Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 67

Search results for: incineration

67 The Optimum Operating Conditions for the Synthesis of Zeolite from Waste Incineration Fly Ash by Alkali Fusion and Hydrothermal Methods

Authors: Yi-Jie Lin, Jyh-Cherng Chen


The fly ash of waste incineration processes is usually hazardous and the disposal or reuse of waste incineration fly ash is difficult. In this study, the waste incineration fly ash was converted to useful zeolites by the alkali fusion and hydrothermal synthesis method. The influence of different operating conditions (the ratio of Si/Al, the ratio of hydrolysis liquid to solid, and hydrothermal time) was investigated to seek the optimum operating conditions for the synthesis of zeolite from waste incineration fly ash. The results showed that concentrations of heavy metals in the leachate of Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) were all lower than the regulatory limits except lead. The optimum operating conditions for the synthesis of zeolite from waste incineration fly ash by the alkali fusion and hydrothermal synthesis method were Si/Al=40, NaOH/ash=1.5, alkali fusion at 400 oC for 40 min, hydrolysis with Liquid to Solid ratio (L/S)= 200 at 105 oC for 24 h, and hydrothermal synthesis at 105 oC for 24 h. The specific surface area of fly ash could be significantly increased from 8.59 m2/g to 651.51 m2/g (synthesized zeolite). The influence of different operating conditions on the synthesis of zeolite from waste incineration fly ash followed the sequence of Si/Al ratio > hydrothermal time > hydrolysis L/S ratio. The synthesized zeolites can be reused as good adsorbents to control the air or wastewater pollutants. The purpose of fly ash detoxification, reduction and waste recycling/reuse is achieved successfully.

Keywords: alkali fusion, hydrothermal, fly ash, zeolite

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66 Incineration of Sludge in a Fluidized-Bed Combustor

Authors: Chien-Song Chyang, Yu-Chi Wang


For sludge disposal, incineration is considered to be better than direct burial because of regulations and space limitations in Taiwan. Additionally, burial after incineration can effectively prolong the lifespan of a landfill. Therefore, it is the most satisfactory method for treating sludge at present. Of the various incineration technologies, the fluidized bed incinerator is a suitable choice due to its fuel flexibility. In this work, sludge generated from industrial plants was treated in a pilot-scale vortexing fluidized bed. The moisture content of the sludge was 48.53%, and its LHV was 454.6 kcal/kg. Primary gas and secondary gas were fixed at 3 Nm3/min and 1 Nm3/min, respectively. Diesel burners with on-off controllers were used to control the temperature; the bed temperature was set to 750±20 °C, and the freeboard temperature was 850±20 °C. The experimental data show that the NO emission increased with bed temperature. The maximum NO emission is 139 ppm, which is in agreement with the regulation. The CO emission is low than 100 ppm through the operation period. The mean particle size of fly ash collected from baghouse decreased with operating time. The ration of bottom ash to fly ash is about 3. Compared with bottom ash, the potassium in the fly ash is much higher. It implied that the potassium content is not the key factor for aggregation of bottom ash.

Keywords: bottom ash, fluidized-bed combustion, incineration, sludge

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65 Setting up Model Hospitals in Health Care Waste Management in Madagascar

Authors: Sandrine Andriantsimietry, Hantanirina Ravaosendrasoa


Madagascar, in 2018, set up the first best available technology, autoclave, to treat the health care waste in public hospitals according the best environmental practices in health care waste management. Incineration of health care waste, frequently through open burning is the most common practice of treatment and elimination of health care waste across the country. Autoclave is a best available technology for non-incineration of health care waste that permits recycling of treated waste and prevents harm in environment through the reduction of unintended persistent organic pollutants from the health sector. A Global Environment Fund project supported the introduction of the non-incineration treatment of health care waste to help countries in Africa to move towards Stockholm Convention objectives in the health sector. Two teaching hospitals in Antananarivo and one district hospital in Manjakandriana were equipped respectively with 1300L, 250L and 80L autoclaves. The capacity of these model hospitals was strengthened by the donation of equipment and materials and the training of the health workers in best environmental practices in health care waste management. Proper segregation of waste in the wards to collect the infectious waste that was treated in the autoclave was the main step guaranteeing a cost-efficient non-incineration of health care waste. Therefore, the start-up of the switch of incineration into non-incineration treatment was carried out progressively in each ward with close supervision of hygienist. Emissions avoided of unintended persistent organic pollutants during these four months of autoclaves use is 9.4 g Toxic Equivalent per year. Public hospitals in low income countries can be model in best environmental practices in health care waste management but efforts must be made internally for sustainment.

Keywords: autoclave, health care waste management, model hospitals, non-incineration

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64 Eco-Ways to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Flame Retardant Textiles at the End of Life

Authors: Sohail Yasin, Massimo Curti, Nemeshwaree Behary, Giorgio Rovero


It is well-known that the presence of discarded textile products in municipal landfills poses environmental problems due to leaching of chemical products from the textile to the environment. Incineration of such textiles is considered to be an efficient way to produce energy and reduce environmental impacts of textile materials at their end-of life stage. However, the presence of flame retardant products on textiles would decrease the energy yield and emit toxic gases during incineration stage. While some non-durable flame retardants can be removed by wet treatments (e.g. washing), these substances pollute water and pose concerns towards environmental health. Our study shows that infrared radiation can be used efficiently to degrade flame retardant products on the textiles. This method is finalized to minimize the decrease in energy yield during the incineration or gasification processes of flame retardant cotton fabrics.

