Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4650

Search results for: policy integration

4650 Rules in Policy Integration, Case Study: Victoria Catchment Management

Authors: Ratri Werdiningtyas, Yongping Wei, Andrew Western

Abstract:

This paper contributes to on-going attempts at bringing together land, water and environmental policy in catchment management. A tension remains in defining the boundaries of policy integration. Most of Integrated Water Resource Management is valued as rhetoric policy. It is far from being achieved on the ground because the socio-ecological system has not been understood and developed into complete and coherent problem representation. To clarify the feature of integration, this article draws on institutional fit for public policy integration and uses these insights in an empirical setting to identify the mechanism that can facilitate effective public integration for catchment management. This research is based on the journey of Victoria’s government from 1890-2016. A total of 274 Victorian Acts related to land, water, environment management published in those periods has been investigated. Four conditions of integration have been identified in their co-evolution: (1) the integration policy based on reserves, (2) the integration policy based on authority interest, (3) policy based on integrated information and, (4) policy based coordinated resource, authority and information. Results suggest that policy coordination among their policy instrument is superior rather than policy integration in the case of catchment management.

Keywords: catchment management, co-evolution, policy integration, phase

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4649 Bridging the Gap between M and E, and KM: Towards the Integration of Evidence-Based Information and Policy Decision-Making

Authors: Xueqing Ivy Chen, Christo De Coning

Abstract:

It is clear from practice that a gap exists between Result-Based Monitoring and Evaluation (RBME) as a discipline, and Knowledge Management (KM) on the other hand. Whereas various government departments have institutionalised these functions, KM and M&E has functioned in isolation from each other in a practical sense in the public sector. It’s therefore necessary to explore the relationship between KM and M&E and the necessity for integration, so that a convergence of these disciplines can be established. An integration of KM and M&E will lead to integration and improvement of evidence-based information and policy decision-making. M&E and KM process models are available but the complementarity between specific process steps of these process models are not exploited. A need exists to clarify the relationships between these functions in order to ensure evidence based information and policy decision-making. This paper will depart from the well-known policy process models, such as the generic model and consider recent on the interface between policy, M&E and KM.

Keywords: result-based monitoring and evaluation, RBME, knowledge management, KM, evident based decision making, public policy, information systems, institutional arrangement

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4648 The Role of Official Languages and Language Training Policy in Adult Immigrant Integration in Canada

Authors: Lillie Lum

Abstract:

Focusing on the role of official language in immigrant integration, this paper will first report the results of a literature review and demonstrate that there is no doubt on the necessity of adequate language skills for newcomers to successfully settle, adapt, and integrate socially, culturally and economically in Canada. This paper attempts to synthesize the literature in order to shed light on the language policy terrain which is not easy to navigate. Then, by outlining what is currently available in the language policy environment, it will ask if the current state of language training in Canada is adequate to assist newcomers in their language acquisition process. At a deeper level, it aims to continue to raise questions in this policy area. Are current policy responses likely to improve linguistic capabilities in the future, particularly for immigrant workers with poor language proficiency? This paper is timely given the magnitude of the language issue and the value of immigrants for Canada’s economic, social, and political vitality.

Keywords: official language education, immigrant integration into Canada, economic factors, policy implications

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4647 Perceptions of Senior Academics in Teacher Education Colleges Regarding the Integration of Digital Games during the Pandemic

Authors: Merav Hayakac, Orit Avidov-Ungarab

Abstract:

The current study adopted an interpretive-constructivist approach to examine how senior academics from a large sample of Israeli teacher education colleges serving general or religious populations perceived the integration of digital games into their teacher instruction and what their policy and vision were in this regard in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Half the participants expressed a desire to integrate digital games into their teaching and learning but acknowledged that this practice was uncommon. Only a small minority believed they had achieved successful integration, with doubt and skepticism expressed by some religious colleges. Most colleges had policies encouraging technology integration supported by ongoing funding. Although a considerable gap between policy and implementation remained, the COVID-19 pandemic was viewed as having accelerated the integration of digital games into pre-service teacher instruction. The findings suggest that discussions around technology-related vision and policy and their translation into practice should relate to the specific cultural needs and academic preparedness of the population(s) served by the college.

