Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Shiv Kapila

26 Testing Plastic-Sand Construction Blocks Made from Recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate (rPET)

Authors: Cassi Henderson, Lucia Corsini, Shiv Kapila, Egle Augustaityte, Tsemaye Uwejamomere Zinzan Gurney, Aleyna Yildirim


Plastic pollution is a major threat to human and planetary health. In Low- and Middle-Income Countries, plastic waste poses a major problem for marginalized populations who lack access to formal waste management systems. This study explores the potential for converting waste plastic into construction blocks. It is the first study to analyze the use of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as a binder in plastic-sand bricks. Unlike previous studies of plastic sand-bricks, this research tests the properties of bricks that were made using a low-cost kiln technology that was co-designed with a rural, coastal community in Kenya.  The mechanical strength, resistance to fire and water absorption properties of the bricks are tested in this study. The findings show that the bricks meet structural standards for mechanical performance, fire resistance and water absorption. It was found that 30:70 PET to sand demonstrated the best overall performance.

Keywords: recycling, PET, plastic, sustainable construction, sustainable development

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25 An Ecological Reading of Indian Regional Literature: A Comparative Ecocritical Analysis of Punjabi Poet Shiv Kumar Batalvi and Surjit Patar's Poetry

Authors: Zameerpal Kaur


Ecocriticism comes into existence in 1990s, it tries to explore the relationship of literature with the natural world and further it examines the role that natural surroundings and environment play in the minds of the creative writers during their imagination and creative process. The present study is an attempt to focus on the comparative ecocritical analysis of Shiv Kumar Batalvi and Surjit Patar’s selected poetry in the theoretical framework of ecocriticism in order to shed light on the poet’s vigilant views about the relationship of human life and nature. Shiv Kumar Batalvi is a renowned modern Punjabi poet. He is essentially a poet of nature and love. His opinions towards nature support his position to be considered as a major representative of recent environmental issues and ecocritical concerns in Punjabi literature. He is one of the most outstanding modern Punjabi poets, is endowed with the most artistic temperament in whose poetry nature always has a dominating existence. He seems to consciously portray the scenes of natural surroundings into his poetry; in fact the titles of his poems in themselves signify his love for the nature. Surjit Patar, an imminent modern Punjabi poet tries to present a different picture of nature into his poems; he also uses to write poems about contemporary problems. Surjit Patar’s radical quarrel with the modern cultural context makes him reject all the absolutes and finalities in the form of transcendental reason and religion, history and evolution, he freely writes about the deterioration of nature at selfish materialistic society. He is modern poet who weaves the natural imagery with the syntax of his poems. Patar’s work reflects a universal voice that is dribbled with nuanced humanism and a sense of modernity that seemed neither dated, nor trapped in regional boundaries. Through his poetry he has given a voice to the fragile, disrupting borders, disturbing the status quo. An attempt to analyse the poetic works of above said poets from ecocritical perspective as well as especially focussing on various aspects of ecocriticism like ecocentric ethics, ecoaesthetics, anthropomorphism etc. has been made throughout the comparative study of the selected works.

Keywords: anthropocentrism, degradation, environment and literature, nature

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24 An Investigation of Machinability of Inconel 718 in EDM Using Different Cryogenic Treated Tools

Authors: Pradeep Joshi, Prashant Dhiman, Shiv Dayal Dhakad


Inconel 718 is a family if Nickel-Chromium based Superalloy; it has very high oxidation and corrosion resistance. Inconel 718 is widely being used in aerospace, engine, turbine etc. due to its high mechanical strength and creep resistance. Being widely used, its machining should be easy but in real its machining is very difficult, especially by using traditional machining methods. It becomes easy to machine only by using non Traditional machining such as EDM. During EDM machining there is wear of both tool and workpiece, the tool wear is undesired because it changes tool shape, geometry. To reduce the tool wear rate (TWR) cryogenic treatment is performed on tool before the machining operation. The machining performances of the process are to be evaluated in terms of MRR, TWR which are functions of Discharge current, Pulse on-time, Pulse Off-time.

Keywords: EDM, cyrogenic, TWR, MRR

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23 The Idea of Making of Corporate Social Responsibility Compulsory in India

Authors: Jagannath Mohanty, Shiv Nath Sinha


India is the first country in the world, where spending on Corporate Social Responsibily (CSR) has been made mandatory. Predominantly Indian enterprises have been philanthrophic for hundreds of years, where giving back to the society is the religious duty of the rich. Therefore Indian businesses have been voluntarily spending on CSR activities, while several businesses kept spending on non business activities a significant number of entrepreneurs abstained from social spending, leading Government of India to take the lesgislative route by mandating 2% spend of net profit on CSR activities failing which companeis will be dealt legally. While the legislation on suface appers progressive and pro social, yet the consequences of making a rather volutary action a legally binding act is yet to be seen. This paper examines the possible social impact of the legislation and potential response of the corporate to a legislation of this kind.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility (CSR), companies act 2013, corporate citizenship, social spending

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22 Fuzzy Multi-Component DEA with Shared and Undesirable Fuzzy Resources

Authors: Jolly Puri, Shiv Prasad Yadav


Multi-component data envelopment analysis (MC-DEA) is a popular technique for measuring aggregate performance of the decision making units (DMUs) along with their components. However, the conventional MC-DEA is limited to crisp input and output data which may not always be available in exact form. In real life problems, data may be imprecise or fuzzy. Therefore, in this paper, we propose (i) a fuzzy MC-DEA (FMC-DEA) model in which shared and undesirable fuzzy resources are incorporated, (ii) the proposed FMC-DEA model is transformed into a pair of crisp models using cut approach, (iii) fuzzy aggregate performance of a DMU and fuzzy efficiencies of components are defined to be fuzzy numbers, and (iv) a numerical example is illustrated to validate the proposed approach.