Keywords: degradation, flame retardant, infrared radiation, cotton, incineration

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63 Low-Temperature Catalytic Incineration of Acetone over MnCeOx Catalysts Supported on Mesoporous Aluminosilicate: The Mn-Ce Bimetallic Effect

Authors: Liang-Yi Lin, Hsunling Bai


In this work, transition metal (metal= Co, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Mn) modified cerium oxide catalysts supported on mesoporous aluminosilicate particles (Ce/Al-MSPs) were prepared using waste silicate as the precursors through aerosol-assisted flow process, and their catalytic performances were investigated for acetone incineration. Tests on the bimetallic Ce/Al-MSPs and Mn/Al-MSPs and trimetallic Mn-Ce, Fe-Ce, Co-Ce, Ni-Ce, and Cu-Ce/Al-MSPs in the temperature range of 100-300 oC demonstrated that Ce was the main active metal while Mn acted as a suitable promoter in acetone incineration reactions. Among tested catalysts, Mn-Ce/Al-MSPs with a Mn/Ce molar ratio of 2/1 exhibited the highest acetone catalytic activity. Moreover, the synergetic effect was observed for trimetallic Mn-Ce/Al-MSPs on the acetone removal as compared to the bimetallic Ce/Al-MSPs or Mn/Al-MSPs catalysts.

Keywords: acetone, catalytic oxidation, cerium oxide, mesoporous silica

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62 Optimization of Municipal Solid Waste Management in Peshawar Using Mathematical Modelling and GIS with Focus on Incineration

Authors: Usman Jilani, Ibad Khurram, Irshad Hussain


Environmentally sustainable waste management is a challenging task as it involves multiple and diverse economic, environmental, technical and regulatory issues. Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is more challenging in developing countries like Pakistan due to lack of awareness, technology and human resources, insufficient funding, inefficient collection and transport mechanism resulting in the lack of a comprehensive waste management system. This work presents an overview of current MSWM practices in Peshawar, the provincial capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan and proposes a better and sustainable integrated solid waste management system with incineration (Waste to Energy) option. The diverted waste would otherwise generate revenue; minimize land fill requirement and negative impact on the environment. The proposed optimized solution utilizing scientific techniques (like mathematical modeling, optimization algorithms and GIS) as decision support tools enhances the technical & institutional efficiency leading towards a more sustainable waste management system through incorporating: - Improved collection mechanisms through optimized transportation / routing and, - Resource recovery through incineration and selection of most feasible sites for transfer stations, landfills and incineration plant. These proposed methods shift the linear waste management system towards a cyclic system and can also be used as a decision support tool by the WSSP (Water and Sanitation Services Peshawar), agency responsible for the MSWM in Peshawar.

Keywords: municipal solid waste management, incineration, mathematical modeling, optimization, GIS, Peshawar

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61 Finite Element Modeling of the Mechanical Behavior of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Bottom Ash with the Mohr-Coulomb Model

Authors: Le Ngoc Hung, Abriak Nor Edine, Binetruy Christophe, Benzerzour Mahfoud, Shahrour Isam, Patrice Rivard


Bottom ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) can be viewed as a typical granular material because these industrial by-products result from the incineration of various domestic wastes. MSWI bottom ashes are mainly used in road engineering in substitution of the traditional natural aggregates. As the characterization of their mechanical behavior is essential in order to use them, specific studies have been led over the past few years. In the first part of this paper, the mechanical behavior of MSWI bottom ash is studied with triaxial tests. After analysis of the experiment results, the simulation of triaxial tests is carried out by using the software package CESAR-LCPC. As the first approach in modeling of this new class material, the Mohr-Coulomb model was chosen to describe the evolution of material under the influence of external mechanical actions.

Keywords: bottom ash, granular material, triaxial test, mechanical behavior, simulation, Mohr-Coulomb model, CESAR-LCPC

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60 Effect of Incineration Temperatures to Time on the Rice Husk Ash Silica Structure: A Comparative Study to the Literature with Experimental Work

Authors: Binyamien Rasoul, Friederike Gunzel, Imran Rafiq


Controlled burning of rice husk can produce amorphous rice husk ash (RHA) with high silica content which can significantly enhance the properties of concrete. This study has been undertaken to investigate the relationship between the incineration temperatures and time to produce RHA with ultimate reactivity. The rice husk samples were incinerated in an electrical muffle furnace at 350°C, 400°C, 425°C 450°C, 475°C, and 500°C for 60 and 90 minutes, respectively. The silica structure in the Rice Husk Ash (RHA) was determined using X-Ray diffraction analysis, while chemical properties obtained using X-Ray Fluorescence. The results show that RHA appeared to be totally amorphous when the husk incineration goes up to 425°C for 60 and even 90 minutes. However, with increased temperature to 450°C, 475°C and 500°C, traces of crystalline silica (quartz) were detected. However, cannot be taken into account as it does not effect on the ash structure. In conclusion, the result gives an idea of the temperature and the time required to produce ash from rice husk with totally amorphous form.

