Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Search results for: provisioning

41 Towards a Resources Provisioning for Dynamic Workflows in the Cloud

Authors: Fairouz Fakhfakh, Hatem Hadj Kacem, Ahmed Hadj Kacem

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Cloud computing offers a new model of service provisioning for workflow applications, thanks to its elasticity and its paying model. However, it presents various challenges that need to be addressed in order to be efficiently utilized. The resources provisioning problem for workflow applications has been widely studied. Nevertheless, the existing works did not consider the change in workflow instances while they are being executed. This functionality has become a major requirement to deal with unusual situations and evolution. This paper presents a first step towards the resources provisioning for a dynamic workflow. In fact, we propose a provisioning algorithm which minimizes the overall workflow execution cost, while meeting a deadline constraint. Then, we extend it to support the dynamic adding of tasks. Experimental results show that our proposed heuristic demonstrates a significant reduction in resources cost by using a consolidation process.

Keywords: cloud computing, resources provisioning, dynamic workflow, workflow applications

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40 Resource Management Framework in Cloud Computing

Authors: Gagandeep Kaur, Sonal Chawla

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In a Cloud Computing environment, resource provisioning, resource allocation and resource scheduling is the most complex issues these days. Cloud User expects the best resource utilization and Cloud Provider expects revenue maximization by considering budget and time constraints. In this research paper, Resource Management Framework has been proposed to allocate the resources to Cloud Users and Cloud Providers in Cloud environment. The main aim of the proposed work is to provide the resources and services to Cloud Providers and Cloud Users in an efficient and effective manner. The proposed framework has been simulated and tested using the CloudSim simulator tool.

Keywords: cloud computing, resource allocation, auction, provisioning

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
39 Design of Cloud Service Brokerage System Intermediating Integrated Services in Multiple Cloud Environment

Authors: Dongjae Kang, Sokho Son, Jinmee Kim

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Cloud service brokering is a new service paradigm that provides interoperability and portability of application across multiple Cloud providers. In this paper, we designed cloud service brokerage system, any broker, supporting integrated service provisioning and SLA based service life cycle management. For the system design, we introduce the system concept and whole architecture, details of main components and use cases of primary operations in the system. These features ease the Cloud service provider and customer’s concern and support new Cloud service open market to increase cloud service profit and prompt Cloud service echo system in cloud computing related area.

Keywords: cloud service brokerage, multiple Clouds, Integrated service provisioning, SLA, network service

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38 Policies and Politics of Infrastructure Provisioning in Nigeria

Authors: Olufemi Adedamola Oyedele

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Infrastructure provision in Nigeria is now at its lowest ebb in spite of its being critical to the socio-economic and political development of any nation. This is partly because the policy that will ensure its adequate provisioning is missing and partly because politics is affecting its provision. Policy is the basic principles by which a government is guided. Infrastructural development is the basis for measuring the performance of governments and it is the foundation of good governance. Demand for infrastructural development is higher and resources used in its provision are limited. Ethnic-interest agitation and lobbying for infrastructure provision are common things in multi-ethnic state like Nigeria. Most infrastructures are now decayed and need repair or replacement. Government is the system that organizes, control and sensitizes the people in a society in other for all to have an acceptable level of living. Governments have the power to put in place all measures that they deem fit will make an environment conducive for living for everybody. Infrastructure development in any environment requires needs assessment, feasibility and viability studies and carrying out physical development of the project. The challenge in Nigeria is largely carrying out development where they are not needed but where the people are loyal. There are numerous abandoned projects because they were started due to politics and not because they are feasible. Policies and politics greatly affect infrastructure provisioning in Nigeria and this is the premise of this paper.

Keywords: infrastructure challenges, infrastructure development, policy making, politics, project finance

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37 End-to-End Control and Management of Multi-AS Virtual Service Networks Using SDN and Autonomic Computing Architecture

Authors: Yong Xue, Daniel A. Menascé

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Automated and end-to-end network resource management and provisioning for virtual service networks in a multiple autonomous systems (a.k.a multi-AS) environment is a challenging and open problem. This paper proposes a novel, scalable and interoperable high-level architecture that incorporates a number of emerging enabling technologies including Software Defined Network (SDN), Network Function Virtualization (NFV), Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), and Autonomic Computing. The proposed architecture can be used to not only automate network resource management and provisioning for virtual service networks across multiple autonomous substrate networks, but also provide an adaptive capability for achieving optimal network resource management and maintaining network-level end-to-end network performance as well. The paper argues that this SDN and autonomic computing based architecture lays a solid foundation that can facilitate the development of the future Internet based on the pluralistic paradigm.

Keywords: virtual network, software defined network, virtual service network, adaptive resource management, SOA, multi-AS, inter-domain

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36 An Integrated Web-Based Workflow System for Design of Computational Pipelines in the Cloud

Authors: Shuen-Tai Wang, Yu-Ching Lin

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With more and more workflow systems adopting cloud as their execution environment, it presents various challenges that need to be addressed in order to be utilized efficiently. This paper introduces a method for resource provisioning based on our previous research of dynamic allocation and its pipeline processes. We present an abstraction for workload scheduling in which independent tasks get scheduled among various available processors of distributed computing for optimization. We also propose an integrated web-based workflow designer by taking advantage of the HTML5 technology and chaining together multiple tools. In order to make the combination of multiple pipelines executing on the cloud in parallel, we develop a script translator and an execution engine for workflow management in the cloud. All information is known in advance by the workflow engine and tasks are allocated according to the prior knowledge in the repository. This proposed effort has the potential to provide support for process definition, workflow enactment and monitoring of workflow processes. Users would benefit from the web-based system that allows creation and execution of pipelines without scripting knowledge.