Keywords: multi-component DEA, fuzzy multi-component DEA, fuzzy resources, decision making units (DMUs)

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21 A Fuzzy Programming Approach for Solving Intuitionistic Fuzzy Linear Fractional Programming Problem

Authors: Sujeet Kumar Singh, Shiv Prasad Yadav


This paper develops an approach for solving intuitionistic fuzzy linear fractional programming (IFLFP) problem where the cost of the objective function, the resources, and the technological coefficients are triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Here, the IFLFP problem is transformed into an equivalent crisp multi-objective linear fractional programming (MOLFP) problem. By using fuzzy mathematical programming approach the transformed MOLFP problem is reduced into a single objective linear programming (LP) problem. The proposed procedure is illustrated through a numerical example.

Keywords: triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number, linear programming problem, multi objective linear programming problem, fuzzy mathematical programming, membership function

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20 Electrospun Zinc Oxide Nanowires as Highly Sensitive Piezoelectric Transduction Elements for Nano-Scale Devices

Authors: K. Brince Paul, Nagendra Pratap Singh, Shiv Govind Singh, Siva Rama Krishna Vanjari


In this paper, we report optimized procedure for synthesizing highly oriented, horizontally aligned, Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires targeted towards developing highly sensitive piezoelectric transduction elements. The synthesis was carried out using Electrospinning technique, a facile, robust, low cost technique for producing nanowires. The as-synthesized ZnO nanowires were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Field Emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX).The Piezoelectric behavior of these nanowires was characterized using Peizoelectric Force microscopy (PFM). A very high d33 coefficient of 23.1 pm/V obtained through the PFM measurements is an indicative of its potential application towards developing miniaturized piezoelectric transduction elements for nanoscale devices.

Keywords: electrospinning, piezoelectric, technique, zinc oxide

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19 A Novel Method For Non-Invasive Diagnosis Of Hepatitis C Virus Using Electromagnetic Signal Detection: A Multicenter International Study

Authors: Gamal Shiha, Waleed Samir, Zahid Azam, Premashis Kar, Saeed Hamid, Shiv Sarin


A simple, rapid and non-invasive electromagnetic sensor (C-FAST device) was- patented; for diagnosis of HCV RNA. Aim: To test the validity of the device compared to standard HCV PCR. Subjects and Methods: The first phase was done as pilot in Egypt on 79 participants; the second phase was done in five centers: one center from Egypt, two centers from Pakistan and two centers from India (800, 92 and 113 subjects respectively). The third phase was done nationally as multicenter study on (1600) participants for ensuring its representativeness. Results: When compared to PCR technique, C-FAST device revealed sensitivity 95% to 100%, specificity 95.5% to 100%, PPV 89.5% to 100%, NPV 95% to 100% and positive likelihood ratios 21.8% to 38.5%. Conclusion: It is practical evidence that HCV nucleotides emit electromagnetic signals that can be used for its identification. As compared to PCR, C-FAST is an accurate, valid and non-invasive device.

Keywords: C-FAST- a valid and reliable device, distant cellular interaction, electromagnetic signal detection, non-invasive diagnosis of HCV

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18 Conventional and Computational Investigation of the Synthesized Organotin(IV) Complexes Derived from o-Vanillin and 3-Nitro-o-Phenylenediamine

Authors: Harminder Kaur, Manpreet Kaur, Akanksha Kapila, Reenu


Schiff base with general formula H₂L was derived from condensation of o-vanillin and 3-nitro-o-phenylenediamine. This Schiff base was used for the synthesis of organotin(IV) complexes with general formula R₂SnL [R=Phenyl or n-octyl] using equimolar quantities. Elemental analysis UV-Vis, FTIR, and multinuclear spectroscopic techniques (¹H, ¹³C, and ¹¹⁹Sn) NMR were carried out for the characterization of the synthesized complexes. These complexes were coloured and soluble in polar solvents. Computational studies have been performed to obtain the details of the geometry and electronic structures of ligand as well as complexes. Geometry of the ligands and complexes have been optimized at the level of Density Functional Theory with B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) and B3LYP/MPW1PW91 respectively followed by vibrational frequency analysis using Gaussian 09. Observed ¹¹⁹Sn NMR chemical shifts of one of the synthesized complexes showed tetrahedral geometry around Tin atom which is also confirmed by DFT. HOMO-LUMO energy distribution was calculated. FTIR, ¹HNMR and ¹³CNMR spectra were also obtained theoretically using DFT. Further IRC calculations were employed to determine the transition state for the reaction and to get the theoretical information about the reaction pathway. Moreover, molecular docking studies can be explored to ensure the anticancer activity of the newly synthesized organotin(IV) complexes.