Keywords: rice husk, rice husk ash, burning temperature, electric muffle furnace, pozzolanic reactivity, crystalline silica, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence

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59 CFD Study on the Effect of Primary Air on Combustion of Simulated MSW Process in the Fixed Bed

Authors: Rui Sun, Tamer M. Ismail, Xiaohan Ren, M. Abd El-Salam


Incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the key scopes in the global clean energy strategy. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was established. In order to reveal these features of the combustion process in a fixed porous bed of MSW. Transporting equations and process rate equations of the waste bed were modeled and set up to describe the incineration process, according to the local thermal conditions and waste property characters. Gas phase turbulence was modeled using k-ε turbulent model and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The heterogeneous reaction rates were determined using Arrhenius eddy dissipation and the Arrhenius-diffusion reaction rates. The effects of primary air flow rate and temperature in the burning process of simulated MSW are investigated experimentally and numerically. The simulation results in bed are accordant with experimental data well. The model provides detailed information on burning processes in the fixed bed, which is otherwise very difficult to obtain by conventional experimental techniques.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, waste incineration, municipal solid waste (MSW), fixed bed, primary air

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58 Environmental Potential of Biochar from Wood Biomass Thermochemical Conversion

Authors: Cora Bulmău


Soil polluted with hydrocarbons spills is a major global concern today. As a response to this issue, our experimental study tries to put in evidence the option to choose for one environmentally friendly method: use of the biochar, despite to a classical procedure; incineration of contaminated soil. Biochar represents the solid product obtained through the pyrolysis of biomass, its additional use being as an additive intended to improve the quality of the soil. The positive effect of biochar addition to soil is represented by its capacity to adsorb and contain petroleum products within its pores. Taking into consideration the capacity of the biochar to interact with organic contaminants, the purpose of the present study was to experimentally establish the effects of the addition of wooden biomass-derived biochar on a soil contaminated with oil. So, the contaminated soil was amended with biochar (10%) produced by pyrolysis in different operational conditions of the thermochemical process. After 25 days, the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons from soil treated with biochar was measured. An analytical method as Soxhlet extraction was adopted to estimate the concentrations of total petroleum products (TPH) in the soil samples: This technique was applied to contaminated soil, also to soils remediated by incineration/adding biochar. The treatment of soil using biochar obtained from pyrolysis of the Birchwood led to a considerable decrease in the concentrations of petroleum products. The incineration treatments conducted under experimental stage to clean up the same soil, contaminated with petroleum products, involved specific parameters: temperature of about 600°C, 800°C and 1000°C and treatment time 30 and 60 minutes. The experimental results revealed that the method using biochar has registered values of efficiency up to those of all incineration processes applied for the shortest time.

Keywords: biochar, biomass, remediaton, soil, TPH

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57 The Implementation of Incineration for Waste Reduction

Authors: Kong Wing Man


The purpose of this paper is to review the waste generation and management in different parts of the world. It is undeniable that waste generation and management has become an alarming environmental issue. Solid waste generation links inextricably to the degree of industrialization and economic development. Urbanization increases with the economic wealth of the countries. As the income of people and standard of living enhances, so does their consumption of goods and services, leading to a corresponding increase in waste generation. Based on the latest statistics from What A Waste Report published by World Bank (2012), it is estimated that the current global Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation levels are about 1.3 billion tonnes per year (1.2 kg per capita per day). By 2050, it is projected that the waste generation will be doubled. Although many waste collection practices have been implemented in various countries, the amount of waste generation keeps increasing. An integrated solid waste management is needed in order to reduce the continuous significant increase in waste generation rates. Although many countries have introduced and implemented the 3Rs strategy and landfill, however, these are only the ways to diverse waste, but cannot reduce the volume. Instead, the advanced thermal treatment technology, incineration, can reduce up to 90% volume of disposed waste prior to dispose at landfills is discussed. Sweden and Tokyo were chosen as case studies, which provide an overview of the municipal solid waste management system. With the condition of escalating amount of wastes generated, it is crucial to build incinerators to relief pressing needs of landfill. Two solutions are proposed to minimize waste generation, including one incineration in one city and several small incinerators in different cities. While taking into consideration of a sustainable model and the perspectives of all stakeholders, building several incinerators at different cities and different sizes would be the best option to reduce waste. Overall, the solution to the global solid waste management should be a holistic approach with the involvement of both government and citizens.