Keywords: workflow systems, resources provisioning, workload scheduling, web-based, workflow engine

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35 Public Debt Shocks and Public Goods Provisioning in Nigeria: Implication for National Development

Authors: Amenawo I. Offiong, Hodo B. Riman

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Public debt profile of Nigeria has continuously been on the increase over the years. The drop in international crude oil prices has further worsened revenue position of the country, thus, necessitating further acquisition of public debt to bridge the gap in revenue deficit. Yet, when we look back at the increasing public sector spending, there are concerns that the government spending do not amount to increase in public goods provided for the country. Using data from 1980 to 2014 the study therefore seeks to investigate the factors responsible for the poor provision of public goods in the face of increasing public debt profile. Using the unrestricted VAR model Governance and Tax revenue were introduced into the model as structural variables. The result suggested that governance and tax revenue were structural determinants of the effectiveness of public goods provisioning in Nigeria. The study therefore identified weak governance as the major reason for the non-provision of public goods in Nigeria. While tax revenue exerted positive influence on the provisions of public goods, weak/poor governance was observed to crowd the benefits from increase tax revenue. The study therefore recommends reappraisal of the governance system in Nigeria. Elected officers in governance should be more transparent and accountable to the electorates they represent. Furthermore, the study advocates for an annual auditing of all government MDAs accounts by external auditors to ensure (a) accountability of public debts utilization, (b) transparent in implementation of program support funds, (c) integrity of agencies responsible for program management, and (d) measuring program effectiveness with amount of funds expended.

Keywords: impulse response function, public debt shocks, governance, public goods, tax revenue, vector auto-regression

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34 Impact of Climate Change on Forest Ecosystem Services: In situ Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Management of Forest Resources in Tropical Forests

Authors: Rajendra Kumar Pandey

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Forest genetic resources not only represent regional biodiversity but also have immense value as the wealth for securing livelihood of poor people. These are vulnerable to ecological due to depletion/deforestation and /or impact of climate change. These resources of various plant categories are vulnerable on the floor of natural tropical forests, and leading to the threat on the growth and development of future forests. More than 170 species, including NTFPs, are in critical condition for their survival in natural tropical forests of Central India. Forest degradation, commensurate with biodiversity loss, is now pervasive, disproportionately affecting the rural poor who directly depend on forests for their subsistence. Looking ahead the interaction between forest and water, soil, precipitation, climate change, etc. and its impact on biodiversity of tropical forests, it is inevitable to develop co-operation policies and programmes to address new emerging realities. Forests ecosystem also known as the 'wealth of poor' providing goods and ecosystem services on a sustainable basis, are now recognized as a stepping stone to move poor people beyond subsistence. Poverty alleviation is the prime objective of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, environmental sustainability including other MDGs, is essential to ensure successful elimination of poverty and well being of human society. Loss and degradation of ecosystem are the most serious threats to achieving development goals worldwide. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA, 2005) was an attempt to identify provisioning and regulating cultural and supporting ecosystem services to provide livelihood security of human beings. Climate change may have a substantial impact on ecological structure and function of forests, provisioning, regulations and management of resources which can affect sustainable flow of ecosystem services. To overcome these limitations, policy guidelines with respect to planning and consistent research strategy need to be framed for conservation and sustainable development of forest genetic resources.

Keywords: climate change, forest ecosystem services, sustainable forest management, biodiversity conservation

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33 Measuring the Resilience of e-Governments Using an Ontology

Authors: Onyekachi Onwudike, Russell Lock, Iain Phillips

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The variability that exists across governments, her departments and the provisioning of services has been areas of concern in the E-Government domain. There is a need for reuse and integration across government departments which are accompanied by varying degrees of risks and threats. There is also the need for assessment, prevention, preparation, response and recovery when dealing with these risks or threats. The ability of a government to cope with the emerging changes that occur within it is known as resilience. In order to forge ahead with concerted efforts to manage reuse and integration induced risks or threats to governments, the ambiguities contained within resilience must be addressed. Enhancing resilience in the E-Government domain is synonymous with reducing risks governments face with provisioning of services as well as reuse of components across departments. Therefore, it can be said that resilience is responsible for the reduction in government’s vulnerability to changes. In this paper, we present the use of the ontology to measure the resilience of governments. This ontology is made up of a well-defined construct for the taxonomy of resilience. A specific class known as ‘Resilience Requirements’ is added to the ontology. This class embraces the concept of resilience into the E-Government domain ontology. Considering that the E-Government domain is a highly complex one made up of different departments offering different services, the reliability and resilience of the E-Government domain have become more complex and critical to understand. We present questions that can help a government access how prepared they are in the face of risks and what steps can be taken to recover from them. These questions can be asked with the use of queries. The ontology focuses on developing a case study section that is used to explore ways in which government departments can become resilient to the different kinds of risks and threats they may face. A collection of resilience tools and resources have been developed in our ontology to encourage governments to take steps to prepare for emergencies and risks that a government may face with the integration of departments and reuse of components across government departments. To achieve this, the ontology has been extended by rules. We present two tools for understanding resilience in the E-Government domain as a risk analysis target and the output of these tools when applied to resilience in the E-Government domain. We introduce the classification of resilience using the defined taxonomy and modelling of existent relationships based on the defined taxonomy. The ontology is constructed on formal theory and it provides a semantic reference framework for the concept of resilience. Key terms which fall under the purview of resilience with respect to E-Governments are defined. Terms are made explicit and the relationships that exist between risks and resilience are made explicit. The overall aim of the ontology is to use it within standards that would be followed by all governments for government-based resilience measures.