Keywords: DFT, molecular docking, organotin(IV) complexes, o-vanillin, 3-nitro-o-phenylenediamine

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17 Investigation of Cytotoxic Compounds in Ethyl Acetate and Chloroform Extracts of Nigella sativa Seeds by Sulforhodamine-B Assay-Guided Fractionation

Authors: Harshani Uggallage, Kapila D. Dissanayaka


A Sulforhodamine-B assay-guided fractionation on Nigella sativa seeds was conducted to determine the presence of cytotoxic compounds against human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. Initially, a freeze-dried sample of Nigella sativa seeds was sequentially extracted into solvents of increasing polarities. Crude extracts from the sequential extraction of Nigella sativa seeds in chloroform and ethyl acetate showed the highest cytotoxicity. The combined mixture of these two extracts was subjected to bioassay guided fractionation using a modified Kupchan method of partitioning, followed by Sephadex® LH-20 chromatography. This chromatographic separation process resulted in a column fraction with a convincing IC50 (half-maximal inhibitory concentration) value of 13.07µg/ml, which is considerable for developing therapeutic drug leads against human hepatoma. Reversed phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was finally conducted for the same column fraction, and the result indicates the presence of one or several main cytotoxic compounds against human HepG2 cells.

Keywords: cytotoxic compounds, half-maximal inhibitory concentration, high-performance liquid chromatography, human HepG2 cells, nigella sativa seeds, Sulforhodamine-B assay

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16 Holistic Simulation-Based Impact Analysis Framework for Sustainable Manufacturing

Authors: Mijoh A. Gbededo, Kapila Liyanage, Sabuj Mallik


The emerging approaches to sustainable manufacturing are considered to be solution-oriented with the aim of addressing the environmental, economic and social issues holistically. However, the analysis of the interdependencies amongst the three sustainability dimensions has not been fully captured in the literature. In a recent review of approaches to sustainable manufacturing, two categories of techniques are identified: 1) Sustainable Product Development (SPD), and 2) Sustainability Performance Assessment (SPA) techniques. The challenges of the approaches are not only related to the arguments and misconceptions of the relationships between the techniques and sustainable development but also to the inability to capture and integrate the three sustainability dimensions. This requires a clear definition of some of the approaches and a road-map to the development of a holistic approach that supports sustainability decision-making. In this context, eco-innovation, social impact assessment, and life cycle sustainability analysis play an important role. This paper deployed an integrative approach that enabled amalgamation of sustainable manufacturing approaches and the theories of reciprocity and motivation into a holistic simulation-based impact analysis framework. The findings in this research have the potential to guide sustainability analysts to capture the aspects of the three sustainability dimensions into an analytical model. Additionally, the research findings presented can aid the construction of a holistic simulation model of a sustainable manufacturing and support effective decision-making.

Keywords: life cycle sustainability analysis, sustainable manufacturing, sustainability performance assessment, sustainable product development

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15 Acoustic Absorption of Hemp Walls with Ground Granulated Blast Slag

Authors: Oliver Kinnane, Aidan Reilly, John Grimes, Sara Pavia, Rosanne Walker


Unwanted sound reflection can create acoustic discomfort and lead to problems of speech comprehensibility. Contemporary building techniques enable highly finished internal walls resulting in sound reflective surfaces. In contrast, sustainable construction materials using natural and vegetal materials, are often more porous and absorptive. Hemp shiv is used as an aggregate and when mixed with lime binder creates a low-embodied-energy concrete. Cement replacements such as ground granulated blast slag (GGBS), a byproduct of other industrial processes, are viewed as more sustainable alternatives to high-embodied-energy cement. Hemp concretes exhibit good hygrothermal performance. This has focused much research attention on them as natural and sustainable low-energy alternatives to standard concretes. A less explored benefit is the acoustic absorption capability of hemp-based concretes. This work investigates hemp-lime-GGBS concrete specifically, and shows that it exhibits high levels of sound absorption.

Keywords: hemp, hempcrete, acoustic absorption, GGBS

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14 Simulation Aided Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment Framework for Manufacturing Design and Management

Authors: Mijoh A. Gbededo, Kapila Liyanage, Ilias Oraifige


Decision making for sustainable manufacturing design and management requires critical considerations due to the complexity and partly conflicting issues of economic, social and environmental factors. Although there are tools capable of assessing the combination of one or two of the sustainability factors, the frameworks have not adequately integrated all the three factors. Case study and review of existing simulation applications also shows the approach lacks integration of the sustainability factors. In this paper we discussed the development of a simulation based framework for support of a holistic assessment of sustainable manufacturing design and management. To achieve this, a strategic approach is introduced to investigate the strengths and weaknesses of the existing decision supporting tools. Investigation reveals that Discrete Event Simulation (DES) can serve as a rock base for other Life Cycle Analysis frameworks. Simio-DES application optimizes systems for both economic and competitive advantage, Granta CES EduPack and SimaPro collate data for Material Flow Analysis and environmental Life Cycle Assessment, while social and stakeholders’ analysis is supported by Analytical Hierarchy Process, a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis method. Such a common and integrated framework creates a platform for companies to build a computer simulation model of a real system and assess the impact of alternative solutions before implementing a chosen solution.