Keywords: COVID-19, digital games, pedagogy, teacher education colleges

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4646 The Effects of an Immigration Policy on the Economic Integration of Migrants and on Natives’ Attitudes: The Case of Syrian Refugees in Turkey

Authors: S. Zeynep Siretioglu Girgin, Gizem Turna Cebeci

Abstract:

Turkey’s immigration policy is a controversial issue considering its legal, economic, social, and political and human rights dimensions. Formulation of an immigration policy goes hand in hand with political processes, where natives’ attitudes play a significant role. On the other hand, as was the case in Turkey, radical changes made in immigration policy or policies lacking transparency may cause severe reactions by the host society. The underlying discussion paper aims to analyze quantitatively the effects of the existing ‘open door’ immigration policy on the economic integration of Syrian refugees in Turkey, and on the perception of the native population of refugees. For the analysis, semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group interviews have been conducted. After the introduction, a literature review is provided, followed by theoretical background on the explanation of natives’ attitudes towards immigrants. In the next section, a qualitative analysis of natives’ attitudes towards Syrian refugees is presented with the subtopics of (i) awareness, general opinions and expectations, (ii) open-door policy and management of the migration process, (iii) perception of positive and negative impacts of immigration, (iv) economic integration, and (v) cultural similarity. Results indicate that, natives concurrently have social, economic and security concerns regarding refugees, while difficulties regarding security and economic integration of refugees stand out. Socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, such as the educational level and employment status, are not sufficient to explain the overall attitudes towards refugees, while they can be used to explain the awareness of the respondents and the priority of the concerns felt.

Keywords: economic integration, immigration policy, integration policies, migrants, natives’ sentiments, perception, Syrian refugees, Turkey

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4645 Air Connectivity in Promoting Association of Southeast Asian Nations Integration: The Role of Low Cost-Carriers

Authors: Gabriella Fardhiyanti, Victor Wee

Abstract:

Air connectivity is the crucial factors to boost a region economics growth. It will open the accessibility to support regional competitiveness and helps to achieve ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) integration in term of economic integration, business investment, promote intra-regional trade, and creates the sense of belongingness among ASEAN people in the region. An increasing number of air connectivity and transportation will be benefiting the region because air transportation is a vital hub for ASEAN. The aim of this paper is to address the importance of air connectivity in promoting ASEAN Integration, by focusing on the ASEAN vision for a more integrated region. The assessment uses based on the Netscan Air connectivity model based on the flight destination and airport connectivity index, further analysis present that air connectivity significantly influence ASEAN tourism sector. Follow by the implications of open skies policy for the liberation of the aviation industry and the growth of low cost-carriers (LCCs) in the region. This paper provides recommendation and strategy for overcoming the challenges faced by ASEAN to boost ASEAN tourism integration successfully. The findings can assist in guiding policy and industry stakeholders in the future decision relating to air liberalization and more integrated system in the region.

Keywords: air connectivity, ASEAN integration, low-cost carries, NetScan connectivity model, open skies policy

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4644 Optimizing the Public Policy Information System under the Environment of E-Government

Authors: Qian Zaijian

Abstract:

E-government is one of the hot issues in the current academic research of public policy and management. As the organic integration of information and communication technology (ICT) and public administration, e-government is one of the most important areas in contemporary information society. Policy information system is a basic subsystem of public policy system, its operation affects the overall effect of the policy process or even exerts a direct impact on the operation of a public policy and its success or failure. The basic principle of its operation is information collection, processing, analysis and release for a specific purpose. The function of E-government for public policy information system lies in the promotion of public access to the policy information resources, information transmission through e-participation, e-consultation in the process of policy analysis and processing of information and electronic services in policy information stored, to promote the optimization of policy information systems. However, due to many factors, the function of e-government to promote policy information system optimization has its practical limits. In the building of E-government in our country, we should take such path as adhering to the principle of freedom of information, eliminating the information divide (gap), expanding e-consultation, breaking down information silos and other major path, so as to promote the optimization of public policy information systems.