Keywords: E-Government, Ontology, Relationships, Resilience, Risks, Threats

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32 Land Suitability Analysis Based on Ecosystems Service Approach for Wind Farm Location in South-Central Chile: Net Primary Production as Proxy

Authors: Yenisleidy Martínez-Martínez, Yannay Casas-Ledón, Jo Dewulf

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Wind power constitutes a cleaner energy source with smaller unfavorable impacts on the environment than fossil fuels. Its development could be an alternative to fight climate change while meeting energy demands. However, wind energy development requires first determining the existing potential and areas with aptitude. Also, potential socio-economic and environmental impacts should be analyzed to prevent social rejection of this technology. In this context, this work performs a suitability assessment on a GIS environment to locate suitable areas for wind energy expansion in South-Central Chile. In addition, suitable areas were characterized in terms of potential goods and services to be produced as a proxy for analyzing potential impacts and trade-offs. First, layers of annual wind speed were generated as they represent the resource potential and layers representing previous defined territorial constraints were created. Zones depicting territorial constraints were removed from resource measurement layers to identify suitable sites. Then, the appropriation of the primary production in suitable sites was determined to measure potential ecosystem services derived from human interventions in those areas. Results show that approximately 52% of the total surface of the study area has a good aptitude to install wind farms. In this area, provisioning services like food crops production, timber, and other forest resources like firewood play a key role in the regional economy and thus are the main cause of human interventions. This is reflected by human appropriation of the primary production values of 0.71 KgC/m2.yr, 0.36 KgC/m2.yr and 0.14 KgC/m2.yr respectively. In this sense, wind energy development could be compatible with croplands, which is the predominant land use in suitable areas and provide farmers with cheaper energy and extra incomes. Also, studies have reported changes in local temperature associated with wind turbines, which could be beneficial to crop growth. The results obtained in this study prove to be useful for identifying available areas for wind development, which could be very useful in decision-making processes related to energy planning.

Keywords: net primary productivity, provisioning services, suitability assessment, wind energy

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31 Autonomic Recovery Plan with Server Virtualization

Authors: S. Hameed, S. Anwer, M. Saad, M. Saady

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For autonomic recovery with server virtualization, a cogent plan that includes recovery techniques and backups with virtualized servers can be developed instead of assigning an idle server to backup operations. In addition to hardware cost reduction and data center trail, the disaster recovery plan can ensure system uptime and to meet objectives of high availability, recovery time, recovery point, server provisioning, and quality of services. This autonomic solution would also support disaster management, testing, and development of the recovery site. In this research, a workflow plan is proposed for supporting disaster recovery with virtualization providing virtual monitoring, requirements engineering, solution decision making, quality testing, and disaster management. This recovery model would make disaster recovery a lot easier, faster, and less error prone.

Keywords: autonomous intelligence, disaster recovery, cloud computing, server virtualization

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30 Predicting Data Center Resource Usage Using Quantile Regression to Conserve Energy While Fulfilling the Service Level Agreement

Authors: Ahmed I. Alutabi, Naghmeh Dezhabad, Sudhakar Ganti

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Data centers have been growing in size and dema nd continuously in the last two decades. Planning for the deployment of resources has been shallow and always resorted to over-provisioning. Data center operators try to maximize the availability of their services by allocating multiple of the needed resources. One resource that has been wasted, with little thought, has been energy. In recent years, programmable resource allocation has paved the way to allow for more efficient and robust data centers. In this work, we examine the predictability of resource usage in a data center environment. We use a number of models that cover a wide spectrum of machine learning categories. Then we establish a framework to guarantee the client service level agreement (SLA). Our results show that using prediction can cut energy loss by up to 55%.

Keywords: machine learning, artificial intelligence, prediction, data center, resource allocation, green computing

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29 A Timed and Colored Petri Nets for Modeling and Verify Cloud System Elasticity

Authors: Walid Louhichi, Mouhebeddine Berrima, Narjes Ben Rajed

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Elasticity is the essential property of cloud computing. As the name suggests, it constitutes the ability of a cloud system to adjust resource provisioning in relation to fluctuating workload. There are two types of elasticity operations, vertical and horizontal. In this work, we are interested in horizontal scaling, which is ensured by two mechanisms; scaling in and scaling out. Following the sizing of the system, we can adopt scaling in in the event of over-supply and scaling out in the event of under-supply. In this paper, we propose a formal model, based on colored and temporized Petri nets, for the modeling of the duplication and the removal of a virtual machine from a server. This model is based on formal Petri Nets modeling language. The proposed models are edited, verified, and simulated with two examples implemented in CPNtools, which is a modeling tool for colored and timed Petri nets.