Keywords: discrete event simulation, life cycle sustainability analysis, manufacturing, sustainability

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13 Wearable Jacket for Game-Based Post-Stroke Arm Rehabilitation

Authors: A. Raj Kumar, A. Okunseinde, P. Raghavan, V. Kapila


Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability worldwide. With recent advances in immediate post-stroke care, there is an increasing number of young stroke survivors, under the age of 65 years. While most stroke survivors will regain the ability to walk, they often experience long-term arm and hand motor impairments. Long term upper limb rehabilitation is needed to restore movement and function, and prevent deterioration from complications such as learned non-use and learned bad-use. We have developed a novel virtual coach, a wearable instrumented rehabilitation jacket, to motivate individuals to participate in long-term skill re-learning, that can be personalized to their impairment profile. The jacket can estimate the movements of an individual’s arms using embedded off-the-shelf sensors (e.g., 9-DOF IMU for inertial measurements, flex-sensors for measuring angular orientation of fingers) and a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) powered microcontroller (e.g., RFduino) to non-intrusively extract data. The 9-DOF IMU sensors contain 3-axis accelerometer, 3-axis gyroscope, and 3-axis magnetometer to compute the quaternions, which are transmitted to a computer to compute the Euler angles and estimate the angular orientation of the arms. The data are used in a gaming environment to provide visual, and/or haptic feedback for goal-based, augmented-reality training to facilitate re-learning in a cost-effective, evidence-based manner. The full paper will elaborate the technical aspects of communication, interactive gaming environment, and physical aspects of electronics necessary to achieve our stated goal. Moreover, the paper will suggest methods to utilize the proposed system as a cheaper, portable, and versatile system vis-à-vis existing instrumentation to facilitate post-stroke personalized arm rehabilitation.

Keywords: feedback, gaming, Euler angles, rehabilitation, augmented reality

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12 Allelopathic Effect of Foliar Extracts of Leucaena leucocephala on Germination and Growth Behavior of Zea mays L.

Authors: Guru Prasad Satsangi, Shiv Shankar Gautam


Allelopathy is a potential area of research for sustainable agriculture. It is environmentally safe, can conserve the available resources, and also may mitigate the problems raised by synthetic chemicals. The allelo-chemicals are secondary metabolites produced by plants, which are the byproducts of the primary metabolic process. These allelo-chemicals may be stimulatory, inhibitory, or may have no effect on the growth of the other plants. It has been observed in the present study that foliar extracts of Leucaena leucocephala showed an inhibitory effect on the germination of the test crop maize. The results revealed that at different concentrations of Leucaena leucocephala foliar extract, caused a significant inhibition in germination and growth behavior of Zea mays L. seedlings. Minimum germination and growth occurred in 100 % concentration, and an increase in extract concentrations result in a decrease in the germination. Bioassay also depicted that this inhibitory effect was proportional to the concentration of the extract as the higher concentration having a lesser stimulatory effect or vice versa. The phytochemical analysis of the secondary metabolites from foliar extracts of Leucaena leucocephala L. showed the presence of tannins, saponins, phenols, alkaloids, and flavanoids. Among various extracts, the presence of methanol extract was found in a significant amount of phytochemicals, followed by the aqueous and ethanol extracts. Leaves showed a significantly higher amount of the allelochemicals.

Keywords: allelopathic effect, germination /growth behavior , foliar extracts, Leucaena leucceophala , Zea mays L.

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11 Estimation of Source Parameters and Moment Tensor Solution through Waveform Modeling of 2013 Kishtwar Earthquake

Authors: Shveta Puri, Shiv Jyoti Pandey, G. M. Bhat, Neha Raina


TheJammu and Kashmir region of the Northwest Himalaya had witnessed many devastating earthquakes in the recent past and has remained unexplored for any kind of seismic investigations except scanty records of the earthquakes that occurred in this region in the past. In this study, we have used local seismic data of year 2013 that was recorded by the network of Broadband Seismographs in J&K. During this period, our seismic stations recorded about 207 earthquakes including two moderate events of Mw 5.7 on 1st May, 2013 and Mw 5.1 of 2nd August, 2013.We analyzed the events of Mw 3-4.6 and the main events only (for minimizing the error) for source parameters, b value and sense of movement through waveform modeling for understanding seismotectonic and seismic hazard of the region. It has been observed that most of the events are bounded between 32.9° N – 33.3° N latitude and 75.4° E – 76.1° E longitudes, Moment Magnitude (Mw) ranges from Mw 3 to 5.7, Source radius (r), from 0.21 to 3.5 km, stress drop, from 1.90 bars to 71.1 bars and Corner frequency, from 0.39 – 6.06 Hz. The b-value for this region was found to be 0.83±0 from these events which are lower than the normal value (b=1), indicating the area is under high stress. The travel time inversion and waveform inversion method suggest focal depth up to 10 km probably above the detachment depth of the Himalayan region. Moment tensor solution of the (Mw 5.1, 02:32:47 UTC) main event of 2ndAugust suggested that the source fault is striking at 295° with dip of 33° and rake value of 85°. It was found that these events form intense clustering of small to moderate events within a narrow zone between Panjal Thrust and Kishtwar Window. Moment tensor solution of the main events and their aftershocks indicating thrust type of movement is occurring in this region.

