Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2669

Search results for: polymer concrete

2669 Studying the Bond Strength of Geo-Polymer Concrete

Authors: Rama Seshu Doguparti

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental investigation on the bond behavior of geo polymer concrete. The bond behavior of geo polymer concrete cubes of grade M35 reinforced with 16 mm TMT rod is analyzed. The results indicate that the bond performance of reinforced geo polymer concrete is good and thus proves its application for construction.

Keywords: geo-polymer, concrete, bond strength, behaviour

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2668 Utilization of Discarded PET and Concrete Aggregates in Construction Causes: A Green Approach

Authors: Arjun, A. D. Singh

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to resolve the solid waste problems caused by plastics and concrete demolition as well. In order to that mechanical properties of polymer concrete; in particular, polymer concrete made of unsaturated polyester resins from recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic waste and recycled concrete aggregates is carried out. Properly formulated unsaturated polyester based on recycled PET is mixed with inorganic aggregates to produce polymer concrete. Apart from low manufacturing cost, polymer concrete blend has acceptable properties, to go through it. The prior objectives of the paper is to investigate the mechanical properties, i.e. compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and the flexural strength of polymer concrete blend using an unsaturated polyester resin based on recycled PET. The relationships between the mechanical properties are also analyzed.

Keywords: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), concrete aggregates, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength

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2667 An Approach to Make Low-Cost Self-Compacting Geo-Polymer Concrete

Authors: Ankit Chakraborty, Raj Shah, Prayas Variya

Abstract:

Self-compacting geo-polymer concrete is a blended version of self-compacting concrete developed in Japan by Okamura. H. in 1986 and geo-polymer concrete proposed by Davidovits in 1999. This method is eco-friendly as there is low CO₂ emission and reduces labor cost due to its self-compacting property and zero percent cement content. We are making an approach to reduce concreting cost and make concreting eco-friendly by replacing cement fully and sand by a certain amount of industrial waste. It will reduce overall concreting cost due to its self-compatibility and replacement of materials, forms eco-friendly concreting technique and gives better fresh property and hardened property results compared to self-compacting concrete and geo-polymer concrete.

Keywords: geopolymer concrete, low cost concreting, low carbon emission, self compactability

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2666 Experimental and Analytical Design of Rigid Pavement Using Geopolymer Concrete

Authors: J. Joel Bright, P. Peer Mohamed, M. Aswin SAangameshwaran

Abstract:

The increasing usage of concrete produces 80% of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Hence, this results in various environmental effects like global warming. The amount of the carbon dioxide released during the manufacture of OPC due to the calcination of limestone and combustion of fossil fuel is in the order of one ton for every ton of OPC produced. Hence, to minimize this Geo Polymer Concrete was introduced. Geo polymer concrete is produced with 0% cement, and hence, it is eco-friendly and it also uses waste product from various industries like thermal power plant, steel manufacturing plant, and paper waste materials. This research is mainly about using Geo polymer concrete for pavement which gives very high strength than conventional concrete and at the same time gives way for sustainable development.

Keywords: activator solution, GGBS, fly ash, metakaolin

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2665 Studying the Effect of Hydrocarbon Solutions on the Properties of Epoxy Polymer Concrete

Authors: Mustafa Hasan Omar

Abstract:

The destruction effect of hydrocarbon solutions on concrete besides its high permeability have led researchers to try to improve the performance of concrete exposed to these solutions, hence improving the durability and usability of oil concrete structures. Recently, polymer concrete is considered one of the most important types of concrete, and its behavior after exposure to oil products is still unknown. In the present work, an experimental study has been carried out, in which the prepared epoxy polymer concrete immersed in different types of hydrocarbon exposure solutions (gasoline, kerosene, and gas oil) for 120 days and compared with the reference concrete left in the air. The results for outdoor specimens indicate that the mechanical properties are increased after 120 days, but the specimens that were immersed in gasoline, kerosene, and gas oil for the same period show a reduction in compressive strength by -21%, -27% and -23%, whereas in splitting tensile strength by -19%, -24% and -20%, respectively. The reductions in ultrasonic pulse velocity for cubic specimens are -17%, -22% and -19% and in cylindrical specimens are -20%, -25% and -22%, respectively.