Keywords: cloud computing, elasticity, elasticity controller, petri nets, scaling in, scaling out

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28 Science of Social Work: Recognizing Its Existence as a Scientific Discipline by a Method Triangulation

Authors: Sandra Mendes

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Social Work has encountered over time with multivariate requests in the field of its action, provisioning frameworks of knowledge and praxis. Over the years, we have observed a transformation of society and, consequently, of the public who deals with the social work practitioners. Both, training and profession have had need to adapt and readapt the ways of doing, bailing up theories to action, while action unfolds emancipation of new theories. The theoretical questioning of this subject lies on classical authors from social sciences, and contemporary authors of Social Work. In fact, both enhance, in the design of social work, an integration and social cohesion function, creating a culture of action and theory, attributing to its method a relevant function, which shall be promoter of social changes in various dimensions of both individual and collective life, as well as scientific knowledge. On the other hand, it is assumed that Social Work, through its professionalism and through the academy, is now closer to distinguish itself from other Social Sciences as an autonomous scientific field, being, however, in the center of power struggles. This paper seeks to fill the gap in social work literature about the study of the scientific field of this area of knowledge.

Keywords: field theory, knowledge, science, social work

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27 Hierarchical Queue-Based Task Scheduling with CloudSim

Authors: Wanqing You, Kai Qian, Ying Qian

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The concepts of Cloud Computing provide users with infrastructure, platform and software as service, which make those services more accessible for people via Internet. To better analysis the performance of Cloud Computing provisioning policies as well as resources allocation strategies, a toolkit named CloudSim proposed. With CloudSim, the Cloud Computing environment can be easily constructed by modelling and simulating cloud computing components, such as datacenter, host, and virtual machine. A good scheduling strategy is the key to achieve the load balancing among different machines as well as to improve the utilization of basic resources. Recently, the existing scheduling algorithms may work well in some presumptive cases in a single machine; however they are unable to make the best decision for the unforeseen future. In real world scenario, there would be numbers of tasks as well as several virtual machines working in parallel. Based on the concepts of multi-queue, this paper presents a new scheduling algorithm to schedule tasks with CloudSim by taking into account several parameters, the machines’ capacity, the priority of tasks and the history log.

Keywords: hierarchical queue, load balancing, CloudSim, information technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
26 An Efficient Architecture for Dynamic Customization and Provisioning of Virtual Appliance in Cloud Environment

Authors: Rajendar Kandan, Mohammad Zakaria Alli, Hong Ong

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Cloud computing is a business model which provides an easier management of computing resources. Cloud users can request virtual machine and install additional softwares and configure them if needed. However, user can also request virtual appliance which provides a better solution to deploy application in much faster time, as it is ready-built image of operating system with necessary softwares installed and configured. Large numbers of virtual appliances are available in different image format. User can download available appliances from public marketplace and start using it. However, information published about the virtual appliance differs from each providers leading to the difficulty in choosing required virtual appliance as it is composed of specific OS with standard software version. However, even if user choses the appliance from respective providers, user doesn’t have any flexibility to choose their own set of softwares with required OS and application. In this paper, we propose a referenced architecture for dynamically customizing virtual appliance and provision them in an easier manner. We also add our experience in integrating our proposed architecture with public marketplace and Mi-Cloud, a cloud management software.

Keywords: cloud computing, marketplace, virtualization, virtual appliance

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25 Standard Resource Parameter Based Trust Model in Cloud Computing

Authors: Shyamlal Kumawat

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Cloud computing is shifting the approach IT capital are utilized. Cloud computing dynamically delivers convenient, on-demand access to shared pools of software resources, platform and hardware as a service through internet. The cloud computing model—made promising by sophisticated automation, provisioning and virtualization technologies. Users want the ability to access these services including infrastructure resources, how and when they choose. To accommodate this shift in the consumption model technology has to deal with the security, compatibility and trust issues associated with delivering that convenience to application business owners, developers and users. Absent of these issues, trust has attracted extensive attention in Cloud computing as a solution to enhance the security. This paper proposes a trusted computing technology through Standard Resource parameter Based Trust Model in Cloud Computing to select the appropriate cloud service providers. The direct trust of cloud entities is computed on basis of the interaction evidences in past and sustained on its present performances. Various SLA parameters between consumer and provider are considered in trust computation and compliance process. The simulations are performed using CloudSim framework and experimental results show that the proposed model is effective and extensible.

Keywords: cloud, Iaas, Saas, Paas

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24 Banking Risk Management between the Prudential and the Operational Approaches

Authors: Mustapha Achibane, Imane Allam

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Since the nineties, all Moroccan banking institutions have to respect an arsenal of prudential ratios. The respect of these prudential measures aims to ensure the financial system stability. In order to do so, regulatory authorities tried to reduce the financial and operational risks incurred by the banking entities. Meanwhile, regulatory authorities demanded a balance sheet management work from banks. They also asked them to establish a management control system to manage operational risk, as well as an effort in terms of incurred risk-based commitments. Therefore, the prudential approach has a macroeconomic nature and it is presented as a determinant of the operational, microeconomic approach. This operational approach takes the form of a strategy that each banking entity must develop to manage the different banking risks. This study seeks to analyze the problem of risk management between the prudential and the operational approaches. It was processed through a literature review followed by an analysis of the Moroccan banking sector’s performance. At first, we will reconcile the inductive logic and then, the analytical one. The first approach consists of analyzing the phenomenon from a normative and conceptual perspective, while the second one will consist of considering the Moroccan banking system and analyzing the behavior of Moroccan banking entities in terms of risk management and performance. The results identified a favorable growth in terms of performance, despite the huge provisioning effort made to meet the international standards and the harmonization of the regulations.

