Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: Cassi Henderson

20 Testing Plastic-Sand Construction Blocks Made from Recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate (rPET)

Authors: Cassi Henderson, Lucia Corsini, Shiv Kapila, Egle Augustaityte, Tsemaye Uwejamomere Zinzan Gurney, Aleyna Yildirim

Abstract:

Plastic pollution is a major threat to human and planetary health. In Low- and Middle-Income Countries, plastic waste poses a major problem for marginalized populations who lack access to formal waste management systems. This study explores the potential for converting waste plastic into construction blocks. It is the first study to analyze the use of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as a binder in plastic-sand bricks. Unlike previous studies of plastic sand-bricks, this research tests the properties of bricks that were made using a low-cost kiln technology that was co-designed with a rural, coastal community in Kenya.  The mechanical strength, resistance to fire and water absorption properties of the bricks are tested in this study. The findings show that the bricks meet structural standards for mechanical performance, fire resistance and water absorption. It was found that 30:70 PET to sand demonstrated the best overall performance.

Keywords: recycling, PET, plastic, sustainable construction, sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
19 Convective Hot Air Drying of Different Varieties of Blanched Sweet Potato Slices

Authors: M. O. Oke, T. S. Workneh

Abstract:

Drying behaviour of blanched sweet potato in a cabinet dryer using different five air temperatures (40-80oC) and ten sweet potato varieties sliced to 5 mm thickness were investigated. The drying data were fitted to eight models. The Modified Henderson and Pabis model gave the best fit to the experimental moisture ratio data obtained during the drying of all the varieties while Newton (Lewis) and Wang and Singh models gave the least fit. The values of Deff obtained for Bophelo variety (1.27 x 10-9 to 1.77 x 10-9 m2/s) was the least while that of S191 (1.93 x 10-9 to 2.47 x 10-9 m2/s) was the highest which indicates that moisture diffusivity in sweet potato is affected by the genetic factor. Activation energy values ranged from 0.27-6.54 kJ/mol. The lower activation energy indicates that drying of sweet potato slices requires less energy and is hence a cost and energy saving method. The drying behavior of blanched sweet potato was investigated in a cabinet dryer. Drying time decreased considerably with increase in hot air temperature. Out of the eight models fitted, the Modified Henderson and Pabis model gave the best fit to the experimental moisture ratio data on all the varieties while Newton, Wang and Singh models gave the least. The lower activation energy (0.27-6.54 kJ/mol) obtained indicates that drying of sweet potato slices requires less energy and is hence a cost and energy saving method.

Keywords: sweet potato slice, drying models, moisture ratio, moisture diffusivity, activation energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
18 Kinetic Study of Physical Quality Changes on Jumbo Squid (Dosidicus gigas) Slices during Application High-Pressure Impregnation

Authors: Mario Perez-Won, Roberto Lemus-Mondaca, Fernanda Marin, Constanza Olivares

Abstract:

This study presents the simultaneous application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and osmotic dehydration of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) slice. Diffusion coefficients for both components water and solids were improved by the process pressure, being influenced by pressure level. The working conditions were different pressures such as 100, 250, 400 MPa and pressure atmospheric (0.1 MPa) for time intervals from 30 to 300 seconds and a 15% NaCl concentration. The mathematical expressions used for mass transfer simulations both water and salt were those corresponding to Newton, Henderson and Pabis, Page and Weibull models, where the Weibull and Henderson-Pabis models presented the best fitted to the water and salt experimental data, respectively. The values for water diffusivity coefficients varied from 1.62 to 8.10x10⁻⁹ m²/s whereas that for salt varied among 14.18 to 36.07x10⁻⁹ m²/s for selected conditions. Finally, as to quality parameters studied under the range of experimental conditions studied, the treatment at 250 MPa yielded on the samples a minimum hardness, whereas springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness at 100, 250 and 400 MPa treatments presented statistical differences regarding to unpressurized samples. The colour parameters L* (lightness) increased, however, but b* (yellowish) and a* (reddish) parameters decreased when increasing pressure level. This way, samples presented a brighter aspect and a mildly cooked appearance. The results presented in this study can support the enormous potential of hydrostatic pressure application as a technique important for compounds impregnation under high pressure.