Keywords: epoxy resin, hydrocarbon solutions, mechanical properties, polymer concrete, ultrasonic pulse velocity

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2664 Experimental Study of Different Types of Concrete in Uniaxial Compression Test

Authors: Khashayar Jafari, Mostafa Jafarian Abyaneh, Vahab Toufigh

Abstract:

Polymer concrete (PC) is a distinct concrete with superior characteristics in comparison to ordinary cement concrete. It has become well-known for its applications in thin overlays, floors and precast components. In this investigation, the mechanical properties of PC with different epoxy resin contents, ordinary cement concrete (OCC) and lightweight concrete (LC) have been studied under uniaxial compression test. The study involves five types of concrete, with each type being tested four times. Their complete elastic-plastic behavior was compared with each other through the measurement of volumetric strain during the tests. According to the results, PC showed higher strength, ductility and energy absorption with respect to OCC and LC.

Keywords: polymer concrete, ordinary cement concrete, lightweight concrete, uniaxial compression test, volumetric strain

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2663 Performance Improvement of SBR Polymer Concrete Used in Construction of Rigid Pavement Highway

Authors: Mohammed Abbas Al-Jumaili

Abstract:

There are some studies which have been conducted in resent years to investigate the possibility of producing high performance polymer concrete. However, despite the great important of this subject, very limited amount of literature is available about the strength and performance of this type of concrete in case using in rigid pavement highway. In this study, the possibility of producing high performance polymer concrete by using Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) emulsion with various (SBR) percents of 5,10 ,15, and 20 % by weight of cement has been investigated. The compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strengths and dynamic modulus of elasticity tests were conducted after age of 7 and 28 days for control without polymer and SBR concretes. A total of (30) cubes, (30) cylinders and (30) prisms were prepared using different types of concrete mixes. The AASHTO guide-1993 method was used to determine slab concrete thickness of rigid pavement highway in case of using various SBR polymer concrete mixture types. The research results indicate that the use of 10% SBR by weight of cement leads to produce high performance concrete especially with regard to mechanical properties and structural relative to corresponding control concrete.

Keywords: rigid pavement highway, styrene–butadiene rubber (SBR) latex, compressive test, splitting tensile test, flexural test and dynamic modulus of elasticity test

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2662 Estimating the Properties of Polymer Concrete Using the Response Surface Method

Authors: Oguz Ugurkan Akkaya, Alpaslan Sipahi, Ozgur Firat Pamukcu, Murat Yasar, Tolga Guler, Arif Ulu, Ferit Cakir

Abstract:

With the increase in human population, expansion, and renovation of cities, infrastructure systems today need to be manufactured to be more durable and long-lasting. The most cost-effective and durable manufacturing of components is a general problem of all engineering disciplines. Therefore, it is important to determine the most optimal components. This study mainly focuses on the most optimal component design of the polymer concrete. For this purpose, the lower and upper limits of the three main components of the polymer concrete are determined. The effects of these three principal components on the compressive strength, tensile strength, and unit price of polymer concrete are estimated using the response surface method. Box-Behnken Design is used in designing the experiments. Compressive strength, tensile strength, and unit prices are successfully estimated with variance ratios (R²) of 0.82, 0.92, and 0.90, respectively, and the optimum mixture quantity is determined.

Keywords: Box-Behnken Design, compressive strength, mechanical tests, polymer concrete, tensile strength

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2661 Assessment of the Performance of Fly Ash Based Geo-Polymer Concrete under Sulphate and Acid Attack

Authors: Talakokula Visalakshi

Abstract:

Concrete is the most commonly used construction material across the globe, its usage is second only to water. It is prepared using ordinary Portland cement whose production contributes to 5-8% of total carbon emission in the world. On the other hand the fly ash by product from the power plants is produced in huge quantities is termed as waste and disposed in landfills. In order to address the above issues mentioned, it is essential that other forms of binding material must be developed in place of cement to make concrete. The geo polymer concrete is one such alternative developed by Davidovits in 1980’s. Geopolymer do not form calcium-silicate hydrates for matrix formation and strength but undergo polycondensation of silica and alumina precursors to attain structural strength. Its setting mechanism depends upon polymerization rather than hydration. As a result it is able to achieve its strength in 3-5 days whereas concrete requires about a month to do the same. The objective of this research is to assess the performance of geopolymer concrete under sulphate and acid attack. The assessment is done based on the experiments conducted on geopolymer concrete. The expected outcomes include that if geopolymer concrete is more durable than normal concrete, then it could be a competitive replacement option of concrete and can lead to significant reduction of carbon foot print and have a positive impact on the environment. Fly ash based geopolymer concrete offers an opportunity to completely remove the cement content from concrete thereby making the concrete a greener and future construction material.