Keywords: b-value, moment tensor, seismotectonics, source parameters

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10 The Effectiveness of Multiple versus Once-Only Membrane Sweeping in Uncomplicated Primi Gravida at 40 Weeks of Gestational Age in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Sri Lanka: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Jeewantha Ranawaka, Gunawardane Kapila, Wijethunaga Mudiyanselage B. G. Jayathilake


Introduction: Sweeping of the membranes is a fairly simple technique that may positively influence the shift from maintenance of pregnancy to the beginning of labor. Objective: To assess the effectiveness and acceptability of twice versus once-only membrane sweeping in uncomplicated primi gravid at 40 weeks of gestational age in a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was done in Ward 05 of Teaching Hospital, Kandy. The participants were primi-gravida with a singleton live fetus who was at 40 weeks of gestation with intact fetal membranes and with a Modified Bishop’s score <5. After randomization both groups received membrane sweeping at 40 weeks of gestation and the experimental group received membrane sweeping after 48 hours (40+2 days). The modified Bishop Score was assessed at 40+5 days. In two groups who did not go into natural labor at 40+5 days were managed according to the ward policy of cervical ripening and with labor induction at 40+5 days. Two different methods were used to assess discomfort and pain. Patient acceptability was assessed using recommendation to another patient and acceptance during next pregnancy. Perinatal, maternal and labour outcomes were assessed. Results: A change of the Bishops score was 67.3% (n= 31 of 46) in experimental group whereas in control group it was 57.5% (n= 38 of 66). (p = 0.21, OR-1.52, CI = 0.6 -3.34). Mean (SD) of Modified Bishop score was 6.36 (1.94) in experimental group and 6.03 (.84) in control group (p = 0.354). The probability of having the spontaneous onset of labour in experimental group was 61.6% (n=74 of 120) whereas in control group it was 45% (n= 54 of 120) (p=0.01, OR-1.966, CI = 1.17 – 3.28 NNT = 5.99). Recommending the method to another among experimental group was 75% (n= 90 of 120) whereas in control group it was 79.2% (n= 95 of 120) (p= 0.443). Accepting membrane Sweeping for subsequent pregnancy among experimental was 72.5% (n=87 of 120) whereas in control group was 72.5% (n=87 of 120) (p= 1.00) Need of formal induction of labour at 40+ 5 days in experimental group was 38.4% (n=46 of 120) whereas in control group was 61.6% (n=66 of 120) (p=0.01, OR=0.5, CI= 0.3 – 0.8, NNT=6). Neonatal outcome, labour outcome such as Cesarean -section rate, need for augmentation and maternal complications such as fever, Premature rupture of membrane, bleeding were comparable in two groups. Conclusions and Recommendations: It can be concluded that twice sweeping of membrane was effective to reduce the need of formal induction of labour and increase the chances of having spontaneous onset of labour (SOL) at 40+5 days without increasing maternal or fetal morbidity. Acceptability of twice sweeping is not different from sweeping once. Hence we recommend consideration of multiple membranes sweeping as first line for women at 40 weeks of gestation.

Keywords: acceptability, induction, labour, membrane sweeping

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9 Determination of Crustal Structure and Moho Depth within the Jammu and Kashmir Region, Northwest Himalaya through Receiver Function

Authors: Shiv Jyoti Pandey, Shveta Puri, G. M. Bhat, Neha Raina


The Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) region of Northwest Himalaya has a long history of earthquake activity which falls within Seismic Zones IV and V. To know the crustal structure beneath this region, we utilized teleseismic receiver function method. This paper presents the results of the analyses of the teleseismic earthquake waves recorded by 10 seismic observatories installed in the vicinity of major thrusts and faults. The teleseismic waves at epicentral distance between 30o and 90o with moment magnitudes greater than or equal to 5.5 that contains large amount of information about the crust and upper mantle structure directly beneath a receiver has been used. The receiver function (RF) technique has been widely applied to investigate crustal structures using P-to-S converted (Ps) phases from velocity discontinuities. The arrival time of the Ps, PpPs and PpSs+ PsPs converted and reverberated phases from the Moho can be combined to constrain the mean crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. Over 500 receiver functions from 10 broadband stations located in the Jammu & Kashmir region of Northwest Himalaya were analyzed. With the help of H-K stacking method, we determined the crustal thickness (H) and average crustal Vp/Vs ratio (K) in this region. We also used Neighbourhood algorithm technique to verify our results. The receiver function results for these stations show that the crustal thickness under Jammu & Kashmir ranges from 45.0 to 53.6 km with an average value of 50.01 km. The Vp/Vs ratio varies from 1.63 to 1.99 with an average value of 1.784 which corresponds to an average Poisson’s ratio of 0.266 with a range from 0.198 to 0.331. High Poisson’s ratios under some stations may be related to partial melting in the crust near the uppermost mantle. The crustal structure model developed from this study can be used to refine the velocity model used in the precise epicenter location in the region, thereby increasing the knowledge to understand current seismicity in the region.

Keywords: H-K stacking, Poisson’s ratios, receiver function, teleseismic

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8 Recycling, Reuse and Reintegration of Steel Plant Fines

Authors: R. K. Agrawal, Shiv Agrawal


Fines and micro create fundamental problems of respiration. From mines to mills steel plants generate lot of pollutants. Legislation & Government laws are stricter day by day & each plant has to think of recycling, reuse &reintegration of pollutants generated during the process of steel making. This paper deals with experiments conducted in Bhilai Steel Plant and Real Ispat and Power Limited for reuse, recycle & reintegrate some of the steel making process fines. Iron ore fines with binders have been agglomerated to be used as a part of the charge for small furnaces. This will improve yield at nominal cost. Rolling mill fines have been recycled to increase the yield of sinter making. This will solve the problems of fine disposal. Huge saving on account of recycling will be achieved. Lime fines after briquetting is used along with prime lime. Lime fines have also been used as a binding material during production of fly ash bricks. These fines serve as low-cost binder. Experiments have been conducted along with coke breeze & gas cleaning plant sludge. As a result, the anti-sloping compound has been developed for converter vessels. Dolo char and Char during Sponge Iron production have been successfully used in power generation and brick making. Pellets have been made with ventilation dust & flue dust. These samples have been tried as a coolant in the converter. Pellets have been made with Sinter Plant electrostatic precipitator micro fines with liquid binder. Trials have been conducted to reuse these pellets in sinter making. Coke breeze from coke-ovens fines and mill scale along with binders were agglomerated. This was used in furnace after attaining required screening and reactivity index. These actions will definitely bring social, economic and environment-friendly universe.