Keywords: China, e-consultation, e-democracy, e-government, e-participation, ICTs, public policy information systems

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4643 The Appropriation of Education Policy on Information and Communication Technology in South African Schools

Authors: T. Vandeyar

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to explore how Government policy on ICT influences teaching and learning in South African schools. An instrumental case study using backward mapping principles as a strategy of inquiry was used. Utilizing a social constructivist lens and guided by a theoretical framework of a sociocultural approach to policy analysis, this exploratory qualitative research study set out to investigate how teachers appropriate government policy on ICT in South African schools. Three major findings emanated from this study. First, although teachers were ignorant of the national e-education policy their professionalism and agency were key in formulating and implementing an e-education policy in practice. Second, teachers repositioned themselves not as recipients or reactors of the e-education policy but as social and cultural actors of policy appropriation and formulation. Third, the lack of systemic support to teachers catalyzed improved school and teacher collaborations, teachers became drivers of ICT integration through collaboration, innovation, institutional practice and institutional leadership.

Keywords: ICT, teachers as change agents, practice as policy, teacher's beliefs, teacher's attitudes

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4642 European Union Health Policy and the Response to COVID-19 Pandemic: Building a European Health Union

Authors: Aikaterini Tsalampouni

Abstract:

The European Union has long been the most developed model of economic and political integration that has brought a common market, a common currency and a standardization of national policies in certain areas in consistent with EU values and principles. To this direction, there is a parallel process of social integration that effect public policy decisions of member states. Even though social policy, i.e. social protection and moreover healthcare policy, still remains in state's responsibility to develop, EU applies different mechanisms in order to influence health policy systems, since from a more federalist point of view, EU ought to expand its regulatory and legislative roles in as many policy areas as possible. Recently, the pandemic has become a turning point for health care provision and at the same time has also highlighted the need to strengthen the EU’s role in coordinating health care. This paper analyses the EU health policy in general, as well as the response to COVID-19 pandemic with an attempt to identify indications of interaction between EU policies and the promotion of sustainable and resilient health systems. More analytically, the paper investigates the EU binding legal instruments, non-binding legal instruments, monitoring and assessment instruments and instruments for co-financing concerning health care provision in member states and records the evolution of health policies before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The paper concludes by articulating some remarks regarding the improvement of health policy in EU. Since the ability to deal with a pandemic depends on continuous and increased investment in health systems, the involvement of the EU can lead to a policy convergence, necessary for the resilience of the systems, maintaining at the same time, a strong health policy framework in Europe.

Keywords: EU health policy, EU response to COVID-19, European Health Union, health systems in Europe

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4641 Housing Harmony: Social Integration in Singapore Public Housing

Authors: Yingjie Feng, Lei Xu, Zhenyu Cao

Abstract:

In the process of urbanization, public housing is often a powerful means to deal with large floating population. In the developed countries like the U.S, France, Singapore, and Japan, the experience on how to make use of public housing to realize social integration in aspects of race, class, religion, income is gained through years of practice. Take the example of Singapore, the article first introduces the ethnic composition background and public housing development in Singapore, and then gives a detailed explanation and analysis on social integration in public housing from the views of Ethnic quotas policy, community organization construction and design of public space. Finally, combined with the Chinese situation, the article points out that the solution for social integration in China is the organic mix of different income groups in public housing.

Keywords: floating population, public housing, Singapore, social integration, urbanization

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4640 Language Rights and the Challenge of National Integration: The Nigerian Experience

Authors: Odewumi Olatunde, Adegun Sunday

Abstract:

Linguistic diversity is seen to complicate attempts to build a stable and cohesive political community. Hence, the challenge of integration is enormous in a multi-ethno-lingual country like Nigeria. In the same vein, justification for minority language rights claims in relation to broader political theories of justice, freedom and democracy cannot be ignored. It is in the light of the fore-going that this paper explores Nigeria’s experiments at language policy and planning(LPP) and the long drawn agitations for self-determination and linguistic freedom by the minority ethnic groups in the polity which has been exacerbated by the National Policy on Education language provisions. The paper succinctly reviews Nigeria’s LPP efforts and its attendant theater of conflicts; explores international attempts at evolving normative principles of freedom and equality for language policy and finally evaluates the position of the Nigerian LPP in the light of evolving international conventions. On this premise, it is concluded that giving a conscientious and honest implementation of the Nigerian language provisions as assessed from their face validity, the nation’s efforts could be exonerated from running afoul of any known civilized values and best practices. It is, therefore, recommended that an effectual and consistent commitment to implementation driven by a renewed political will is what is required for the nation to succeed in this direction.