Keywords: fly ash, geo polymer, geopolymer concrete, construction material

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2660 Development of High Strength Self Curing Concrete Using Super Absorbing Polymer

Authors: K. Bala Subramanian, A. Siva, S. Swaminathan, Arul. M. G. Ajin

Abstract:

Concrete is an essential building material which is widely used in construction industry all over the world due to its compressible strength. Curing of concrete plays a vital role in durability and other performance necessities. Improper curing can affect the concrete performance and durability easily. When areas like scarcity of water, structures is not accessible by humans external curing cannot be performed, so we opt for internal curing. Internal curing (or) self-curing plays a major role in developing the concrete pore structure and microstructure. The concept of internal curing is to enhance the hydration process to maintain the temperature uniformly. The evaporation of water in the concrete is reduced by self-curing agent (Super Absorbing Polymer – SAP) thereby increasing the water retention capacity of the concrete. The research work was carried out to reduce water, which is prime material used for concrete in the construction industry. Concrete curing plays a major role in developing hydration process. Concept of self-curing will reduce the evaporation of water from concrete. Self-curing will increase water retention capacity as compared to the conventional concrete. Proper self-curing (or) internal curing increases the strength, durability and performance of concrete. Super absorbing Polymer (SAP) used as internal curing agent. In this study 0.2% to 0.4% of SAP was varied in different grade of high strength concrete. In the experiment replacement of cement by silica fumes with 5%, 10% and 15% are studied. It is found that replacement of silica fumes by 10 % gives more strength and durability when compared to others

Keywords: compressive strength, high strength concrete rapid chloride permeability, super absorbing polymer

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2659 Flexural Behavior of Heat-Damaged Concrete Beams Reinforced with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Bars

Authors: Mohammad R. Irshidat, Rami H. Haddad, Hanadi Al-Mahmoud

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete (RC) is the most common used material for construction in the world. In the past decades, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars had been widely used to substitute the steel bars due to their high resistance to corrosion, high tensile capacity, and low weight in comparison with steel. Experimental studies on the behavior of FRP bar reinforced concrete beams had been carried out worldwide for a few decades. While the research on such structural members under elevated temperatures is still very limited. In this research, the flexural behavior of heat-damaged concrete beams reinforced with FRP bars is studied. Two types of FRP rebar namely, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP), are used. The beams are subjected to four levels of temperature before tested to monitor their flexural behavior. The results are compared with other concrete beams reinforced with regular steel bars. The results show that the beams reinforced with CFRP bars and GFRP bars had higher flexural capacity than the beams reinforced with steel bars even if heated up to 400°C and 300°C, respectively. After that the beams reinforced with steel bars had the superiority.

Keywords: concrete beams, FRP rebar, flexural behavior, heat-damaged

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2658 Evaluating of Turkish Earthquake Code (2007) for FRP Wrapped Circular Concrete Cylinders

Authors: Guler S., Guzel E., Gulen M.

Abstract:

Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) materials are commonly used in construction sector to enhance the strength and ductility capacities of structural elements. The equations on confined compressive strength of FRP wrapped concrete cylinders is described in the 7th chapter of the Turkish Earthquake Code (TEC-07) that enter into force in 2007. This study aims to evaluate the applicability of TEC-07 on confined compressive strengths of circular FRP wrapped concrete cylinders. To this end, a large number of data on circular FRP wrapped concrete cylinders are collected from the literature. It is clearly seen that the predictions of TEC-07 on circular FRP wrapped the FRP wrapped columns is not same accuracy for different ranges of concrete strengths.