Keywords: banking performance, financial intermediation, operational approach, prudential standards, risk management

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23 The Impacts of Land Use Change and Extreme Precipitation Events on Ecosystem Services

Authors: Szu-Hua Wang

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Urban areas contain abundant potential biochemical storages and renewable and non-renewable flows. Urban natural environments for breeding natural assets and urban economic development for maintaining urban functions can be analyzed form the concept of ecological economic system. Land use change and ecosystem services change are resulting from the interactions between human activities and environments factually. Land use change due to human activities is the major cause of climate change, leading to serious impacts on urban ecosystem services, including provisioning services, regulating services, cultural services and supporting services. However, it lacks discussion on the interactions among urban land use change, ecosystem services change, and extreme precipitation events. Energy synthesis can use the same measure standard unit, solar energy, for different energy resources (e.g. sunlight, water, fossil fuels, minerals, etc.) and analyze contributions of various natural environmental resources on human economic systems. Therefore, this research adopts the concept of ecological, economic systems and energy synthesis for analyzing dynamic spatial impacts of land use change on ecosystem services, using the Taipei area as a case study. The analysis results show that changes in land use in the Taipei area, especially the conversion of natural lands and agricultural lands to urban lands, affect the ecosystem services negatively. These negative effects become more significant during the extreme precipitation events.

Keywords: urban ecological economic system, extreme precipitation events, ecosystem services, energy

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22 Access to the Forest Ecosystem Services: Understanding the Interaction between Livelihood Capitals and Access

Authors: Abu S. M. G. Kibria, Alison M. Behie, Robert Costanza, Colin Groves, Tracy Farrell

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This study is aimed to understand the level of access and the influence of livelihood capitals in maintaining access and control of ecosystem services (ESS) in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh. Besides the villagers, we consider other stakeholders including the forest department, coast guard, police, merchants, pirates and villagers who ‘controlled’ or ‘maintained’ access to ESS (crab catching, shrimp fry, honey, shrimp, mixed fish, fuel wood) in this region. Villagers used human, physical, natural and social capitals to gain access to ESS. The highest level of access was observed in crab catching and the lowest was found in honey collection, both of which were done when balancing the costs and benefits of accessing one ESS against another. The outcomes of these ongoing access negotiations were determined by livelihood capitals of the households. In addition, it was often found that the certain variables could have a positive effect on one ESS and a negative effect on another. For instance, human, social and natural capitals (eldest daughter’s education and No. of livelihood group membership and) had significant positive effects on honey collection while two components of human and social capitals including ‘eldest son’s education’ and ‘severity of pirate problem’ had exactly the opposite impact. These complex interactions were also observed in access to other ESS. It thus seems that access to ESS is not anything which is provided, but rather it is achieved by using livelihood capitals. Protecting any ecosystem from over exploitation and improve wellbeing can be achieved by properly balancing the livelihood capital-access nexus.

Keywords: provisioning services, access level, livelihood capital, interaction, access gain

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21 A Computationally Intelligent Framework to Support Youth Mental Health in Australia

Authors: Nathaniel Carpenter

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Web-enabled systems for supporting youth mental health management in Australia are pioneering in their field; however, with their success, these systems are experiencing exponential growth in demand which is straining an already stretched service. Supporting youth mental is critical as the lack of support is associated with significant and lasting negative consequences. To meet this growing demand, and provide critical support, investigations are needed on evaluating and improving existing online support services. Improvements should focus on developing frameworks capable of augmenting and scaling service provisions. There are few investigations informing best-practice frameworks when implementing e-mental health support systems for youth mental health; there are fewer which implement machine learning or artificially intelligent systems to facilitate the delivering of services. This investigation will use a case study methodology to highlight the design features which are important for systems to enable young people to self-manage their mental health. The investigation will also highlight the current information system challenges, to include challenges associated with service quality, provisioning, and scaling. This work will propose methods of meeting these challenges through improved design, service augmentation and automation, service quality, and through artificially intelligent inspired solutions. The results of this study will inform a framework for supporting youth mental health with intelligent and scalable web-enabled technologies to support an ever-growing user base.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, information systems, machine learning, youth mental health

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20 Process Optimization and Automation of Information Technology Services in a Heterogenic Digital Environment

Authors: Tasneem Halawani, Yamen Khateeb

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With customers’ ever-increasing expectations for fast services provisioning for all their business needs, information technology (IT) organizations, as business partners, have to cope with this demanding environment and deliver their services in the most effective and efficient way. The purpose of this paper is to identify optimization and automation opportunities for the top requested IT services in a heterogenic digital environment and widely spread customer base. In collaboration with systems, processes, and subject matter experts (SMEs), the processes in scope were approached by analyzing four-year related historical data, identifying and surveying stakeholders, modeling the as-is processes, and studying systems integration/automation capabilities. This effort resulted in identifying several pain areas, including standardization, unnecessary customer and IT involvement, manual steps, systems integration, and performance measurement. These pain areas were addressed by standardizing the top five requested IT services, eliminating/automating 43 steps, and utilizing a single platform for end-to-end process execution. In conclusion, the optimization of IT service request processes in a heterogenic digital environment and widely spread customer base is challenging, yet achievable without compromising the service quality and customers’ added value. Further studies can focus on measuring the value of the eliminated/automated process steps to quantify the enhancement impact. Moreover, a similar approach can be utilized to optimize other IT service requests, with a focus on business criticality.