Keywords: colour, diffusivity, high pressure, jumbo squid, modelling, texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
17 Implicit Bias as One Obstacle to Gender Equity

Authors: Kellina Craig-Henderson

Abstract:

Today, there is increased attention to the role of social perceptions in the selection, hiring, and management of employees and the evaluation and promotion of students. In some contexts, where women or members of certain social groups have been historically underrepresented there is evidence that these perceptions reflect the implicit biases people harbor. Research in the social and psychological sciences reveals that implicit biases against women unfairly disadvantage them in academic and work settings. This presentation will provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on an implicit bias as well as the problems associated with it. How employers, educators and other evaluators can inoculate themselves from the pernicious effects of these biases will be considered.

Keywords: gender equity, implicit bias, social psychology, unconscious bias

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
16 Racial Diversity in Founding Ownership Teams and Business Performance in New Firms

Authors: Cedric Herring, Loren Henderson, Hayward Derrick Horton, Melvin Thomas

Abstract:

This paper asks whether business startups benefit from having racially diverse founding ownership teams. Using nationally representative data from the Kauffman Firm Survey, the analysis examines the relationship between the racial diversity of the founding ownership teams of business startups and their net worth, revenue, debt, and profits. The analysis shows that, net of firm characteristics and human capital characteristics, startups with racially diverse founding teams have higher net worth, lower debt, and greater profits than their non-diverse counterparts. The racial diversity of ownership teams is not, however, related to startup firms’ revenues, net of other factors. The implications of these findings are explored.

Keywords: racial diversity, business startups, founding ownership teams, diversity and business performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
15 Drying Characteristics of Shrimp by Using the Traditional Method of Oven

Authors: I. A. Simsek, S. N. Dogan, A. S. Kipcak, E. Morodor Derun, N. Tugrul

Abstract:

In this study, the drying characteristics of shrimp are studied by using the traditional drying method of oven. Drying temperatures are selected between 60-80°C. Obtained experimental drying results are applied to eleven mathematical models of Alibas, Aghbashlo et al., Henderson and Pabis, Jena and Das, Lewis, Logaritmic, Midilli and Kucuk, Page, Parabolic, Wang and Singh and Weibull. The best model was selected as parabolic based on the highest coefficient of determination (R²) (0.999990 at 80°C) and the lowest χ² (0.000002 at 80°C), and the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) (0.000976 at 80°C) values are compared to other models. The effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) values were calculated using the Fick’s second law’s cylindrical coordinate approximation and are found between 6.61×10⁻⁸ and 6.66×10⁻⁷ m²/s. The activation energy (Ea) was calculated using modified form of Arrhenius equation and is found as 18.315 kW/kg.

Keywords: activation energy, drying, effective moisture diffusivity, modelling, oven, shrimp

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
14 Persian Pistachio Nut (Pistacia vera L.) Dehydration in Natural and Industrial Conditions

Authors: Hamid Tavakolipour, Mohsen Mokhtarian, Ahmad Kalbasi Ashtari

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of various drying methods (sun drying, shade drying and industrial drying) on final moisture content, shell splitting degree, shrinkage and color change were studied. Sun drying resulted higher degree of pistachio nuts shell splitting on pistachio nuts relative other drying methods. The ANOVA results showed that the different drying methods did not significantly effects on color change of dried pistachio nut. The results illustrated that pistachio nut dried by industrial drying had the lowest moisture content. After the end of drying process, initially, the experimental drying data were fitted with five famous drying models namely Newton, Page, Silva et al., Peleg and Henderson and Pabis. The results indicated that Peleg and Page models gave better results compared with other models to monitor the moisture ratio’s pistachio nut in industrial drying and open sun (or shade drying) methods, respectively.