Keywords: Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP), concrete cylinders, Turkish Earthquake Code, earthquake

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2657 Influence of Recycled Polymer-Based Aggregates on Mechanical Properties of Polymer Concrete

Authors: Ahmet Kurklu, Abdussamed Sarp, Gokmen Arikan, Akin Eren, Arif Ulu, Ferit Cakir

Abstract:

Our natural resources are diminishing day by day with the needs of the growing world population. There is a danger that these resources will be depleted if they are not used in a controlled manner. As a result of the rapid increase in the consumption of limited natural resources, one of the issues where studies have gained importance is recycling. Many countries have carried out various research and development activities on recycling and reuse to prevent wastage of resources. For sustainable and healthy living, the limited amount of raw material resources in nature should be consumed consciously, and the necessary awareness should be given for recycling activities. One of the sectors where the consumption of raw materials is high is the construction sector. With the changing consumption habits of the evolving technology in the construction sector, the need to use special concrete along with the normal concrete has arisen. With the increasing need for specialty concretes, polymer concrete, which was discovered in the early 1900s, has evolved to the present day. Polymer concretes are special concretes with high strength, water impermeability, resistance to chemical action, and low surface roughness. Thanks to these properties, they find wide applications in many fields such as swimming pools, drainage systems, repair works. In the study, the effect of using recycled aggregates instead of natural aggregates in the production of polymer concrete on the performance of polymer concrete is investigated. In the experiments conducted for this purpose, the use of natural aggregate is reduced at certain rates, and instead, recycled aggregate is added at the same rate. The recycled aggregate to be used in the study is obtained from the polymer concrete drainage channel production facility of Mert Casting Co., Istanbul, Turkey. In order to clearly observe the effect of recycled materials on the product in the study, the other components (resin, hardener, accelerator, and additive) are kept constant in the concrete mix. In the study, fresh and hardened concrete tests are to be carried out on the mixes to be prepared.

Keywords: concrete, mechanical properties, polymer concrete, recycle aggregate

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2656 Experimental Analysis of Composite Timber-Concrete Beam with CFRP Reinforcement

Authors: O. Vlcek

Abstract:

The paper deals with current issues in research of advanced methods to increase reliability of traditional timber structural elements. It analyses the issue of strengthening of bent timber beams, such as ceiling beams in old (historical) buildings with additional concrete slab in combination with externally bonded fibre - reinforced polymer. The paper describes experimental testing of composite timber-concrete beam with FRP reinforcement and compares results with FEM analysis.

Keywords: timber-concrete composite, strengthening, fibre-reinforced polymer, experimental analysis

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2655 The Study on Blast Effect of Polymer Gel by Trazul Lead Block Test and Concrete Block Test

Authors: Young-Hun Ko, Seung-Jun Kim, Khaqan Baluch, Hyung- Sik Yang

Abstract:

In this study, the polymer gel was used as coupling material in a blasting hole and its comparison was made with other coupling materials like sand, water, and air. Trazul lead block test and AUTODYN numerical analysis were conducted to analyze the effects of the coupling materials on the intensity of the explosion, as well as the verification tests were conducted by using concrete block test. The emulsion explosives were used in decoupling conditions, sand, water, and polymer gel were used as the coupling materials. The lead block test and the numerical analysis showed that the expansion of the blast hole in the lead block was similar to that of the water and gelatin and followed by sand and air conditions. The validation of concrete block test result showed the similar result as Trazul lead block test and the explosion strength was measured at 0.8 for polymer gel, 0.7 for sand, and 0.6 for no coupling material, in comparison to the full charge (1.0) case.

Keywords: Trazul lead block test, AUTODYN numerical analysis, coupling material, polymer gel, soil covering concrete block explosion test

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2654 Behavior of Composite Timber-Concrete Beam with CFRP Reinforcement

Authors: O. Vlcek

Abstract:

The paper deals with current issues in the research of advanced methods to increase the reliability of traditional timber structural elements. It analyses the issue of strengthening of bent timber beams, such as ceiling beams in old (historical) buildings with the additional concrete slab in combination with externally bonded fibre-reinforced polymer. The study evaluates deflection of a selected group of timber beams with concrete slab and additional CFRP reinforcement using different calculating methods and observes differences in results from different calculating methods. An elastic calculation method and evaluation with FEM analysis software were used.