Keywords: briquette, dolo char, electrostatic precipitator, pellet, sinter

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7 Atherosclerosis Prevalence Within Populations of the Southeastern United States

Authors: Samuel P. Prahlow, Anthony Sciuva, Katherine Bombly, Emily Wilson, Shiv Dhiman, Savita Arya


A prevalence cohort study of atherosclerotic lesions within cadavers was performed to better understand and characterize the prevalence of atherosclerosis among Georgia residents within body donors in the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (PCOM) - Georgia body donor program. We procured specimens from cadavers used for medical students, physical therapy students, and biomedical science students cadaveric anatomical dissection at PCOM - South Georgia and PCOM - Georgia. Tissues were prepared using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stainas histological slides by Colquitt Regional Medical Center Laboratory Services. One section from each of the following arteries was taken after cadaveric dissection at the site of most calcification palpated grossly (if present): left anterior descending coronary artery, left internal carotid artery, abdominal aorta, splenic artery, and hepatic artery. All specimens were graded and categorized according to the American Heart Association’s Modified and Conventional Standards for Atherosclerotic Lesions using x4, x10, x40 microscopic magnification. Our study cohort included 22 cadavers, with 16 females and 6 males. The average age was 72.54, and the median age was 72, with a range of 52 to 90 years old. The cause of death determination listing vascular and/or cardiovascular causes was present on 6 of the 22 death certificates. 19 of 22 (86%) cadavers had at least a single artery grading > 5. Of the cadavers with at least a single artery graded at greater than 5, only 5 of 19 (26%) cadavers had a vascular or cardiovascular cause of death reported. Malignancy was listed as a cause of death on 7 (32%) death certificates. The average atherosclerosis grading of the common hepatic, splenic and left internal carotid arteries (2.15, 3.05, and 3.36 respectively) were lower than the left anterior descending artery and the abdominal aorta (5.16 and 5.86 respectively). This prevalence study characterizes atherosclerosis found in five medium and large systemic arteries within cadavers from the state of Georgia.

Keywords: pathology, atherosclerosis, histology, cardiovascular

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6 Antecedents and Consequents of Organizational Politics: A Select Study of a Central University

Authors: Poonam Mishra, Shiv Kumar Sharma, Sanjeev Swami


Purpose: The Purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship of percieved organizational politics with three levels of antecedents (i.e., organizational level, work environment level and individual level)and its consequents simultaneously. The study addresses antecedents and consequents of percieved political behavior in the higher education sector of India with specific reference to a central university. Design/ Methodology/ Approach: A conceptual framework and hypotheses were first developed on the basis of review of previous studies on organizational politics. A questionnaire was then developed carrying 66 items related to 8-constructs and demographic characteristics of respondents. Jundegemental sampling was used to select respondents. Primary data is collected through structured questionnaire from 45 faculty members of a central university. The sample constitutes Professors, Associate Professors and Assistant Professors from various departments of the University. To test hypotheses data was analyzed statistically using partial least square-structural equations modeling (PLS-SEM). Findings: Results indicated a strong support for OP’s relationship with three of the four proposed antecedents that are, workforce diversity, relationship conflict and need for power with relationship conflict having the strongest impact. No significant relationship was found between role conflict and perception of organizational politics. The three consequences that is, intention to turnover, job anxiety, and organizational commitment are significantly impacted by perception of organizational politics. Practical Implications– This study will be helpful in motivating future research for improving the quality of higher education in India by reducing the level of antecedents that adds to the level of perception of organizational politics, ultimately resulting in unfavorable outcomes. Originality/value: Although a large number of studies on atecedents and consequents of percieved organizational politics have been reported, little attention has been paid to test all the separate but interdependent relationships simultaneously; in this paper organizational politics will be simultaneously treated as a dependent variable and same will be treated as independent variable in subsequent relationships.

Keywords: organizational politics, workforce diversity, relationship conflict, role conflict, need for power, intention to turnover, job anxiety, organizational commitment

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5 Strengthening Functional Community-Provider Linkages: Lessons from the Challenge Initiative for Healthy Cities Program in Indore, India

Authors: Sabyasachi Behera, Shiv Kumar, Pramod Gautam, Anisur Rahman, Pawan Pathak, Rahul Bhadouria


Background: The increasing proportion of population especially urban poor and vulnerable groups or groups with specific needs, with health indicators worse than their rural counterparts in India face various issues related with availability and quality of health care. The reasons are myriad, starting from information and awareness of the community, especially, in a scenario wherein the needs and challenges of floating and migrant urban populations remain poorly understood. Weak linkages between health care facilities and slum dwellers and vulnerable populations hinder the improvement of health services for urban poor. Method: To address this issue, TCIHC program is helping health department of Indore city of Madhya Pradesh to establish a referral mechanism with a dual approach: at both community and facility level. The former is based on the premise of ‘building social capital’, i.e. norms and networks within a community facilitating collective action, helps improve the demand and supply of health services at appropriate levels of care (Minus 2: Accredited Social Health Activist and Community Health Groups; Minus 1: Urban Health Nutrition Days; Zero: Urban Primary Health Center; Plus 1: secondary facility with BEmONC services; Plus 2: secondary facilities with CEmONC services; Plus 3: tertiary level facility) for the urban poor. The latter focuses on encouraging the provision of all services at various levels of service delivery points and stakeholders to function in a coordinated manner to ensure better health service availability and coverage in underserved slum areas. Results: This initiative has enhanced the utilization of community based, primary and secondary level services through defined referral pathways that are clearly known to a community dweller. Conclusion: An ideal referral mechanism should begin with referral at the community level wherein services of a frontline health care provider are accessed by them at their door-step, causing no delay in both understanding and decision on the health issues faced by them.