Keywords: automation, customer value, heterogenic, integration, IT services, optimization, processes

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19 Towards an Enhanced Quality of IPTV Media Server Architecture over Software Defined Networking

Authors: Esmeralda Hysenbelliu

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The aim of this paper is to present the QoE (Quality of Experience) IPTV SDN-based media streaming server enhanced architecture for configuring, controlling, management and provisioning the improved delivery of IPTV service application with low cost, low bandwidth, and high security. Furthermore, it is given a virtual QoE IPTV SDN-based topology to provide an improved IPTV service based on QoE Control and Management of multimedia services functionalities. Inside OpenFlow SDN Controller there are enabled in high flexibility and efficiency Service Load-Balancing Systems; based on the Loading-Balance module and based on GeoIP Service. This two Load-balancing system improve IPTV end-users Quality of Experience (QoE) with optimal management of resources greatly. Through the key functionalities of OpenFlow SDN controller, this approach produced several important features, opportunities for overcoming the critical QoE metrics for IPTV Service like achieving incredible Fast Zapping time (Channel Switching time) < 0.1 seconds. This approach enabled Easy and Powerful Transcoding system via FFMPEG encoder. It has the ability to customize streaming dimensions bitrates, latency management and maximum transfer rates ensuring delivering of IPTV streaming services (Audio and Video) in high flexibility, low bandwidth and required performance. This QoE IPTV SDN-based media streaming architecture unlike other architectures provides the possibility of Channel Exchanging between several IPTV service providers all over the word. This new functionality brings many benefits as increasing the number of TV channels received by end –users with low cost, decreasing stream failure time (Channel Failure time < 0.1 seconds) and improving the quality of streaming services.

Keywords: improved quality of experience (QoE), OpenFlow SDN controller, IPTV service application, softwarization

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18 Exploring Forest Biomass Changes in Romania in the Last Three Decades

Authors: Remus Pravalie, Georgeta Bandoc

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Forests are crucial for humanity and biodiversity, through the various ecosystem services and functions they provide all over the world. Forest ecosystems are vital in Romania as well, through their various benefits, known as provisioning (food, wood, or fresh water), regulating (water purification, soil protection, carbon sequestration or control of climate change, floods, and other hazards), cultural (aesthetic, spiritual, inspirational, recreational or educational benefits) and supporting (primary production, nutrient cycling, and soil formation processes, with direct or indirect importance for human well-being) ecosystem services. These ecological benefits are of great importance in Romania, especially given the fact that forests cover extensive areas countrywide, i.e. ~6.5 million ha or ~27.5% of the national territory. However, the diversity and functionality of these ecosystem services fundamentally depend on certain key attributes of forests, such as biomass, which has so far not been studied nationally in terms of potential changes due to climate change and other driving forces. This study investigates, for the first time, changes in forest biomass in Romania in recent decades, based on a high volume of satellite data (Landsat images at high spatial resolutions), downloaded from the Google Earth Engine platform and processed (using specialized software and methods) across Romanian forestland boundaries from 1987 to 2018. A complex climate database was also investigated across Romanian forests over the same 32-year period, in order to detect potential similarities and statistical relationships between the dynamics of biomass and climate data. The results obtained indicated considerable changes in forest biomass in Romania in recent decades, largely triggered by the climate change that affected the country after 1987. Findings on the complex pattern of recent forest changes in Romania, which will be presented in detail in this study, can be useful to national policymakers in the fields of forestry, climate, and sustainable development.

Keywords: forests, biomass, climate change, trends, romania

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17 Role of Different Land Use Types on Ecosystem Services Provision in Moribane Forest Reserve - Mozambique

Authors: Francisco Domingos Francisco

Abstract:

Tropical forests are key providers of many Ecosystem Services (ES), contributing to human wellbeing on a global and local scale. Communities around and within Moribane Forest Reserve (MFR), Manica Province - Mozambique, benefit from ES through the exploitation of non-wood and wood forest products. The objective was to assess the provisioning capacity of the MFR in woody forest products in species and profiles of interest to local communities in the main sources of extraction. Social data relating to the basic needs of local communities for these products were captured through an exploratory study before this one. From that study, it became known about the most collected wood species, the sources of collection, and their availability in the profiles of greatest interest to them. A field survey through 39 rectangular 50mx20m plots was conducted with 13 plots established in each of the three land-use types (LUT), namely Restricted Forest, Unrestricted Forest, and Disturbed areas. The results show that 89 species were identified, of which 28 (31.4%) are assumed to be the most used by the communities. The number of species of local interest does not vary across the LUT (p>0.05). The most used species (MUS) is distributed in 82% in Restricted Forest, 75% in Unrestricted, and also 75% in Disturbed. Most individuals of both general and MUS found in Unrestricted Forest, and Degraded areas have lower end profiles (5-7 cm), representing 0.77 and 0.26%, respectively. The profile of individuals of species of local interest varies by LUT (p<0.05), and their greatest proportion (0.51%) outside the lower end is found in Restricted Forest. There were no similarities between the LUT for the species in general (JCI <0.5) but between the MUS (JCI >0.5). Conclusion, the areas authorized for the exploitation of wood forest products in the MFR tend to reduce their ability to provide local communities with forest products in species and profiles of their interest. This reduction item is a serious threat to the biodiversity of the Restricted Forest. The study can help the academic community in future studies by replicating the methodology used for monitoring purposes or conducting studies in other similar areas, and the results may support decision-makers in designing better strategies for sustainability.