Keywords: timber-concrete composite, strengthening, fibre-reinforced polymer, theoretical analysis

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2653 FEM Study of Different Methods of Fiber Reinforcement Polymer Strengthening of a High Strength Concrete Beam-Column Connection

Authors: Talebi Aliasghar, Ebrahimpour Komeleh Hooman, Maghsoudi Ali Akbar

Abstract:

In reinforced concrete (RC) structures, beam-column connection region has a considerable effect on the behavior of structures. Using fiber reinforcement polymer (FRP) for the strengthening of connections in RC structures can be one of the solutions to retrofitting this zone which result in the enhanced behavior of structure. In this paper, these changes in behavior by using FRP for high strength concrete beam-column connection have been studied by finite element modeling. The concrete damage plasticity (CDP) model has been used to analyze the RC. The results illustrated a considerable development in load-bearing capacity but also a noticeable reduction in ductility. The study also assesses these qualities for several modes of strengthening and suggests the most effective mode of strengthening. Using FRP in flexural zone and FRP with 45-degree oriented fibers in shear zone of joint showed the most significant change in behavior.

Keywords: HSC, beam-column connection, Fiber Reinforcement Polymer, FRP, Finite Element Modeling, FEM

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2652 A Study on Reinforced Concrete Beams Enlarged with Polymer Mortar and UHPFRC

Authors: Ga Ye Kim, Hee Sun Kim, Yeong Soo Shin

Abstract:

Many studies have been done on the repair and strengthening method of concrete structure, so far. The traditional retrofit method was to attach fiber sheet such as CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer), GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer) and AFRP (Aramid Fiber Reinforced Polymer) on the concrete structure. However, this method had many downsides in that there are a risk of debonding and an increase in displacement by a shortage of structure section. Therefore, it is effective way to enlarge the structural member with polymer mortar or Ultra-High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) as a means of strengthening concrete structure. This paper intends to investigate structural performance of reinforced concrete (RC) beams enlarged with polymer mortar and compare the experimental results with analytical results. Nonlinear finite element analyses were conducted to compare the experimental results and predict structural behavior of retrofitted RC beams accurately without cost consuming experimental process. In addition, this study aims at comparing differences of retrofit material between commonly used material (polymer mortar) and recently used material (UHPFRC) by conducting nonlinear finite element analyses. In the first part of this paper, the RC beams having different cover type were fabricated for the experiment and the size of RC beams was 250 millimeters in depth, 150 millimeters in width and 2800 millimeters in length. To verify the experiment, nonlinear finite element models were generated using commercial software ABAQUS 6.10-3. From this study, both experimental and analytical results demonstrated good strengthening effect on RC beam and showed similar tendency. For the future, the proposed analytical method can be used to predict the effect of strengthened RC beam. In the second part of the study, the main parameters were type of retrofit materials. The same nonlinear finite element models were generated to compare the polymer mortar with UHPFRCC. Two types of retrofit material were evaluated and retrofit effect was verified by analytical results.

Keywords: retrofit material, polymer mortar, UHPFRC, nonlinear finite element analysis

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2651 Constitutive Modeling of Different Types of Concrete under Uniaxial Compression

Authors: Mostafa Jafarian Abyaneh, Khashayar Jafari, Vahab Toufigh

Abstract:

The cost of experiments on different types of concrete has raised the demand for prediction of their behavior with numerical analysis. In this research, an advanced numerical model has been presented to predict the complete elastic-plastic behavior of polymer concrete (PC), high-strength concrete (HSC), high performance concrete (HPC) along with different steel fiber contents under uniaxial compression. The accuracy of the numerical response was satisfactory as compared to other conventional simple models such as Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker-Prager. In order to predict the complete elastic-plastic behavior of specimens including softening behavior, disturbed state concept (DSC) was implemented by nonlinear finite element analysis (NFEA) and hierarchical single surface (HISS) failure criterion, which is a failure surface without any singularity.

Keywords: disturbed state concept (DSC), hierarchical single surface (HISS) failure criterion, high performance concrete (HPC), high-strength concrete (HSC), nonlinear finite element analysis (NFEA), polymer concrete (PC), steel fibers, uniaxial compression test

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2650 Impact of the Quality of Aggregate on the Elasticity Modulus of Concrete

Authors: K. Krizova

Abstract:

This objective of this article is to present concrete that differs by the size of the aggregate used. The set of concrete contained six concrete recipes manufactured as traditional vibrated concrete containing identical basic components of concrete. The experiment focused on monitoring the resulting properties of hardened concrete, specifically the primary strength and modulus of the concrete elasticity and the developing parameters from 7 to 180 days were assessed.