Keywords: integration, rights, challenge, conventions, policy

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4639 Towards an Indigenous Language Policy for National Integration

Authors: Odoh Dickson Akpegi

Abstract:

The paper is about the need for an indigenous language in order to meaningfully harness both our human and material resources for the nation’s integration. It then examines the notty issue of the national language question and advocates a piece meal approach in solving the problem. This approach allows for the development and use of local languages in minority areas, especially in Benue State, as a way of preparing them for consideration as possible replacement for English language as Nigeria’s national or official language. Finally, an arrangement to follow to prepare the languages for such competition at the national level is presented.

Keywords: indigenous language, English language, official language, National integration

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
4638 A Migration Policy Gone Wrong: A Study on How the Encampment Policy Undermines Refugees’ Potentials and Fails Local Economy: A Case of East Africa

Authors: John Bosco Ngendakurio

Abstract:

The key question this paper asks is, ‘how does the refugee encampment policy undermine refugees’ potentials and fail local economy in East African countries?’ It is important to develop a full understanding of the legacies of the encampment policy for refugees’ performances economically, socially, and politically. The negative impacts of the encampment policy include the lack of participation or access to opportunities outside the refugee camps such as employment, education, and local integration, unfair imprisonments and constant alienation of refugees, mental and physical health issues, just to name a few. Evidence suggests that refugee camps in East Africa have progressively become open detention centres due to their designs, their locations, and movement restrictions imposed on refugees. Such restrictions in a region that hosts millions of refugees do not only undermine refugees’ potentials, but it also hurts the local economy- host countries miss out in many ways. Outlining the negative impacts of the encampment policy will enable governments and relevant non-governmental actors, including policymakers, to re-consider this policy with the aim to improve refugees’ participation and contributions in the broader society, promote socially cohesive practices, and help millions of refugees gain independence and reach their potentials financially, socially and politically, finally and truly giving the voice to the voiceless. The encampment policy undermines the general human security in East Africa, and it is one of the migration practices showcasing East African governments’ lack of will to protect human rights, especially within the most vulnerable population groups such as refugees.

Keywords: migration policy, immigration, refugees, encampment, migration, integration, social cohesion

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4637 Policy Innovation and its Determinants: A Literature Review

Authors: Devasheesh Mathur

Abstract:

The presentation reviews the literature on the phenomenon of policy innovation. Policy innovation refers to a shift in the way policy is made or executed. The paper covers comprehensively on the definition and also the various types of policy innovations. The emphasis is on the antecedents or the determinants of innovation in policies. The author has then made an effort to discover the knowledge gap in the field of policy innovation so as to identify the future scope of research. The objective is to lend more clarity in the area of policy innovation and help in creating a framework for policy-makers as well as academics.

Keywords: literature review, policy innovation, determinants, antecedents

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4636 The Common Agricultural Policy in a Czech Context

Authors: Markéta Slováková

Abstract:

The largest share of policy and money within the European Union goes to agriculture. The Union’s Common Agricultural Policy has undergone several transformations in the last five decades, with the main change taking place in the 1990's. This change influenced agriculture in the Czech Republic, inasmuch as the fledgling republic was preparing to join the European Union and adopt its policies. In the 1990s, Czech agriculture passed from a centrally planned economy to a market economy and subsequently adopted the terms of the Common Agricultural Policy. The Czech Republic is also characterized by a significant landscape sphere diversification. Agricultural entrepreneurs in the Czech Republic are still not used the possibility of grants from the European Union. They focus rather on national or regional subsidy titles. Only half of all agricultural entrepreneurs in the Czech Republic use European subsidies. This article focuses on the introduction of the Common Agricultural Policy to the Czech Republic and its subsequent influence on Czech agriculture. It is demonstrated on the implementation rate of the CAP in the EU Member States and the closer focus is on the Czech integration.