Keywords: Incineration, Municipal Solid Waste, Thermal Treatment, Waste generation

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56 Concentrations of Some Metallic Trace Elements in Twelve Sludge Incineration Ashes

Authors: Lotfi Khiari, Antoine Karam, Claude-Alla Joseph, Marc Hébert


The main objective of incineration of sludge generated from municipal or agri-food waste treatment plant is to reduce the volume of sludge to be disposed of as a solid or liquid waste, whilst concentrating or destroying potentially harmful volatile substances. In some cities in Canada and United States of America (USA), a large amount of sludge is incinerated, which entails a loss of organic matter and water leading to phosphorus, potassium and some metallic trace element (MTE) accumulation in ashes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concentration of potentially hazardous MTE such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) in twelve sludge incineration ash samples obtained from municipal wastewater and other food processing waste treatments from Canada and USA. The average, maximum, and minimum values of MTE in ashes were calculated for each city individually and all together. The trace metal concentration values were compared to the literature reported values. The concentrations of MTE in ashes vary widely depending on the sludge origins and treatment options. The concentrations of MTE in ashes were found the range of 0.1-6.4 mg/kg for Cd; 13-286 mg/kg for Pb and 0.1-0.5 mg/kg for Hg. On average, the following order of metal concentration in ashes was observed: Pb > Cd > Hg. Results show that metal contents in most ashes were similar to MTE levels in synthetic inorganic fertilizers and many fertilizing residual materials. Consequently, the environmental effects of MTE content of these ashes would be low.

Keywords: biosolids, heavy metals, recycling, sewage sludge

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55 Stabilization of Medical Waste Incineration Fly Ash in Cement Mortar Matrix

Authors: Tanvir Ahmed, Musfira Rahman, Rumpa Chowdhury


We performed laboratory experiments to assess the suitability of using medical waste incineration fly ash in cement as a construction material based on the engineering properties of fly ash-cement matrix and the leaching potential of toxic heavy metals from the stabilized mix. Fly ash-cement samples were prepared with different proportions of fly ash (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by weight) in the laboratory controlled conditions. The solidified matrix exhibited a compressive strength from 3950 to 4980 psi when fly ash is mixed in varying proportions. The 28-day compressive strength has been found to decrease with the increase in fly ash content, but it meets the minimum requirement of compressive strength for cement-mortar. Soundness test results for cement-mortar mixes having up to 15% fly ash. Final and initial setting times of cement have been found to generally increase with fly ash content. Water requirement (for normal consistency) also increased with the increase in fly ash content in cement. Based on physical properties of the cement-mortar matrix it is recommended that up to 10% (by weight) medical waste incineration fly ash can be incorporated for producing cement-mortar of optimum quality. Leaching behaviours of several targeted heavy metals (As, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb, Hg and Zn) were analyzed using Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) on fly ash and solidified fly ash-cement matrix. It was found that the leached concentrations of As, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn were reduced by 80.13%, 89.47%, 33.33% and 23.9% respectively for 10% fly ash incorporated cement-mortar matrix compared to that of original fly ash. The leached concentrations of heavy metals were from the matrix were far below the EPA land disposal limits. These results suggest that the solidified fly ash incorporated cement-mortar matrix can effectively confine and immobilize the heavy metals contained in the fly ash.

Keywords: cement-mortar, fly ash, leaching, waste management

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54 Energy and Carbon Footprint Analysis of Food Waste Treatment Alternatives for Hong Kong

Authors: Asad Iqbal, Feixiang Zan, Xiaoming Liu, Guang-Hao Chen


Water, food, and energy nexus is a vital subject to achieve sustainable development goals worldwide. Wastewater (WW) and food waste (FW) from municipal sources are primary contributors to their respective wastage sum from a country. Along with the loss of these invaluable natural resources, their treatment systems also consume a lot of abiotic energy and resources input with a perceptible contribution to global warming. Hence, the global paradigm has evolved from simple pollution mitigation to a resource recovery system (RRS). In this study, the prospects of six alternative FW treatment scenarios are quantitatively evaluated for Hong Kong in terms of energy use and greenhouse emissions (GHEs) potential, using life cycle assessment (LCA). Considered scenarios included: aerobic composting, anaerobic digestion (AD), combine AD and composting (ADC), co-disposal, and treatment with wastewater (CoD-WW), incineration, and conventional landfilling as base-case. Results revealed that in terms of GHEs saving, all-new scenarios performed significantly better than conventional landfilling, with ADC scenario as best-case and incineration, AD alone, CoD-WW ranked as second, third, and fourth best respectively. Whereas, composting was the worst-case scenario in terms of energy balance, while incineration ranked best and AD alone, ADC, and CoD-WW ranked as second, third, and fourth best, respectively. However, these results are highly sensitive to boundary settings, e.g., the inclusion of the impact of biogenic carbon emissions and waste collection and transportation, and several other influential parameters. The study provides valuable insights and policy guidelines for the decision-makers locally and a generic modelling template for environmental impact assessment.