Keywords: aggregate, cement, concrete, elasticity modulus

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2649 Assessment of Vermiculite Concrete Containing Bio-Polymer Aggregate

Authors: Aliakbar Sayadi, Thomas R. Neitzert, G. Charles Clifton, Min Cheol Han

Abstract:

The present study aims to assess the performance of vermiculite concrete containing poly-lactic acid beads as an eco-friendly aggregate. Vermiculite aggregate was replaced by poly-lactic acid in percentages of 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80%. Mechanical and thermal properties of concrete were investigated. Test results indicated that the inclusion of poly-lactic acid decreased the PH value of concrete and all the poly-lactic acid particles were dissolved due to the formation of sodium lactide and lactide oligomers when subjected to the high alkaline environment of concrete. In addition, an increase in thermal conductivity value of concrete was observed as the ratio of poly-lactic acid increased. Moreover, a set of equations was proposed to estimate the water-cement ratio, cement content and water absorption ratio of concrete.

Keywords: poly-lactic acid (PLA), vermiculite concrete, eco-friendly, mechanical properties

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2648 Effect of Glass Powder and GGBS on Strength of Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Concrete

Authors: I. Ramesha Mithanthaya, N. Bhavanishankar Rao

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of glass powder (GP) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) on the compressive strength of Fly ash based geopolymer concrete has been investigated. The mass ratio of fine aggregate (fA) to coarse aggregate (CA) was maintained constant. NAOH flakes dissolved in water was used as activating liquid and mixed with fly ash (FA) to produce geopolymer paste or cementing material. This paste was added to mixture of CA and fA to obtain geopolymer concrete. Cube samples were prepared from this concrete. The ranges of investigation parameters include GP/FA from 0% to 20%, and GGBS/ FA from 0% to 20% with constant amount of GP. All the samples were air cured inside laboratory under room temperature. Compressive strength of cube samples after 7 days and 28 days curing were determined. The test results are presented and discussed. Based on the results of limited tests a suitable composition of FA, GP and GGBS for constant quantity of CA and fA has been obtained to produce geopolymer concrete of M32. It is found that geopolymer concrete is 14% cheaper than concrete of same strength using OPC. The strength gain in the case of geo-polymer concrete is rather slow compared to that of Portland cement concrete. Tensile strength of this concrete was also determined by conducting flexure test on beam prepared using this concrete. During curing, up to 7days, greyish-white powder used to come out from all the surfaces of sample and it was found to be a mixture of Carbonates and Sulphides of Na, Mg and Fe. Detailed investigation is necessary to arrive at an optimum mixture composition for producing Geo-polymer concrete of required strength. Effect of greyish-white powder on the strength and durability of the concrete is to be studied.

Keywords: geopolymer, industrial waste, green material, cost effective material, eco-friendly material

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2647 First Cracking Moments of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Polymer-Steel Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Saruhan Kartal, Ilker Kalkan

Abstract:

The present paper reports the cracking moment estimates of a set of steel-reinforced, Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP)-reinforced and hybrid steel-FRP reinforced concrete beams, calculated from different analytical formulations in the codes, together with the experimental cracking load values. A total of three steel-reinforced, four FRP-reinforced, 12 hybrid FRP-steel over-reinforced and five hybrid FRP-steel under-reinforced concrete beam tests were analyzed within the scope of the study. Glass FRP (GFRP) and Basalt FRP (BFRP) bars were used in the beams as FRP bars. In under-reinforced hybrid beams, rupture of the FRP bars preceded crushing of concrete, while concrete crushing preceded FRP rupture in over-reinforced beams. In both types, steel yielding took place long before the FRP rupture and concrete crushing. The cracking moment mainly depends on two quantities, namely the moment of inertia of the section at the initiation of cracking and the flexural tensile strength of concrete, i.e. the modulus of rupture. In the present study, two different definitions of uncracked moment of inertia, i.e. the gross and the uncracked transformed moments of inertia, were adopted. Two analytical equations for the modulus of rupture (ACI 318M and Eurocode 2) were utilized in the calculations as well as the experimental tensile strength of concrete from prismatic specimen tests. The ACI 318M modulus of rupture expression produced cracking moment estimates closer to the experimental cracking moments of FRP-reinforced and hybrid FRP-steel reinforced concrete beams when used in combination with the uncracked transformed moment of inertia, yet the Eurocode 2 modulus of rupture expression gave more accurate cracking moment estimates in steel-reinforced concrete beams. All of the analytical definitions produced analytical values considerably different from the experimental cracking load values of the solely FRP-reinforced concrete beam specimens.

