done using flow cytometry. MSC specific markers such as CD-90, CD-73, and CD-105 were analysed along with negative markers such as CD-14 and CD-45. The isolated cells expressed positive expression for CD markers with CD90 and CD105 ( > 95%) and CD73 (19%). The cells did not express the negative markers CD-14 and CD-45. The commercially available DPSCs from vital extracted teeth, preferably molar/wisdom teeth with large pulp cavity or incomplete root growth in young patients (aged 15-30 years) showed more than 90% expression for all the CD markers such as CD-90, 73 and 105, whereas negative for CD-14 and CD-45. The DPSCs isolated from inflamed pulp tissue showed a less expression for CD-73 compared to the commercially available DPSCs whereas, as the other two markers were found to show similar percentage of positive expression. This could be attributed to the fact that the pulp population is very heterogeneous and we used the pooled tissue from different patients. Hence the phenotypic characterization and comparison with the commercially available DPSCs proved that the inflamed pulp tissue is a good source of MSC like cells which can be utilized further for regenerative application.

Keywords: collagenase/dispase, dental pulp stem cells, flow cytometry, irreversible pulpitis

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1070 The Efficiency of AFLP and ISSR Markers in Genetic Diversity Estimation and Gene Pool Classification of Iranian Landrace Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Germplasm

Authors: Reza Talebi

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Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most important food staples in Iran. Understanding genetic variability among the landrace wheat germplasm is important for breeding. Landraces endemic to Iran are a genetic resource that is distinct from other wheat germplasm. In this study, 60 Iranian landrace wheat accessions were characterized AFLP and ISSR markers. Twelve AFLP primer pairs detected 128 polymorphic bands among the sixty genotypes. The mean polymorphism rate based on AFLP data was 31%; however, a wide polymorphism range among primer pairs was observed (22–40%). Polymorphic information content (PIC value) calculated to assess the informativeness of each marker ranged from 0.28 to 0.4, with a mean of 0.37. According to AFLP molecular data, cluster analysis grouped the genotypes in five distinct clusters. .ISSR markers generated 68 bands (average of 6 bands per primer), which 31 were polymorphic (45%) across the 60 wheat genotypes. Polymorphism information content (PIC) value for ISSR markers was calculated in the range of 0.14 to 0.48 with an average of 0.33. Based on data achieved by ISSR-PCR, cluster analysis grouped the genotypes in three distinct clusters. Both AFLP and ISSR markers able to showed that high level of genetic diversity in Iranian landrace wheat accessions has maintained a relatively constant level of genetic diversity during last years.

Keywords: wheat, genetic diversity, AFLP, ISSR

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1069 Investigation of Possible Precancerous Viral Markers in Dental Follicles of Asymptomatic Impacted Teeth

Authors: Serap Keskin Tunç, Cennet Neslihan Eroğlu, Sevinç Şahin, Selda Seçkin

Abstract:

It has been suggested that various viruses may play a role in the pathogenesis of cancerous oral lesions in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of both possible precancerous viral markers (HPV, HHV8, HSV1, HSV2, and EBV), and p53 and Ki-67 in the dental follicles of asymptomatic impacted teeth. A hundred healthy volunteers, older than 18 years old, included in the study. Dental follicles of extracted impacted teeth were excised and fixated in 10% formaldehyde. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations using HPV (containing HPV 8 and HPV 11), p16 (containing HPV 16), HHV8, HSV1, HSV2, EBV, p53 and Ki-67 antibodies were carried out. Also, the immunohistochemical results were correlated with the clinicopathological feature by Chi-square test statistically No dysplasia or neoplasm was observed. 62% of the cases were positive for p16, 32% were positive for EBV, 26% were positive for HSV1, immunohistochemically. All cases were immunonegative for HPV, HSV2, and HHV8. There was statistically significant correlation between overexpression of p53 with both EBV and p16 positivity (p<0.05). Direct correlation between higher expression of Ki-67 between EBV immunopositivity was detected (p<0.05). Thus, these viruses may be suggested to show trophism to the dental follicles acting as a reservoir. In conclusion, all dental follicles of extracted impacted teeth should be examined histopathologically in order to detect and prevent possible viral oncogenesis.

Keywords: dental follicles, Ki67, p53, precancerous markers viral markers

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1068 Oxidative Stress Markers in Sports Related to Training

Authors: V. Antevska, B. Dejanova, L. Todorovska, J. Pluncevic, E. Sivevska, S. Petrovska, S. Mancevska, I. Karagjozova

Abstract:

Introduction: The aim of this study was to optimise the laboratory oxidative stress (OS) markers in soccer players. Material and methods: In a number of 37 soccer players (21±3 years old) and 25 control subjects (sedenters), plasma samples were taken for d-ROMs (reactive oxygen metabolites) and NO (nitric oxide) determination. The d-ROMs test was performed by measurement of hydroperoxide levels (Diacron, Italy). For NO determination the method of nitrate enzyme reduction with the Greiss reagent was used (OXIS, USA). The parameters were taken after the training of the soccer players and were compared with the control group. Training was considered as maximal exercise treadmill test. The criteria of maximum loading for each subject was established as >95% maximal heart rate. Results: The level of d-ROMs was found to be increased in the soccer players vs. control group but no significant difference was noticed. After the training d-ROMs in soccer players showed increased value of 299±44 UCarr (p<0.05). NO showed increased level in all soccer players vs. controls but significant difference was found after the training 102±29 μmol (p<0.05). Conclusion: Due to these results we may suggest that the measuring these OS markers in sport medicine may be useful for better estimation and evaluation of the training program. More oxidative stress should be used to clarify optimization of the training intensity program.