Keywords: industrial drying, pistachio, quality properties, traditional drying

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
13 Chemical Fingerprinting of the Ephedrine Pathway to Methamphetamine

Authors: Luke Andrighetto, Paul G. Stevenson, Luke C. Henderson, Jim Pearson, Xavier A. Conlan

Abstract:

As pseudoephedrine, a common ingredient in cold and flu medications is closely monitored and restricted in Australia, alternative methods of accessing it are of interest. The impurities and by-products of every reaction step of pseudoephedrine/ephedrine and methamphetamine synthesis have been mapped in order to develop a chemical fingerprint based on synthetic route. Likewise, seized methamphetamine contains a combination of different cutting agents and starting materials. Therefore, in-silico optimised two-dimensional HPLC with DryLab® and OpenMS® software has been used to efficiently separate complex seizure samples. An excellent match between simulated and real separations was observed. Targeted separation of model compounds was completed with significantly reduced method development time. This study produced a two-dimensional separation regime that offers unprecedented separation power (separation space) while maintaining a rapid analysis time that is faster than those previously reported for gas chromatography, single dimension high performance liquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis.

Keywords: chemical fingerprint, ephedrine, methamphetamine, two-dimensional HPLC

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
12 Empirical Modeling of Air Dried Rubberwood Drying System

Authors: S. Khamtree, T. Ratanawilai, C. Nuntadusit

Abstract:

Rubberwood is a crucial commercial timber in Southern Thailand. All processes in a rubberwood production depend on the knowledge and expertise of the technicians, especially the drying process. This research aims to develop an empirical model for drying kinetics in rubberwood. During the experiment, the temperature of the hot air and the average air flow velocity were kept at 80-100 °C and 1.75 m/s, respectively. The moisture content in the samples was determined less than 12% in the achievement of drying basis. The drying kinetic was simulated using an empirical solver. The experimental results illustrated that the moisture content was reduced whereas the drying temperature and time were increased. The coefficient of the moisture ratio between the empirical and the experimental model was tested with three statistical parameters, R-square (), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Chi-square (χ²) to predict the accuracy of the parameters. The experimental moisture ratio had a good fit with the empirical model. Additionally, the results indicated that the drying of rubberwood using the Henderson and Pabis model revealed the suitable level of agreement. The result presented an excellent estimation (= 0.9963) for the moisture movement compared to the other models. Therefore, the empirical results were valid and can be implemented in the future experiments.

Keywords: empirical models, rubberwood, moisture ratio, hot air drying

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
11 Drying Kinetics of Vacuum Dried Beef Meat Slices

Authors: Elif Aykin Dincer, Mustafa Erbas

Abstract:

The vacuum drying behavior of beef slices (10 x 4 x 0.2 cm3) was experimentally investigated at the temperature of 60, 70, and 80°C under 25 mbar ultimate vacuum pressure and the mathematical models (Lewis, Page, Midilli, Two-term, Wangh and Singh and Modified Henderson and Pabis) were used to fit the vacuum drying of beef slices. The increase in drying air temperature resulted in a decrease in drying time. It took approximately 206, 180 and 157 min to dry beef slices from an initial moisture content to a final moisture content of 0.05 kg water/kg dry matter at 60, 70 and 80 °C of vacuum drying, respectively. It is also observed that the drying rate increased with increasing drying temperature. The coefficients (R2), the reduced chi-square (x²) and root mean square error (RMSE) values were obtained by application of six models to the experimental drying data. The best model with the highest R2 and, the lowest x² and RMSE values was selected to describe the drying characteristics of beef slices. The Page model has shown a better fit to the experimental drying data as compared to other models. In addition, the effective moisture diffusivities of beef slices in the vacuum drying at 60 - 80 °C varied in the range of 1.05 – 1.09 x 10-10 m2/s. Consequently, this results can be used to simulate vacuum drying process of beef slices and improve efficiency of the drying process.

Keywords: beef slice, drying models, effective diffusivity, vacuum

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
10 Determination and Qsar Modelling of Partitioning Coefficients for Some Xenobiotics in Soils and Sediments

Authors: Alaa El-Din Rezk

Abstract:

For organic xenobiotics, sorption to Aldrich humic acid is a key process controlling their mobility, bioavailability, toxicity and fate in the soil. Hydrophobic organic compounds possessing either acid or basic groups can be partially ionized (deprotonated or protonated) within the range of natural soil pH. For neutral and ionogenicxenobiotics including (neutral, acids and bases) sorption coefficients normalized to organic carbon content, Koc, have measured at different pH values. To this end, the batch equilibrium technique has been used, employing SPME combined with GC-MSD as an analytical tool. For most ionogenic compounds, sorption has been affected by both pH and pKa and can be explained through Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. The results demonstrate that when assessing the environmental fate of ionogenic compounds, their pKa and speciation under natural conditions should be taken into account. A new model has developed to predict the relationship between log Koc and pH with full statistical evaluation against other existing predictive models. Neutral solutes have displayed a good fit with the classical model using log Kow as log Koc predictor, whereas acidic and basic compounds have displayed a good fit with the LSER approach and the new proposed model. Measurement limitations of the Batch technique and SPME-GC-MSD have been found with ionic compounds.