Keywords: polymer reinforcement, four-point bending, hybrid use of reinforcement, cracking moment

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2646 Strengthening Bridge Piers by Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP): A Case Study for Thuan Phuoc Suspension Bridge in Vietnam

Authors: Lan Nguyen, Lam Cao Van

Abstract:

Thuan Phuoc is a suspension bridge built in Danang city, Vietnam. Because this bridge locates near the estuary, its structure has degraded rapidly. Many cracks have currently occurred on most of the concrete piers of the curved approach spans. This paper aims to present the results of diagnostic analysis of causes for cracks as well as some calculations for strengthening piers by carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP). Besides, it describes how to use concrete nonlinear analysis software ATENA to diagnostically analyze cracks, strengthening designs. Basing on the results of studying the map of distributing crack on Thuan Phuoc bridge’s concrete piers is analyzed by the software ATENA is suitable for the real conditions and CFRP would be the best solution to strengthen piers in a sound and fast way.

Keywords: ATENA, bridge pier strengthening, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), crack prediction analysis

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2645 Investigation of Bending Behavior of Ultra High Performance Concrete with Steel and Glass Fiber Polymer Reinforcement

Authors: Can Otuzbir

Abstract:

It is one of the most difficult areas of civil engineering to provide long-lasting structures with the rapid development of concrete and reinforced concrete structures. Concrete is a living material, and the structure where the concrete is located is constantly exposed to external influences. One of these effects is reinforcement corrosion. Reinforcement corrosion of reinforced concrete structures leads to a significant decrease in the carrying capacity of the structural elements, as well as reduced service life. It is undesirable that the service life should be completed sooner than expected. In recent years, advances in glass fiber technology and its use with concrete have developed rapidly. As a result of inability to protect steel reinforcements against corrosion, fiberglass reinforcements have started to be investigated as an alternative material to steel reinforcements, and researches and experimental studies are still continuing. Glass fiber reinforcements have become an alternative material to steel reinforcement because they are resistant to corrosion, lightweight and simple to install compared to steel reinforcement. Glass fiber reinforcements are not corroded and have higher tensile strength, longer life, lighter and insulating properties compared to steel reinforcement. In experimental studies, glass fiber reinforcements have been shown to show superior mechanical properties similar to beams produced with steel reinforcement. The performance of long-term use of glass fiber fibers continues with accelerated experimental studies.

Keywords: glass fiber polymer reinforcement, steel fiber concrete, ultra high performance concrete, bending, GFRP

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2644 Modified Plastic-Damage Model for FRP-Confined Repaired Concrete Columns

Authors: I. A Tijani, Y. F Wu, C.W. Lim

Abstract:

Concrete Damaged Plasticity Model (CDPM) is capable of modeling the stress-strain behavior of confined concrete. Nevertheless, the accuracy of the model largely depends on its parameters. To date, most research works mainly focus on the identification and modification of the parameters for fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) confined concrete prior to damage. And, it has been established that the FRP-strengthened concrete behaves differently to FRP-repaired concrete. This paper presents a modified plastic damage model within the context of the CDPM in ABAQUS for modelling of a uniformly FRP-confined repaired concrete under monotonic loading. The proposed model includes infliction damage, elastic stiffness, yield criterion and strain hardening rule. The distinct feature of damaged concrete is elastic stiffness reduction; this is included in the model. Meanwhile, the test results were obtained from a physical testing of repaired concrete. The dilation model is expressed as a function of the lateral stiffness of the FRP-jacket. The finite element predictions are shown to be in close agreement with the obtained test results of the repaired concrete. It was observed from the study that with necessary modifications, finite element method is capable of modeling FRP-repaired concrete structures.