Keywords: common agricultural policy, agriculture, European Union, transformation

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4635 Patching and Stretching: Development of Policy Mixes for Entrepreneurship in China

Authors: Jian Shao

Abstract:

The effect of entrepreneurship on economic, innovation, and employment has been widely acknowledged by scholars and governments. As an essential factor of influencing entrepreneurship activities, entrepreneurship policy creates a conducive environment to support and develop entrepreneurship. However, the challenge in developing entrepreneurship policy is that policy is normally a combination of many different goals and instruments. Instead of examining the effect of individual policy instruments, we argue that attention to a policy mix is necessary. In recent years, much attention has been focused on comparing a single policy instrument to a policy mix, evaluating the interactions between different instruments within a mix or assessment of particular policy mixes. However, another required step in understanding policy mixes is to understand how and why mixes evolve and change over time and to determine whether any changes are an improvement. In this paper, we try to trace the development of the policy mix for entrepreneurship in China by mapping the policy goals and instruments and reveal the process of policy mix changing over time. We find two main process mechanisms of the entrepreneurship policy mix in China: patching and stretching. Compared with policy repackaging, patching and stretching are more realistic processes in the real world of the policy mix, and they are possible to achieve effectiveness by avoiding conflicts and promoting synergies among policy goals and instruments.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, China, policy design, policy mix, policy patching

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4634 Malaysia as a Case Study for Climate Policy Integration into Energy Policy

Authors: Marcus Lee

Abstract:

The energy sector is the largest contributor of greenhouse gas emissions in Malaysia, which induces climate change. The climate change problem is therefore an energy sector problem. Tackling climate change issues successfully is contingent on actions taken in the energy sector. The researcher propounds that ‘Climate Policy Integration’ (CPI) into energy policy is a viable and insufficiently developed strategy in Malaysia that promotes the synergies between climate change and energy objectives, in order to achieve the targets found in both climate change and energy policies. In exploring this hypothesis, this paper presentation will focus on two particular aspects. Firstly, the meaning of CPI as an approach and as a concept will be explored. As an approach, CPI into energy policy means the integration of climate change objectives into the energy policy area. Its subject matter focuses on establishing the functional interrelations between climate change and energy objectives, by promoting their synergies and minimising their contradictions. However, its conceptual underpinnings are less than straightforward. Drawing from the ‘principle of integration’ found in international treaties and declarations such as the Stockholm Declaration 1972, the Rio Declaration 1992 and the United Nations Framework on Climate Change 1992 (‘UNFCCC’), this paper presentation will explore the contradictions in international standards on how the sustainable development tenets of environmental sustainability, social development and economic development are to be balanced and its relevance to CPI. Further, the researcher will consider whether authority may be derived from international treaties and declarations in order to argue for the prioritisation of environmental sustainability over the other sustainable development tenets through CPI. Secondly, this paper presentation will also explore the degree to which CPI into energy policy has been achieved and pursued in Malaysia. In particular, the strength of the conceptual framework with regard to CPI in Malaysian governance will be considered by assessing Malaysia’s National Policy on Climate Change (2009) (‘NPCC 2009’). The development (or the lack of) of CPI as an approach since the publication of the NPCC 2009 will also be assessed based on official government documents and policies that may have a climate change and/or energy agenda. Malaysia’s National Renewable Energy Policy and Action Plan (2010), draft National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (2014), Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (2015) in relation to the Paris Agreement, 11th Malaysia Plan (2015) and Biennial Update Report to the UNFCCC (2015) will be discussed. These documents will be assessed for the presence of CPI based on the language/drafting of the documents as well as the degree of subject matter regarding CPI expressed in the documents. Based on the analysis, the researcher will propose solutions on how to improve Malaysia’s climate change and energy governance. The theory of reflexive governance will be applied to CPI. The concluding remarks will be about whether CPI reflects reflexive governance by demonstrating how the governance process can be the object of shaping outcomes.