Keywords: levels of care, linkages, referral mechanism, service delivery

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4 A Modified QuEChERS Method Using Activated Carbon Fibers as r-DSPE Sorbent for Sample Cleanup: Application to Pesticides Residues Analysis in Food Commodities Using GC-MS/MS

Authors: Anshuman Srivastava, Shiv Singh, Sheelendra Pratap Singh


A simple, sensitive and effective gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous analysis of multi pesticide residues (organophosphate, organochlorines, synthetic pyrethroids and herbicides) in food commodities using phenolic resin based activated carbon fibers (ACFs) as reversed-dispersive solid phase extraction (r-DSPE) sorbent in modified QuEChERS (Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe) method. The acetonitrile-based QuEChERS technique was used for the extraction of the analytes from food matrices followed by sample cleanup with ACFs instead of traditionally used primary secondary amine (PSA). Different physico-chemical characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller surface area analysis were employed to investigate the engineering and structural properties of ACFs. The recovery of pesticides and herbicides was tested at concentration levels of 0.02 and 0.2 mg/kg in different commodities such as cauliflower, cucumber, banana, apple, wheat and black gram. The recoveries of all twenty-six pesticides and herbicides were found in acceptable limit (70-120%) according to SANCO guideline with relative standard deviation value < 15%. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of the method was in the range of 0.38-3.69 ng/mL and 1.26 -12.19 ng/mL, respectively. In traditional QuEChERS method, PSA used as r-DSPE sorbent plays a vital role in sample clean-up process and demonstrates good recoveries for multiclass pesticides. This study reports that ACFs are better in terms of removal of co-extractives in comparison of PSA without compromising the recoveries of multi pesticides from food matrices. Further, ACF replaces the need of charcoal in addition to the PSA from traditional QuEChERS method which is used to remove pigments. The developed method will be cost effective because the ACFs are significantly cheaper than the PSA. So the proposed modified QuEChERS method is more robust, effective and has better sample cleanup efficiency for multiclass multi pesticide residues analysis in different food matrices such as vegetables, grains and fruits.

Keywords: QuEChERS, activated carbon fibers, primary secondary amine, pesticides, sample preparation, carbon nanomaterials

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3 A Report of 5-Months-Old Baby with Balanced Chromosomal Rearrangements along with Phenotypic Abnormalities

Authors: Mohit Kumar, Beklashwar Salona, Shiv Murti, Mukesh Singh


We report here a case of five-months old male baby, born as second child of non-consanguineous parents with no considerable history of genetic abnormality which was referred to our cytogenetic laboratory for chromosomal analysis. Physical dysmorphic facial features including mongoloid face, cleft palate, simian crease, and developmental delay were observed. We present this case with unique balanced autosomal translocation of t(3;10)(p21;p13). The risk of phenotypic abnormalities based on de novo balanced translocation was estimated to be 7%. The association of balanced chromosomal rearrangement with Down syndrome features such as multiple congenital anomalies, facial dysmorphism and congenital heart anomalies are very rare in a 5-months old male child. Trisomy-21 is not uncommon in chromosomal abnormality with the birth defect and balanced translocations are frequently observed in patients with secondary infertility or recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Two ml heparinized peripheral blood cells cultured in RPMI-1640 for 72 hours supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum, phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and antibiotics were used for chromosomal analysis. A total 30 metaphases images were captured using Olympus-BX51 microscope and analyzed using Bio-view karyotyping software through GTG-banding (G bands by trypsin and Giemsa) according to International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature 2016. The results showed balanced translocation between short arm of chromosome # 3 and short arm of chromosome # 10. The karyotype of the child was found to be 46,XY,t(3;10)(p21; p13). Chromosomal abnormalities are one of the major causes of birth defect in new born babies. Also, balanced translocations are frequently observed in patients with secondary infertility or recurrent spontaneous abortion. The index case presented with dysmorphic facial features and had a balanced translocation 46,XY,t(3;10)(p21;p13). This translocation with break points at (p21; p13) has not been reported in the literature in a child with facial dysmorphism. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of novel balanced translocation t(3;10) with break points in a child with dysmorphic features. We found balanced chromosomal translocation instead of any trisomy or unbalanced aberrations along with some phenotypic abnormalities. Therefore, we suggest that such novel balanced translocation with abnormal phenotype should be reported in order to enable the pathologist, pediatrician, and gynecologist to have a better insight into the intricacies of chromosomal abnormalities and their associated phenotypic features. We hypothesized that dysmorphic features as seen in this case may be the result of change in the pattern of genes located at the breakpoint area in balanced translocations or may be due to deletion or mutation of genes located on the p-arm of chromosome # 3 and p-arm of chromosome # 10.