Keywords: humic acid, log Koc, pH, pKa, SPME-GCMSD

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
9 The X-Ray Response Team: Building a National Health Pre-Hospital Service

Authors: Julian Donovan, Jessica Brealey, Matthew Bowker, Marianne Feghali, Gregory Smith, Lee Thompson, Deborah Henderson

Abstract:

This article details the development of the X-ray response team (XRT), a service that utilises innovative technology to safely deliver acute and elective imaging and medical assessment service in the pre-hospital and community setting. This involves a partnership between Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust’s Radiology and Emergency Medicine departments and the North East Ambulance Service to create a multidisciplinary prehospital team. The team committed to the delivery of a two-day acute service every week, alongside elective referrals, starting in November 2020. The service was originally made available to a 15-mile radius surrounding the Northumbria Hospital. Due to demand, this was expanded to include the North Tyneside and Northumberland regions. The target population was specified as frail and vulnerable patients, as well as those deemed to benefit from staying in their own environment. Within the first two months, thirty-six percent of patients assessed were able to stay at home due to the provision of off-site imaging. In the future, this service aims to allow patient transfer directly to an appropriate ward or clinic, bypassing the emergency department to improve the patient journey and reduce emergency care pressures.

Keywords: frailty, imaging, pre-hospital, X-ray

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
8 Mental Health and Technology: Evidence Review

Authors: Kylie Henderson

Abstract:

Adapting mental health interventions is important when providing support to those experiencing difficulties. This analysis aimed to explore and evaluate the effectiveness of various forms of mental health interventions. Literature that has analysed face-to-face (F2F), phone (Telehealth), mobile (mHealth) and online (e-interventions) interferences found all interventions were effective in reducing and treating symptoms of mental health disorders. F2F and Telehealth interventions facilitated greater engagement and client satisfaction. Due to accessibility and privacy, mHealth and e-interventions were the preferred methods of engagement with health services for youth and young adults. Regardless, these interventions still identified several barriers of high dropout, low adherence, and lack of awareness. Additionally, a large proportion of interventions lacked evidence-based foundations. Exploration of interventions that utilise a variety of interfaces, as well as incorporated evidence-based literature and clinician experience, show that they benefit those experiencing mental health difficulties. Applications like YourHealth+ provide a combination of interventions (F2F, mHealth, and e-interventions) to improve the wellbeing of job seekers and employment consults. Individuals that have used the application in conjunction with therapy have reported feeling more empowered and demonstrated improved wellbeing. Practitioners have also described improved confidence in their ability to provide support to clients. Therefore, it can be proposed that utilising a variety of interventions as well as incorporating literature and experience is beneficial to those experiencing mental health difficulties and to health practitioners.

Keywords: face-to-face, e-interventions, mHealth, YourHealth+

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
7 Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Conditions to Improve Interfacial Adhesion

Authors: Filip Stojcevski, Tim Hilditch, Luke Henderson

Abstract:

Although carbon fibre composites are becoming ever more prominent in the engineering industry, interfacial failure still remains one of the most common limitations to material performance. Carbon fiber surface treatments have played a major role in advancing composite properties however research into the influence of manufacturing variables on a fiber manufacturing line is lacking. This project investigates the impact of altering carbon fiber manufacturing conditions on a production line (specifically electrochemical oxidization and sizing variables) to assess fiber-matrix adhesion. Pristine virgin fibers were manufactured and interfacial adhesion systematically assessed from a microscale (single fiber) to a mesoscale (12k tow), and ultimately a macroscale (laminate). Correlations between interfacial shear strength (IFSS) at each level is explored as a function of known interfacial bonding mechanisms; namely mechanical interlocking, chemical adhesion and fiber wetting. Impact of these bonding mechanisms is assessed through extensive mechanical, topological and chemical characterisation. They are correlated to performance as a function of IFSS. Ultimately this study provides a bottoms up approach to improving composite laminates. By understanding the scaling effects from a singular fiber to a composite laminate and linking this knowledge to specific bonding mechanisms, material scientists can make an informed decision on the manufacturing conditions most beneficial for interfacial adhesion.