Keywords: ecosystem services, land-use types, local communities, species profile, wellbeing, wood forest product

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16 Changes in Forest Cover Regulate Streamflow in Central Nigerian Gallery Forests

Authors: Rahila Yilangai, Sonali Saha, Amartya Saha, Augustine Ezealor

Abstract:

Gallery forests in sub-Saharan Africa are drastically disappearing due to intensive anthropogenic activities thus reducing ecosystem services, one of which is water provisioning. The role played by forest cover in regulating streamflow and water yield is not well understood, especially in West Africa. This pioneering 2-year study investigated the interrelationships between plant cover and hydrology in protected and unprotected gallery forests. Rainfall, streamflow, and evapotranspiration (ET) measurements/estimates over 2015-2016 were obtained to form a water balance for both catchments. In addition, transpiration in the protected gallery forest with high vegetation cover was calculated from stomatal conductance readings of selected species chosen from plot level data of plant diversity and abundance. Results showed that annual streamflow was significantly higher in the unprotected site than the protected site, even when normalized by catchment area. However, streamflow commenced earlier and lasted longer in the protected site than the degraded unprotected site, suggesting regulation by the greater tree density in the protected site. Streamflow correlated strongly with rainfall with the highest peak in August. As expected, transpiration measurements were less than potential evapotranspiration estimates, while rainfall exceeded ET in the water cycle. The water balance partitioning suggests that the lower vegetation cover in the unprotected catchment leads to a larger runoff in the rainy season and less infiltration, thereby leading to streams drying up earlier, than in the protected catchment. This baseline information is important in understanding the contribution of plants in water cycle regulation, for modeling integrative water management in applied research and natural resource management in sustaining water resources with changing the land cover and climate uncertainties in this data-poor region.

Keywords: evapotranspiration, gallery forest, rainfall, streamflow, transpiration

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15 Rendering Cognition Based Learning in Coherence with Development within the Context of PostgreSQL

Authors: Manuela Nayantara Jeyaraj, Senuri Sucharitharathna, Chathurika Senarath, Yasanthy Kanagaraj, Indraka Udayakumara

Abstract:

PostgreSQL is an Object Relational Database Management System (ORDBMS) that has been in existence for a while. Despite the superior features that it wraps and packages to manage database and data, the database community has not fully realized the importance and advantages of PostgreSQL. Hence, this research tends to focus on provisioning a better environment of development for PostgreSQL in order to induce the utilization and elucidate the importance of PostgreSQL. PostgreSQL is also known to be the world’s most elementary SQL-compliant open source ORDBMS. But, users have not yet resolved to PostgreSQL due to the facts that it is still under the layers and the complexity of its persistent textual environment for an introductory user. Simply stating this, there is a dire need to explicate an easy way of making the users comprehend the procedure and standards with which databases are created, tables and the relationships among them, manipulating queries and their flow based on conditions in PostgreSQL to help the community resolve to PostgreSQL at an augmented rate. Hence, this research under development within the context tends to initially identify the dominant features provided by PostgreSQL over its competitors. Following the identified merits, an analysis on why the database community holds a hesitance in migrating to PostgreSQL’s environment will be carried out. These will be modulated and tailored based on the scope and the constraints discovered. The resultant of the research proposes a system that will serve as a designing platform as well as a learning tool that will provide an interactive method of learning via a visual editor mode and incorporate a textual editor for well-versed users. The study is based on conjuring viable solutions that analyze a user’s cognitive perception in comprehending human computer interfaces and the behavioural processing of design elements. By providing a visually draggable and manipulative environment to work with Postgresql databases and table queries, it is expected to highlight the elementary features displayed by Postgresql over any other existent systems in order to grasp and disseminate the importance and simplicity offered by this to a hesitant user.