Keywords: climate policy integration, mainstreaming, policy coherence, Malaysian energy governance

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4633 Design of a Service-Enabled Dependable Integration Environment

Authors: Fuyang Peng, Donghong Li

Abstract:

The aim of information systems integration is to make all the data sources, applications and business flows integrated into the new environment so that unwanted redundancies are reduced and bottlenecks and mismatches are eliminated. Two issues have to be dealt with to meet such requirements: the software architecture that supports resource integration, and the adaptor development tool that help integration and migration of legacy applications. In this paper, a service-enabled dependable integration environment (SDIE), is presented, which has two key components, i.e., a dependable service integration platform and a legacy application integration tool. For the dependable platform for service integration, the service integration bus, the service management framework, the dependable engine for service composition, and the service registry and discovery components are described. For the legacy application integration tool, its basic organization, functionalities and dependable measures taken are presented. Due to its service-oriented integration model, the light-weight extensible container, the service component combination-oriented p-lattice structure, and other features, SDIE has advantages in openness, flexibility, performance-price ratio and feature support over commercial products, is better than most of the open source integration software in functionality, performance and dependability support.

Keywords: application integration, dependability, legacy, SOA

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4632 The Effect of Supply Chain Integration on Information Sharing

Authors: Khlif Hamadi

Abstract:

Supply chain integration has become a potentially valuable way of securing shared information and improving supply chain performance since competition is no longer between organizations but among supply chains. This research conceptualizes and develops three dimensions of supply chain integration (integration with customers, integration with suppliers, and the interorganizational integration) and tests the relationships between supply chain integration, information sharing, and supply chain performance. Furthermore, the four types of information sharing namely; information sharing with customers, information sharing with suppliers, inter-functional information sharing, and intra-organizational information sharing; and the four constructs of Supply Chain Performance represents expenses of costs, asset utilization, supply chain reliability, and supply chain flexibility and responsiveness. The theoretical and practical implications of the study, as well as directions for future research, are discussed.

Keywords: supply chain integration, supply chain management, information sharing, supply chain performance

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4631 An Integrated Planning Framework for Sustainable Tourism: Case Study of Tunisia

Authors: S. Halioui, I. Arikan, M. Schmidt

Abstract:

Tourism sector in Tunisia faces several problems that range from economic challenges to environmental degradation and social instability. These problems have been intensified because of the increased competition in the tourism market, the political instability, financial crises, and recently terrorism problems have aggravated the situation. As a consequence, a new framework that promotes sustainable tourism in the country and increases its competitiveness is urgently needed. Planning for sustainable tourism sector requires the integration of complex interactions between economic, social and environmental aspects. Sustainable tourism principles can be implemented with the help of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) process, which ensures the full integration of economic, social and environmental considerations while planning for the tourism sector in Tunisia. Results of the paper have broad implications for policy makers and tourism professionals.

Keywords: sustainable tourism, strategic environmental assessment, tourism planning, policy

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4630 Analyzing the Technology Affecting on the Social Integration of Students at University

Authors: Sujit K. Basak, Simon Collin

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to examine the technology access and use on the affecting social integration of local students at university. This aim is achieved by designing a structural equation modeling (SEM) in terms of integration with peers, integration with faculty, faculty support and on the other hand, examining the socio demographic impact on the technology access and use. The collected data were analyzed using the WarpPLS 5.0 software. This study was survey based and it was conducted at a public university in Canada. The results of the study indicated that technology has a strong impact on integration with faculty, faculty support, but technology does not have an impact on integration with peers. However, the social demographic has also an impact on the technology access and use.