Keywords: Concrete, FRP, Damage, Repairing, Plasticity, and Finite element method

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2643 An Analytical Study of FRP-Concrete Bridge Superstructures

Authors: Wael I. Alnahhal

Abstract:

It is a major challenge to build a bridge superstructure that has long-term durability and low maintenance requirements. A solution to this challenge may be to use new materials or to implement new structural systems. Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have continued to play an important role in solving some of persistent problems in infrastructure applications because of its high specific strength, light weight, and durability. In this study, the concept of the hybrid FRP-concrete structural systems is applied to a bridge superstructure. The hybrid FRP-concrete bridge superstructure is intended to have durable, structurally sound, and cost effective hybrid system that will take full advantage of the inherent properties of both FRP materials and concrete. In this study, two hybrid FRP-concrete bridge systems were investigated. The first system consists of trapezoidal cell units forming a bridge superstructure. The second one is formed by arch cells. The two systems rely on using cellular components to form the core of the bridge superstructure, and an outer shell to warp around those cells to form the integral unit of the bridge. Both systems were investigated analytically by using finite element (FE) analysis. From the rigorous FE studies, it was concluded that first system is more efficient than the second.

Keywords: bridge superstructure, hybrid system, fiber reinforced polymer, finite element analysis

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2642 Feasibility of a Biopolymer as Lightweight Aggregate in Perlite Concrete

Authors: Ali A. Sayadi, Thomas R. Neitzert, G. Charles Clifton

Abstract:

Lightweight concrete is being used in the construction industry as a building material in its own right. Ultra-lightweight concrete can be applied as a filler and support material for the manufacturing of composite building materials. This paper is about the development of a stable and reproducible ultra-lightweight concrete with the inclusion of poly-lactic acid (PLA) beads and assessing the feasibility of PLA as a lightweight aggregate that will deliver advantages such as a more eco-friendly concrete and a non-petroleum polymer aggregate. In total, sixty-three samples were prepared and the effectiveness of mineral admixture, curing conditions, water-cement ratio, PLA ratio, EPS ratio and perlite ratio on compressive strength of perlite concrete are studied. The results show that PLA particles are sensitive to alkali environment of cement paste and considerably shrank and lost their strength. A higher compressive strength and a lower density was observed when expanded polystyrene (EPS) particles replaced PLA beads. In addition, a set of equations is proposed to estimate the water-cement ratio, cement content and compressive strength of perlite concrete.

Keywords: perlite concrete, poly-lactic acid (pla), expanded polystyrene (eps), concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
2641 Finite Element Assessment on Bond Behaviour of FRP-to-Concrete Joints under Cyclic Loading

Authors: F. Atheer, Al-Saoudi, Robin Kalfat, Riadh Al-Mahaidi

Abstract:

Over the last two decades, externally bonded fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites bonded to concrete substrates has become a popular method for strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) highway and railway bridges. Such structures are exposed to severe cyclic loading throughout their lifetime often resulting in fatigue damage to structural components and a reduction in the service life of the structure. Since experimental and numerical results on the fatigue performance of FRP-to-concrete joints are still limited, the current research focuses on assessing the fatigue performance of externally bonded FRP-to-concrete joints using a direct shear test. Some early results indicate that the stress ratio and the applied cyclic stress level have a direct influence on the fatigue life of the externally bonded FRP. In addition, a calibrated finite element model is developed to provide further insight into the influence of certain parameters such as: concrete strength, FRP thickness, number of cycles, frequency and stiffness on the fatigue life of the FRP-to-concrete joints.

Keywords: FRP, concrete bond, control, fatigue, finite element model

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
2640 Analysis of Possibilities for Using Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Concrete Pavement

Authors: R. Pernicova, D. Dobias

Abstract:

The present article describes the limits of using recycled concrete aggregate (denoted as RCA) in the top layer of concrete roads. The main aim of this work is to investigate the possibility of reuse of recycled aggregates obtained by crushing the old concrete roads as a building material in the new top layers of concrete pavements. The paper is based on gathering the current knowledge about how to use recycled concrete aggregate, suitability, and modification of the properties and its standards. Regulations are detailed and described especially for European Union and for Czech Republic.

Keywords: concrete, Czech republic, pavements, recycled concrete aggregate, RCA, standards

Procedia PDF Downloads 309