Keywords: food waste, resource recovery, greenhouse emissions, energy balance

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53 A Feasibility Study of Producing Biofuels from Textile Sludge by Torrefaction Technology

Authors: Hua-Shan Tai, Yu-Ting Zeng


In modern and industrial society, enormous amounts of sludge from various of industries are constantly produced; currently, most of the sludge are treated by landfill and incineration. However, both treatments are not ideal because of the limited land for landfill and the secondary pollution caused by incineration. Consequently, treating industrial sludge appropriately has become an urgent issue of environmental protection. In order to solve the problem of the massive sludge, this study uses textile sludge which is the major source of waste sludge in Taiwan as raw material for torrefaction treatments. To investigate the feasibility of producing biofuels from textile sludge by torrefaction, the experiments were conducted with temperatures at 150, 200, 250, 300, and 350°C, with heating rates of 15, 20, 25 and 30°C/min, and with residence time of 30 and 60 minutes. The results revealed that the mass yields after torrefaction were approximately in the range of 54.9 to 93.4%. The energy densification ratios were approximately in the range of 0.84 to 1.10, and the energy yields were approximately in the range of 45.9 to 98.3%. The volumetric densities were approximately in the range of 0.78 to 1.14, and the volumetric energy densities were approximately in the range of 0.65 to 1.18. To sum up, the optimum energy yield (98.3%) can be reached with terminal temperature at 150 °C, heating rate of 20°C/min, and residence time of 30 minutes, and the mass yield, energy densification ratio as well as volumetric energy density were 92.2%, 1.07, and 1.15, respectively. These results indicated that the solid products after torrefaction are easy to preserve, which not only enhance the quality of the product, but also achieve the purpose of developing the material into fuel.

Keywords: biofuel, biomass energy, textile sludge, torrefaction

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52 Investigation of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Filter Cake as Minor Additional Constituent in Cement Production

Authors: Veronica Caprai, Katrin Schollbach, Miruna V. A. Florea, H. J. H. Brouwers


Nowadays MSWI (Municipal Solid Waste Incineration) bottom ash (BA) produced by Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants represents the majority of the solid residues derived from MSW incineration. Once processed, the BA is often landfilled resulting in possible environmental problems, additional costs for the plant and increasing occupation of public land. In order to limit this phenomenon, European countries such as the Netherlands aid the utilization of MSWI BA in the construction field, by providing standards about the leaching of contaminants into the environment (Dutch Soil Quality Decree). Commonly, BA has a particle size below 32 mm and a heterogeneous chemical composition, depending on its source. By washing coarser BA, an MSWI sludge is obtained. It is characterized by a high content of heavy metals, chlorides, and sulfates as well as a reduced particle size (below 0.25 mm). To lower its environmental impact, MSWI sludge is filtered or centrifuged for removing easily soluble contaminants, such as chlorides. However, the presence of heavy metals is not easily reduced, compromising its possible application. For lowering the leaching of those contaminants, the use of MSWI residues in combination with cement represents a precious option, due to the known retention of those ions into the hydrated cement matrix. Among the applications, the European standard for common cement EN 197-1:1992 allows the incorporation of up to 5% by mass of a minor additional constituent (MAC), such as fly ash or blast furnace slag but also an unspecified filler into cement. To the best of the author's knowledge, although it is widely available, it has the appropriate particle size and a chemical composition similar to cement, FC has not been investigated as possible MAC in cement production. Therefore, this paper will address the suitability of MSWI FC as MAC for CEM I 52.5 R, within a 5% maximum replacement by mass. After physical and chemical characterization of the raw materials, the crystal phases of the pastes are determined by XRD for 3 replacement levels (1%, 3%, and 5%) at different ages. Thereafter, the impact of FC on mechanical and environmental performances of cement is assessed according to EN 196-1 and the Dutch Soil Quality Decree, respectively. The investigation of the reaction products evidences the formation of layered double hydroxides (LDH), in the early stage of the reaction. Mechanically the presence of FC results in a reduction of 28 days compressive strength by 8% for a replacement of 5% wt., compared with the pure CEM I 52.5 R without any MAC. In contrast, the flexural strength is not affected by the presence of FC. Environmentally, the Dutch legislation for the leaching of contaminants for unshaped (granular) material is satisfied. Based on the collected results, FC represents a suitable candidate as MAC in cement production.

Keywords: environmental impact evaluation, Minor additional constituent, MSWI residues, X-ray diffraction crystallography

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
51 Waste Derived from Refinery and Petrochemical Plants Activities: Processing of Oil Sludge through Thermal Desorption

Authors: Anna Bohers, Emília Hroncová, Juraj Ladomerský


Oil sludge with its main characteristic of high acidity is a waste product generated from the operation of refinery and petrochemical plants. Former refinery and petrochemical plant - Petrochema Dubová is present in Slovakia as well. Its activities was to process the crude oil through sulfonation and adsorption technology for production of lubricating and special oils, synthetic detergents and special white oils for cosmetic and medical purposes. Seventy years ago – period, when this historical acid sludge burden has been created – comparing to the environmental awareness the production was in preference. That is the reason why, as in many countries, also in Slovakia a historical environmental burden is present until now – 229 211 m3 of oil sludge in the middle of the National Park of Nízke Tatry mountain chain. Neither one of tried treatment methods – bio or non-biologic one - was proved as suitable for processing or for recovery in the reason of different factors admission: i.e. strong aggressivity, difficulty with handling because of its sludgy and liquid state et sim. As a potential solution, also incineration was tested, but it was not proven as a suitable method, as the concentration of SO2 in combustion gases was too high, and it was not possible to decrease it under the acceptable value of 2000 That is the reason why the operation of incineration plant has been terminated, and the acid sludge landfills are present until nowadays. The objective of this paper is to present a new possibility of processing and valorization of acid sludgy-waste. The processing of oil sludge was performed through the effective separation - thermal desorption technology, through which it is possible to split the sludgy material into the matrix (soil, sediments) and organic contaminants. In order to boost the efficiency in the processing of acid sludge through thermal desorption, the work will present the possibility of application of an original technology – Method of Blowing Decomposition for recovering of organic matter into technological lubricating oil.