Keywords: faculty, integration, peer, technology access and use

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4629 Practicing Participatory Approach in Social Forestry to Strengthen Sustainability in a Rural Area of Bangladesh

Authors: A B M Enamol Hassan

Abstract:

The forest storing up in Bangladesh is of deep concern to policy analysts because of increasing encroachment that results in deforestation and degradation of the ecosystem. To address these problems, forest-dependent people, as responsible for encroachment, could be involved in the co-management process along with other local stakeholders through a participatory approach. On the basis of this premise, this paper conceptualizes and empirically assesses the integration of all stakeholders in the co-management process through two lenses such as participation and collaboration. The study also analyzed the issues of sustainability in local communities along with examining constraints that limit the processes of integration. The study used a qualitative research method, which included face-to-face interviews with semi-structured questionnaires and field notes following the purposive sampling technique focusing on Comilla Sadar South Upazila (CSSU), Bangladesh. The findings of this paper reveal beneficiaries, Bangladesh Forest Department (BFD) and Union Parishad (UP), come together as leading actors, while NGOs and business entrepreneurs are ignored in the co-management process of social forestry. However, integrated management contributes to the strength of community sustainability, although it has some major limitations causing the matter of concerns among the local communities and policy analysts.

Keywords: integration, participation, collaboration, stakeholders, community sustainability

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4628 Public Policy Making Process in Developing Countries: Case Study of Turkish Health System

Authors: Hakan Akin

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine the policy making process in Turkish Health System. This policy making process will be examined through public policy change theories. Since political actors played in the formulation of public policies also explains the type of policy change, this actors will be inspected in the supranational and national basis. Also the transformation of public policy in the Turkish health care system will be analysed under the concepts of New right ideology, neo-liberalism, neo-conservatism and governance. And after this analyse, the outputs and outcomes of this transformation will be discussed in the context of developing countries.

Keywords: policy transfer, policy diffusion, policy convergence, new right, governance

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4627 Improvement of the Numerical Integration's Quality in Meshless Methods

Authors: Ahlem Mougaida, Hedi Bel Hadj Salah

Abstract:

Several methods are suggested to improve the numerical integration in Galerkin weak form for Meshless methods. In fact, integrating without taking into account the characteristics of the shape functions reproduced by Meshless methods (rational functions, with compact support etc.), causes a large integration error that influences the PDE’s approximate solution. Comparisons between different methods of numerical integration for rational functions are discussed and compared. The algorithms are implemented in Matlab. Finally, numerical results were presented to prove the efficiency of our algorithms in improving results.

Keywords: adaptive methods, meshless, numerical integration, rational quadrature

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4626 The Morocco's Return to the African Union: A New Era in the Kingdom's Foreign Policy

Authors: L. Ponomarenko, Rachid Kaouar

Abstract:

Morocco has rejoined the African Union and more than 30 years after it left the continental body due to the recognition of the Arabic Republic of Western Sahara. Morocco was readmitted after a one year campaign led by the King himself, who was visiting the Eastern African country with the aim to expend the kingdom presence in new region in Africa after that it managed to build a large influence net in the West Africa region. The return of Morocco can be a beginning of a new era in the foreign policy of Morocco, specially, in the policy towards the state-quo of the Western Sahara conflict, which is considerate as one the biggest obstacle for the cooperation and integration process in the region of North Africa. As a member-state of the African Union Morocco has lot more to lose, according to that the Moroccan position must be more flexible.

Keywords: African Union, Algeria, Morocco, North African Region, Western Sahara

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4625 Child Care Policy in Kazakhstan: A New Model

Authors: Dina Maratovna Aikenova

Abstract:

Child care policy must be a priority area of public authorities in any country. This study investigates child care policy in Kazakhstan in accordance with the current position of children and laws. The results show that Kazakhstan policy in this sphere needs more systematic model including state economic and social measures, parental involvement and role of non-government organizations.

Keywords: children, Kazakhstan, policy, vulnerability

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4624 A Consensus Approach to the Formulation of a School ICT Policy: A Q-Methodology Case Study

Authors: Thiru Vandeyar

Abstract:

This study sets out to explore how teachers’ beliefs and attitudes about ICT policy influence a consensus approach to the formulation of a school ICT policy. This case study proposes Q- methodology as an innovative method to facilitate a school’s capacity to develop policy reflecting teacher beliefs and attitudes. Q-methodology is used as a constructivist approach to the formulation of an ICT policy. Data capture was a mix of Q-methodology and qualitative principles. Data was analyzed by means of document, content and cluster analysis methods. Findings were threefold: First, teachers’ beliefs and attitudes about ICT policy influenced a consensus approach by including teachers as policy decision-makers. Second, given the opportunity, teachers have the inherent ability to deconstruct and critically engage with policy statements according to their own professional beliefs and attitudes. And third, an inclusive approach to policy formulation may inform the practice of school leaders and policymakers alike on how schools may develop their own policy.