Keywords: balanced translocation, karyotyping, phenotypic abnormalities, facial dimorphisms

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2 Short and Long Crack Growth Behavior in Ferrite Bainite Dual Phase Steels

Authors: Ashok Kumar, Shiv Brat Singh, Kalyan Kumar Ray


There is growing awareness to design steels against fatigue damage Ferrite martensite dual-phase steels are known to exhibit favourable mechanical properties like good strength, ductility, toughness, continuous yielding, and high work hardening rate. However, dual-phase steels containing bainite as second phase are potential alternatives for ferrite martensite steels for certain applications where good fatigue property is required. Fatigue properties of dual phase steels are popularly assessed by the nature of variation of crack growth rate (da/dN) with stress intensity factor range (∆K), and the magnitude of fatigue threshold (∆Kth) for long cracks. There exists an increased emphasis to understand not only the long crack fatigue behavior but also short crack growth behavior of ferrite bainite dual phase steels. The major objective of this report is to examine the influence of microstructures on the short and long crack growth behavior of a series of developed dual-phase steels with varying amounts of bainite and. Three low carbon steels containing Nb, Cr and Mo as microalloying elements steels were selected for making ferrite-bainite dual-phase microstructures by suitable heat treatments. The heat treatment consisted of austenitizing the steel at 1100°C for 20 min, cooling at different rates in air prior to soaking these in a salt bath at 500°C for one hour, and finally quenching in water. Tensile tests were carried out on 25 mm gauge length specimens with 5 mm diameter using nominal strain rate 0.6x10⁻³ s⁻¹ at room temperature. Fatigue crack growth studies were made on a recently developed specimen configuration using a rotating bending machine. The crack growth was monitored by interrupting the test and observing the specimens under an optical microscope connected to an Image analyzer. The estimated crack lengths (a) at varying number of cycles (N) in different fatigue experiments were analyzed to obtain log da/dN vs. log °∆K curves for determining ∆Kthsc. The microstructural features of these steels have been characterized and their influence on the near threshold crack growth has been examined. This investigation, in brief, involves (i) the estimation of ∆Kthsc and (ii) the examination of the influence of microstructure on short and long crack fatigue threshold. The maximum fatigue threshold values obtained from short crack growth experiments on various specimens of dual-phase steels containing different amounts of bainite are found to increase with increasing bainite content in all the investigated steels. The variations of fatigue behavior of the selected steel samples have been explained with the consideration of varying amounts of the constituent phases and their interactions with the generated microstructures during cyclic loading. Quantitative estimation of the different types of fatigue crack paths indicates that the propensity of a crack to pass through the interfaces depends on the relative amount of the microstructural constituents. The fatigue crack path is found to be predominantly intra-granular except for the ones containing > 70% bainite in which it is predominantly inter-granular.

Keywords: bainite, dual phase steel, fatigue crack growth rate, long crack fatigue threshold, short crack fatigue threshold

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1 From Indigeneity to Urbanity: A Performative Study of Indian Saang (Folk Play) Tradition

Authors: Shiv Kumar


In the shifting scenario of postmodern age that foregrounds the multiplicity of meanings and discourses, the present research article seeks to investigate various paradigm shift of contemporary performances concerning Haryanvi Saangs, so-called folk plays, which are being performed widely in the regional territory of Haryana, a northern state of India. Folk arts cannot be studied efficiently by using the tools of literary criticism because it differs from the literature in many aspects. One of the most essential differences is that literary works invariably have an author. Folk works, on the contrary, never have an author. The situation is quite clear: either we acknowledge the presence of folk art as a phenomenon in the social and cultural history of people, or we do not acknowledge it and argue it is a poetical or art of fiction. This paper is an effort to understand the performative tradition of Saang which is traditionally known as Saang, Swang or Svang became a popular source for instruction and entertainment in the region and neighbouring states. Scholars and critics have long been debating about the origin of the word swang/svang/saang and their relationship to the Sanskrit word –Sangit, which means singing and music. But in the cultural context of Haryana, the word Saang means ‘to impersonate’ or ‘to imitate’ or ‘to copy someone or something’. The stories they portray are derived for the most part from the same myths, tales, epics and from the lives of Indian religious and folk heroes. Literally, the use of poetic sense, the implication of prose style and elaborate figurative technique are worthwhile to compile the productivity of a performance. All use music and song as an integral part of the performance so that it is also appropriate to call them folk opera. These folk plays are performed strictly by aboriginal people in the state. These people, sometimes denominated as Saangi, possess a culture distinct from the rest of Indian folk performances. The concerned form is also known with various other names like Manch, Khayal, Opera, Nautanki. The group of such folk plays can be seen as a dynamic activity and performed in the open space of the theatre. Nowadays, producers contributed greatly in order to create a rapidly growing musical outlet for budding new style of folk presentation and give rise to the electronic focus genre utilizing many musicians and performers who had to become precursors of the folk tradition in the region. Moreover, the paper proposes to examine available sources relative to this article, and it is believed to draw some different conclusions. For instance, to be a spectator of ongoing performances will contribute to providing enough guidance to move forward on this root. In this connection, the paper focuses critically upon the major performative aspects of Haryanvi Saang in relation to several inquiries such as the study of these plays in the context of Indian literary scenario, gender visualization and their dramatic representation, a song-music tradition in folk creativity and development of Haryanvi dramatic art in the contemporary socio-political background.

Keywords: folk play, indigenous, performance, Saang, tradition

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