Keywords: hazardous waste, oil sludge, remediation, thermal desorption

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50 A Simulation-Based Method for Evaluation of Energy System Cooperation between Pulp and Paper Mills and a District Heating System: A Case Study

Authors: Alexander Hedlund, Anna-Karin Stengard, Olof Björkqvist


A step towards reducing greenhouse gases and energy consumption is to collaborate with the energy system between several industries. This work is based on a case study on integration of pulp and paper mills with a district heating system in Sundsvall, Sweden. Present research shows that it is possible to make a significant reduction in the electricity demand in the mechanical pulping process. However, the profitability of the efficiency measures could be an issue, as the excess steam recovered from the refiners decreases with the electricity consumption. A consequence will be that the fuel demand for steam production will increase. If the fuel price is similar to the electricity price it would reduce the profit of such a project. If the paper mill can be integrated with a district heating system, it is possible to upgrade excess heat from a nearby kraft pulp mill to process steam via the district heating system in order to avoid the additional fuel need. The concept is investigated by using a simulation model describing both the mass and energy balance as well as the operating margin. Three scenarios were analyzed: reference, electricity reduction and energy substitution. The simulation show that the total input to the system is lowest in the Energy substitution scenario. Additionally, in the Energy substitution scenario the steam from the incineration boiler covers not only the steam shortage but also a part of the steam produced using the biofuel boiler, the cooling tower connected to the incineration boiler is no longer needed and the excess heat can cover the whole district heating load during the whole year. The study shows a substantial economic advantage if all stakeholders act together as one system. However, costs and benefits are unequally shared between the actors. This means that there is a need for new business models in order to share the system costs and benefits.

Keywords: energy system, cooperation, simulation method, excess heat, district heating

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49 Bio Based Agro Textiles

Authors: K. Sakthivel


With the continuous increase in population worldwide, stress increased among agricultural peoples, so it is necessary to increase the yield of agro-products. But it is not possible to meet fully with the traditionally adopted ways of using pesticides and herbicides. Today, agriculture and horticulture has realized the need of tomorrow and opting for various technologies to get higher overall yield, quality agro-products. Most of today’s synthetic polymers are produced from petrochemical bi-products and are not biodegradable. Persistent polymers generate significant sources of environmental pollution, harming wildlife when they are disposed in nature. The disposal of non degradable plastic bags adversely affects human and wild life. Moreover incineration of plastic waste presents environmental issues as well, since it yields toxic emissions. Material incineration is also limited due to the difficulties to find accurate and economically viable outlets. In addition plastic recycling shows a negative eco balance due to the necessity in nearly all cases to wash the plastic waste as well as the energy consumption during the recycling process phases. As plastics represent a large part of the waste collection at the local regional and national levels institutions are aware of the significant savings that compostable or biodegradable materials would generate. Polylactic acid (PLA), which is one of the most important biocompatible polyesters that are derived from annually renewable biomass such as corn and wheat, has attracted much attention for automotive parts and also can be applied in agro textiles. The manufacturing method of PLA is the ring-opening polymerization of the dimeric cyclic ester of lactic acid, lactide. For the stereo complex PLA, we developed by the four unit processes, fermentation, separation, lactide conversion, and polymerization. Then the polymer is converted into mulching film and applied in agriculture field. PLA agro textiles have better tensile strength, tearing strength and with stand from UV rays than polyester agro textile and polypropylene-based products.

Keywords: biodegradation, environment, mulching film, PLA, technical textiles

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48 Soil-Cement Floor Produced with Alum Water Treatment Residues

Authors: Flavio Araujo, Paulo Scalize, Julio Lima, Natalia Vieira, Antonio Albuquerque, Isabela Santos


From a concern regarding the environmental impacts caused by the disposal of residues generated in Water Treatment Plants (WTP's), alternatives ways have been studied to use these residues as raw material for manufacture of building materials, avoiding their discharge on water streams, disposal on sanitary landfills or incineration. This paper aims to present the results of a research work, which is using WTR for replacing the soil content in the manufacturing of soil-cement floor with proportions of 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The samples tests showed a reduction mechanical strength in so far as has increased the amount of waste. The water absorption was below the maximum of 6% required by the standard. The application of WTR contributes to the reduction of the environmental damage in the water treatment industry.