Keywords: oxidative stress markers, soccer players, training, sport

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1067 Showing Broccoli and Cabbage Genotypes Biodiversity Using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPD)

Authors: M. M. A. Abdalla, M. H. Aboul-Nasr, Shimaa H. Mosallam

Abstract:

Ten RAPD markers were used to detect the genetic variability and relationships among four broccoli and three cabbage genotypes. The results of RAPD analysis showed that all the five primers surveyed detected polymorphism for all broccoli genotypes. A total of 39 DNA bands were amplified by the 5 primers from all genotype and 21 of these fragments showed polymorphism (53.85%). The rest of these bands (46.15%) were common between the four genotypes. On the other hand, all of the 7 primers surveyed, used with cabbage, detected polymorphism among all cabbage genotype. A total of 69 DNA bands were amplified by the 7 primers from all genotypes and 23 of these fragments showed polymorphism (33.33%). The rest of these bands (66.67%) were common between the three genotypes. The investigation suggested that the RAPD approach showed considerable potential for identifying and discriminating broccoli and cabbage genotypes.

Keywords: Brassica oleracea, genotypes, genetic markers, varietal identification, DNA polymorphism, RAPD markers

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1066 Genetic Identification of Crop Cultivars Using Barcode System

Authors: Kesavan Markkandan, Ha Young Park, Seung-Il Yoo, Sin-Gi Park, Junhyung Park

Abstract:

For genetic identification of crop cultivars, insertions/deletions (InDel) markers have been preferred currently because they are easy to use, PCR based, co-dominant and relatively abundant. However, new InDels need to be developed for genetic studies of new varieties due to the difference of allele frequencies in InDels among the population groups. These new varieties are evolved with low levels of genetic diversity in specific genome loci with high recombination rate. In this study, we described soybean barcode system approach based on InDel makers, each of which is specific to a variation block (VB), where the genomes split by all assumed recombination sites. Firstly, VBs in crop cultivars were mined for transferability to VB-specific InDel markers. Secondly, putative InDels in the VB regions were identified for the development of barcode system by analyzing particular cultivar’s whole genome data. Thirdly, common VB-specific InDels from all cultivars were selected by gel electrophoresis, which were converted as 2D barcode types according to comparing amplicon polymorphisms in the five cultivars to the reference cultivar. Finally, the polymorphism of the selected markers was assessed with other cultivars, and the barcode system that allows a clear distinction among those cultivars is described. The same approach can be applicable for other commercial crops. Hence, VB-based genetic identification not only minimize the molecular markers but also useful for assessing cultivars and for marker-assisted breeding in other crop species.

Keywords: variation block, polymorphism, InDel marker, genetic identification

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1065 Dissection of Genomic Loci for Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus Resistance in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentas)

Authors: Rakesh Kumar Meena, Tanushree Chatterjee

Abstract:

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentas L. Moench) or lady’s finger is an important vegetable crop belonging to the Malvaceae family. Unfortunately, production and productivity of Okra are majorly affected by Yellow Vein mosaic virus (YVMV). The AO: 189 (resistant parent) X AO: 191(susceptible parent) used for the development of mapping population. The mapping population has 143 individuals (F₂:F₃). Population was characterized by physiological and pathological observations. Screening of 360 DNA markers was performed to survey for parental polymorphism between the contrasting parents’, i.e., AO: 189 and AO: 191. Out of 360; 84 polymorphic markers were used for genotyping of the mapping population. Total markers were distributed into four linkage groups (LG1, LG2, LG3, and LG4). LG3 covered the longest span (106.8cM) with maximum number of markers (27) while LG1 represented the smallest linkage group in terms of length (71.2cM). QTL identification using the composite interval mapping approach detected two prominent QTLs, QTL1 and QTL2 for resistance against YVMV disease. These QTLs were placed between the marker intervals of NBS-LRR72-Path02 and NBS-LRR06- NBS-LRR65 on linkage group 02 and linkage group 04 respectively. The LOD values of QTL1 and QTL2 were 5.7 and 6.8 which accounted for 19% and 27% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. The findings of this study provide two linked markers which can be used as efficient diagnostic tools to distinguish between YVMV resistant and susceptible Okra cultivars/genotypes. Lines identified as highly resistant against YVMV infection can be used as donor lines for this trait. This will be instrumental in accelerating the trait improvement program in Okra and will substantially reduce the yield losses due to this viral disease.

Keywords: Okra, yellow vein mosaic virus, resistant, linkage map, QTLs

Procedia PDF Downloads 131