Keywords: ICT, policy, teacher beliefs, consensus

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4623 Characterization and Predictors of Community Integration of People with Psychiatric Problems: Comparisons with the General Population

Authors: J. Cabral, C. Barreto Carvalho, C. da Motta, M. Sousa

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Community integration is a construct that an increasing body of research has shown to have a significant impact in well-being and recovery of people with psychiatric problems. However, there are few studies that explore which factors can be associated and predict community integration. Moreover, community integration has been mostly studied in minority groups, and currently literature on the definition and manifestation of community integration in the more general population is scarce. Thus, the current study aims to characterize community integration and explore possible predictor variables in a sample of participants with psychiatric problems (PP, N=183) and a sample of participants from the general population (GP, N=211). Results show that people with psychiatric problems present above average values of community integration, but are significantly lower than their healthy counterparts. It was also possible to observe that community integration does not vary in terms of the socio-demographic characteristics of both groups in this study. Correlation and multiple regression showed that, among several variables that literature present as relevant in the community integration process, only three variables emerged as having the most explanatory value in community integration of both groups: sense of community, basic needs satisfaction and submission. These results also shown that those variables have increased explanatory power in the PP sample, which leads us to emphasize the need to address this issue in future studies and increase the understanding of the factors that can be involved in the promotion of community integration, in order to devise more effective interventions in this field.

Keywords: community integration, mental illness, predictors, psychiatric problems

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4622 Comparative Regionalism: The Case of Financial Integration in Association of Southeast Asian Nations

Authors: Sharon Kun-Amornpong

Abstract:

In this paper, ASEAN financial integration will be discussed from the perspective of the rule of law. The methodology of the paper is comparative regionalism. It will compare the role of the rule of law in ASEAN financial integration with that of the European Union with particular focuses on, for example, institutions and values. The paper argues that in the realm of financial integration, the rule of law is one of the most important factors that could help strengthen and promote financial integration in ASEAN. This is despite the fact that the ‘ASEAN Way’ emphasises non-interference and utilises a consensus-based cooperation rather than formal institutions. Nevertheless, the rule of law for ASEAN financial integration should be situated in its own historical, cultural, and political contexts. In addition, in the case of ASEAN, the rule of law cannot take root if it does not come from the demand of the people in this region. For instance, a reform or creation of legal institutions should not be imposed by international financial institutions. The paper will conclude that law has a normative force. It could shape expectation of market participants and promote deeper financial integration if norms that the law generates have become a significant norm in the society or industry.

Keywords: Association of Southeast Asian Nations, ASEAN, comparative regionalism, financial integration, the rule of law

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4621 Principles of Sustainable and Affordable Housing Policy for Afghan Refugees Returning to Afghanistan

Authors: Mohammad Saraj Sharifzai, Keisuke Kitagawa, Mohammad Kamil Halimee, Javid Habib, Daishi Sakaguchi

Abstract:

The overall goal of this paper is to examine the suitability and potential of the policies addressing the sustainability and affordability of housing for returnees, and to determine the impact of this policy on housing delivery for Afghan refugees. Housing is a central component of the settlement experience of refugees. A positive housing situation can facilitate many aspects of integration. Unaffordable, and unsafe housing, however, can cause disruptions in the entire settlement process. This paper aims to identify a suite of built forms for housing that is both affordable and environmentally sustainable for Afghan refugees. The result was the development of a framework that enables the assessment of the overall performance of various types of housing development in all zones of the country. There is very little evidence that the present approach of housing provision to the vagaries of market forces has provided affordable housing, especially for Afghan refugees. There is a need to incorporate social housing into the policy to assist people who cannot afford to have their own houses.

Keywords: Afghan refugees, housing policy, affordability, social housing, housing provision, environmental sustainability principles, resettlement

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