Keywords: residue, soil-cement floor, sustainable, WTP

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47 Air Pollution from Volatile Metals and Acid Gases

Authors: F. Ait Ahsene-Aissat, Y. Kerchiche, Y. Moussaoui, M. Hachemi


Environmental pollution is at the heart of the debate today, the pollutants released into the atmosphere must be measured and reduced to the norms of international releases. The industries pollution is caused by emissions of SO₂, CO and heavy metals in volatile form that must be quantified and monitored. This study presents a qualitative and quantitative analysis However, the collection of volatile heavy metals were performed by active sampling using an isokinetic. SO₂ gas for the maximum is reached for a value of 343 mg / m³, the SO₂ concentration far exceeds the standard releases SO₂ followed by incineration industries in Algeria. the concentration of Cr exceeds 8 times the standard, the Pb concentration in the excess of 6 times, the concentration of Fe has reached very high values exceeding the standard 30 times, the Zn concentration in the excess of 5 times, and the Ni the excess of 4 times and finally that of Cu is almost double of the standard.

Keywords: SO₂, CO, volatiles metals, active sampling isokinetic

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46 Use of Fault Tree Analysis for Technical Assessment of Waste-to-Energy Plants

Authors: Ying-Chu Chen


Waste to energy (WTE) technology is becoming increasingly important throughout the world. There are 24 WTE plants in operation in Taiwan that might be ranked the top in density (number of MSW incinerators/area) in the world. Many problems exist in WTE plants, such as low-quality construction, leakage of pipelines, irregular feedings, and lack of maintenance. These problems should be identified and analyzed for effective implementation and efficient operation of WTE plants. This research applies a fault tree analysis (FTA) to identify failures and evaluate their effects on the operation of WTE plants from a technical point of view. Five subsystems of a WTE plant were defined, including loading system, incineration system, effluent disposal system, structural components, and control system. This research results proved that FTA is suitable for WTE evaluation and is an effective analysis tool for technical evaluation in the field of WTE technology.

Keywords: delphi method, fault tree approach, municipal solid waste, waste to energy, WTE

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45 Monte Carlo Neutronic Calculations on Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE)

Authors: Adem Acır


In this study, time dependent neutronic analysis of incineration of minor actinides of a Laser Fusion Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) engine was performed. The calculations were carried out by using MCNP codes with ENDF/B.VI neutron data library. In the neutronic calculations, TRISO particles fueled with minor actinides with natural lithium coolant were performed. The natural lithium cooled LIFE engine used 10 % TRISO fuel minor actinides composition. Tritium breeding ratios (TBR) and energy multiplication factor (M) burnup values were computed as 1.46 and 3.75, respectively. The reactor operation time was calculated as ~ 21 years. The burnup values were obtained as ~1060 GWD/MT, respectively. As a result, the very higher burnup were achieved of LIFE engine.

Keywords: Monte Carlo, minor actinides, nuclear waste, LIFE engine

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44 Recovery of Post-Consumer PET Bottles in a Composite Material Preparation

Authors: Rafenomananjara Tsinjo Nirina, Tomoo Sekito, Andrianaivoravelona Jaconnet Oliva


Manufacturing a composite material from post-consumer bottles is an interesting outlet since Madagascar is still facing the challenges of managing plastic waste on the one hand and appropriate waste treatment facilities are not yet developed on the other hand. New waste management options are needed to divert End-Of-Life (EOL) soft plastic wastes from landfills and incineration. Waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles might be considered as a valuable resource and recovered into polymer concrete. The methodology is easy to implement and appropriate to the local context in Madagascar. This approach will contribute to the production of ecological building materials that might be profitable for the environment and the construction sector. This work aims to study the feasibility of using the post-consumer PET bottles as an alternative binding agent instead of the conventional Portland cement and water. Then, the mechanical and physical properties of the materials were evaluated.

Keywords: PET recycling, polymer concrete, ecological building materials, pollution mitigation

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43 Solid Waste Characterization and Recycling Potential in Hawassa University, Ethiopia

Authors: Hunachew Beyene Mengesha, Biruck Desalegn Yirsaw


Owing to the dramatic expansion of universities in Ethiopia, understanding the composition and nature of solid waste at the source of generation plays an important role in designing a program for an integrated waste management program. In this study, we report the quantity, quality and recycling potential of the waste generated in the three campuses of the Hawassa University, Southern Ethiopia. A total of 3.5 tons of waste was generated per day in the three campuses of the university. More than 95% of the waste constituents were with potential to be recovered. It was a lesson from the study that there was no source reduction, recycling, composting, proper land filling or incineration practices in-place. The considerably high waste generation associated with the expansion of educational programs in the university appears worthwhile requiring implementation of programs for an integrated solid waste management to minimize health risk to humans and reduce environmental implications as a result of improper handling and disposal of wastes.

Keywords: Hawassa University, integrated solid waste management, solid waste generation, energy management, waste management

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42 Economic and Environmental Benefits of the Best Available Technique Application in a Food Processing Plant

Authors: Frantisek Bozek, Pavel Budinsky, Ignac Hoza, Alexandr Bozek, Magdalena Naplavova


A cleaner production project was implemented in a bakery. The project is based on the substitution of the best available technique for an obsolete leaven production technology. The new technology enables production of durable, high-quality leavens. Moreover, 25% of flour as the original raw material can be replaced by pastry from the previous day production which has not been sold. That pastry was previously disposed in a waste incineration plant. Besides the environmental benefits resulting from less waste, lower consumption of energy, reduction of sewage waters quantity and floury dustiness there are also significant economic benefits. Payback period of investment was calculated with help of static method of financial analysis about 2.6 years, using dynamic method 3.5 years and an internal rate of return more than 29%. The supposed annual average profit after taxation in the second year of operation was incompliance with the real profit.