Keywords: cognition, database, PostgreSQL, text-editor, visual-editor

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14 The Effects of Extreme Precipitation Events on Ecosystem Services

Authors: Szu-Hua Wang, Yi-Wen Chen

Abstract:

Urban ecosystems are complex coupled human-environment systems. They contain abundant natural resources for producing natural assets and attract urban assets to consume natural resources for urban development. Urban ecosystems provide several ecosystem services, including provisioning services, regulating services, cultural services, and supporting services. Rapid global climate change makes urban ecosystems and their ecosystem services encountering various natural disasters. Lots of natural disasters have occurred around the world under the constant changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events in the past two decades. In Taiwan, hydrological disasters have been paid more attention due to the potential high sensitivity of Taiwan’s cities to climate change, and it impacts. However, climate change not only causes extreme weather events directly but also affects the interactions among human, ecosystem services and their dynamic feedback processes indirectly. Therefore, this study adopts a systematic method, solar energy synthesis, based on the concept of the eco-energy analysis. The Taipei area, the most densely populated area in Taiwan, is selected as the study area. The changes of ecosystem services between 2015 and Typhoon Soudelor have been compared in order to investigate the impacts of extreme precipitation events on ecosystem services. The results show that the forest areas are the largest contributions of energy to ecosystem services in the Taipei area generally. Different soil textures of different subsystem have various upper limits of water contents or substances. The major contribution of ecosystem services of the study area is natural hazard regulation provided by the surface water resources areas. During the period of Typhoon Soudelor, the freshwater supply in the forest areas had become the main contribution. Erosion control services were the main ecosystem service affected by Typhoon Soudelor. The second and third main ecosystem services were hydrologic regulation and food supply. Due to the interactions among ecosystem services, fresh water supply, water purification, and waste treatment had been affected severely.

Keywords: ecosystem, extreme precipitation events, ecosystem services, solar energy synthesis

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13 Adapting to Rural Demographic Change: Impacts, Challenges and Opportunities for Ageing Farmers in Prachin Buri Province, Thailand

Authors: Para Jansuwan, Kerstin K. Zander

Abstract:

Most people in rural Thailand still depend on agriculture. The rural areas are undergoing changes in their demographic structures with an increasing older population, out migration of younger people and a shift away from work in the agricultural sector towards manufacturing and service provisioning. These changes may lead to a decline in agricultural productivity and food insecurity. Our research aims to examine perceptions of older farmers on how rural demographic change affects them, to investigate how farmers may change their agricultural practices to cope with their ageing and to explore the factors affecting these changes, including the opportunities and challenges arising from them. The data were collected through a household survey with 368 farmers in the Prachin Buri province in central Thailand, the main area for agricultural production. A series of binomial logistic regression models were applied to analyse the data. We found that most farmers suffered from age-related diseases, which compromised their working capacity. Most farmers attempted to reduce labour intense work, by either stopping farming through transferring farmland to their children (41%), stopping farming by giving the land to the others (e.g., selling, leasing out) (28%) and continuing farming with making some changes (e.g., changing crops, employing additional workers) (24%). Farmers’ health and having a potential farm successor were positively associated with the probability of stopping farming by transferring the land to the children. Farmers with a successor were also less likely to stop farming by giving the land to the others. Farmers’ age was negatively associated with the likelihood of continuing farming by making some changes. The results show that most farmers base their decisions on the hope that their children will take over the farms, and that without successor, farmers lease out or sell the land. Without successor, they also no longer invest in expansion and improvement of their farm production, especially adoption of innovative technologies that could help them to maintain their farm productivity. To improve farmers’ quality of life and sustain their farm productivity, policies are needed to support the viability of farms, the access to a pension system and the smooth and successful transfer of the land to a successor of farmers.

Keywords: rural demographic change, older farmer, stopping farming, continuing farming, health and age, farm successor, Thailand

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12 Maintenance of Non-Crop Plants Reduces Insect Pest Population in Tropical Chili Pepper Agroecosystems

Authors: Madelaine Venzon, Dany S. S. L. Amaral, André L. Perez, Natália S. Diaz, Juliana A. Martinez Chiguachi, Maira C. M. Fonseca, James D. Harwood, Angelo Pallini

Abstract:

Integrating strategies of sustainable crop production and promoting the provisioning of ecological services on farms and within rural landscapes is a challenge for today’s agriculture. Habitat management, through increasing vegetational diversity, enhances heterogeneity in agroecosystems and has the potential to improve the recruitment of natural enemies of pests, which promotes biological control services. In tropical agroecosystems, however, there is a paucity of information pertaining to the resources provided by associated plants and their interactions with natural enemies. The maintenance of non-crop plants integrated into and/or surrounding crop fields provides the farmer with a low-investment option to enhance biological control. We carried out field experiments in chili pepper agroecosystems with small stakeholders located in the Zona da Mata, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from 2011 to 2015 where we assessed: (a) whether non-crop plants within and around chili pepper fields affect the diversity and abundance of aphidophagous species; (b) whether there are direct interactions between non-crop plants and aphidophagous arthropods; and (c) the importance of non-crop plant resources for survival of Coccinellidae and Chrysopidae species. Aphidophagous arthropods were dominated by Coccinellidae, Neuroptera, Syrphidae, Anthocoridae and Araneae. These natural enemies were readily observed preying on aphids, feeding on flowers or extrafloral nectaries and using plant structures for oviposition and/or protection. Aphid populations were lower on chili pepper fields associated with non-crop plants that on chili pepper monocultures. Survival of larvae and adults of different species of Coccinellidae and Chrysopidae on non-crop resources varied according to the plant species. This research provides evidence that non-crop plants in chili pepper agroecosystems can affect aphid abundance and their natural enemy abundance and survival. It is also highlighting the need for further research to fully characterize the structure and function of plant resources in these and other tropical agroecosystems. Financial support: CNPq, FAPEMIG and CAPES (Brazil).

Keywords: Conservation biological control, aphididae, Coccinellidae, Chrysopidae, plant diversification

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