Keywords: bakery, best available technology, cleaner production, costs, economic benefit, efficiency, energy, environmental benefit, investment, savings

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41 Utilization of Municipal Solid Waste in Thermal Power Production: A Techno-Economic Study of Kasur City, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Hafiz Muhammad Umer Aslam, Mohammad Rafiq Khan


This techno-economic study reports the feasibility of generating thermoelectric power from municipal solid waste (MSW) of Kasur City by incineration process. The data was gathered from different establishments of Kasur, through appropriate permission from their heads, and processed to design different alternative projects for installation of a thermal power plant in the city of Kasur. A technique of discounted cash flow was used to evaluate alternative projects so that their Benefit to Cost Ratio, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return and Payback Period can be determined. The study revealed that Kasur City currently consumes 18MWh electricity and generates 179 tons/day MSW. The generated waste has the ability to produce 2.1MWh electricity at the cost of USD 0.0581/unit with an expenditure of USD 3,907,692 as initial fixed investment of forming about 1/7th of consumption of Kasur. The cost from this source, when compared to current rate of electricity in Pakistan (USD 0.1346), is roughly half.

Keywords: Kasur City, resource recovery, thermoelectric power, waste management

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40 Plasma Gasification as a Sustainable Way for Energy Recovery from Scrap Tyre

Authors: Gloria James, S. K. Nema, T. S. Anantha Singh, P. Vadivel Murugan


The usage of tyre has increased enormously in day to day life. The used tyre and rubber products pose major threat to the environment. Conventional thermal techniques such as low temperature pyrolysis and incineration produce high molecular organic compounds (condensed and collected as aromatic oil) and carbon soot particles. Plasma gasification technique can dispose tyre waste and generate combustible gases and avoid the formation of high molecular aromatic compounds. These gases generated in plasma gasification process can be used to generate electricity or as fuel wherever required. Although many experiments have been done on plasma pyrolysis of tyres, very little work has been done on plasma gasification of tyres. In this work plasma gasification of waste tyres have been conducted in a fixed bed reactor having graphite electrodes and direct current (DC) arc plasma system. The output of this work has been compared with the previous work done on plasma pyrolysis of tyres by different authors. The aim of this work is to compare different process based on gas generation, efficiency of the process and explore the most effective option for energy recovery from waste tyres.

Keywords: plasma, gasification, syngas, tyre waste

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39 Energy Conversion from Waste Paper Industry Using Fluidized Bed Combustion

Authors: M. Dyah Ayu Yuli, S. Faisal Dhio, P. Johandi, P. Muhammad Sofyan


Pulp and paper mills generate various quantities of energy-rich biomass as wastes, depending on technological level, pulp and paper grades and wood quality. These wastes are produced in all stages of the process: wood preparation, pulp and paper manufacture, chemical recovery, recycled paper processing, waste water treatment. Energy recovery from wastes of different origin has become a generally accepted alternative to their disposal. Pulp and paper industry expresses an interest in adapting and integrating advanced biomass energy conversion technologies into its mill operations using Fluidized Bed Combustion. Industrial adoption of these new technologies has the potential for higher efficiency, lower capital cost, and safer operation than conventional operations that burn fossil fuels for energy. Incineration with energy recovery has the advantage of hygienic disposal, volume reduction, and the recovery of thermal energy by means of steam or super heated water that can be used for heating and power generation.

Keywords: biomass, fluidized bed combustion, pulp and paper mills, waste

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38 Development of Water-Based Thermal Insulation Paints Using Silica Aerogel

Authors: Lu Yanru, Handojo Djati Utomo, Yin Xi Jiang, Li Xiaodong


Insulation plays a key role in the sustainable building due to the contribution of energy consumption reduction. Without sufficient insulation, a great amount of the energy used to heat or cool a building will be lost to the outdoors. In this study, we developed a highly efficient thermal insulation paint with the incorporation of silica aerogel. Silica aerogel, with a low thermal conductivity of 0.01 W/mK, has been successfully prepared from the solid waste from the incineration plants. It has been added into water-based paints to increase its thermal insulation properties. To investigate the thermal insulation performance of silica aerogel additive, the paint samples were mixed with silica aerogel at different sizes and with various portions. The thermal conductivity, water resistance, thermal stability and adhesion strength of the samples were tested and evaluated. The thermal diffusivity measurements proved that adding silica aerogel additive could improve the thermal insulation properties of the paint significantly. Up to 5 ˚C reductions were observed after applying paints with silica aerogel additive compare to the one without it. The results showed that the developed thermal insulation paints have great potential for an application in green and sustainable building.

Keywords: silica aerogel, thermal insulation, water-based paints, water resistant

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