Keywords: carbon fibers, interfacial adhesion, surface treatment, sizing

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
6 Mathematical Modelling of Ultrasound Pre-Treatment in Microwave Dried Strawberry (Fragaria L.) Slices

Authors: Hilal Uslu, Salih Eroglu, Betul Ozkan, Ozcan Bulantekin, Alper Kuscu

Abstract:

In this study, the strawberry (Fragaria L.) fruits, which were pretreated with ultrasound (US), were worked on in the microwave by using 90W power. Then mathematical modelling was applied to dried fruits by using different experimental thin layer models. The sliced fruits were subjected to ultrasound treatment at a frequency of 40 kHz for 10, 20, and 30 minutes, in an ultrasonic water bath, with a ratio of 1:4 to fruit/water. They are then dried in the microwave (90W). The drying process continued until the product moisture was below 10%. By analyzing the moisture change of the products at a certain time, eight different thin-layer drying models, (Newton, page, modified page, Midilli, Henderson and Pabis, logarithmic, two-term, Wang and Singh) were tested for verification of experimental data. MATLAB R2015a statistical program was used for the modelling, and the best suitable model was determined with R²adj (coefficient of determination of compatibility), and root mean square error (RMSE) values. According to analysis, the drying model that best describes the drying behavior for both drying conditions was determined as the Midilli model by high R²adj and low RMSE values. Control, 10, 20, and 30 min US for groups R²adj and RMSE values was established as respectively; 0,9997- 0,005298; 0,9998- 0,004735; 0,9995- 0,007031; 0,9917-0,02773. In addition, effective diffusion coefficients were calculated for each group and were determined as 3,80x 10⁻⁸, 3,71 x 10⁻⁸, 3,26 x10⁻⁸ ve 3,5 x 10⁻⁸ m/s, respectively.

Keywords: mathematical modelling, microwave drying, strawberry, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
5 Food Bolus Obstruction: A Rural Hospital’s Experience

Authors: Davina Von Hagt, Genevieve Gibbons, Matt Henderson, Tom Bowles

Abstract:

Purpose: Food bolus obstructions are common emergency surgical presentations, but there is no established management guideline in a rural setting. Intervention usually involves endoscopic removal after initial medical management has failed. Within a rural setting, this falls upon the general surgeon. There are varied endoscopic techniques that may be used. Methodology: A review of the past fifty cases of food bolus obstruction managed at Albany Health Campus was retrospectively reviewed to assess endoscopic findings and techniques. Operation notes, histopathology, imaging, and patient notes were reviewed. Results: 50 patients underwent gastroscopy for food bolus obstruction from August 2017 to March 2021. Ages ranged from 11 months to 95 years, with the majority of patients aged between 30-70 years. 88% of patients were male. Meat was the most common bolus (20% unspecified, 20% steak, 10% chicken, 6% lamb, 4% sausage, 2% pork). At endoscopy, 12% were found not to have a food bolus obstruction. Two patients were found to have oesophageal cancer, and four patients had a stricture and required dilatation. A variety of methods were used to relieve oesophageal obstruction ranging from pushing through to stomach (24 patients), using an overtube (10 patients), raptor (13 patients), and less common instruments such as Roth net, basket, guidewire, and pronged grasper. One patient had an unsuccessful endoscopic retrieval and required theatre for laparoscopic assisted removal with rendezvous endoscopic piecemeal removal via oesophagus and gastrostomy. Conclusion: Food bolus obstruction is a common emergency presentation. Within the rural setting, management requires innovation and teamwork within the safety of the local experience.

Keywords: food bolus obstruction, regional hospital, surgical management, innovative surgical treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
4 Investigation of Heat Transfer Mechanism Inside Shell and Tube Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Systems

Authors: Saeid Seddegh, Xiaolin Wang, Alan D. Henderson, Dong Chen, Oliver Oims

Abstract:

The main objective of this research is to study the heat transfer processes and phase change behaviour of a phase change material (PCM) in shell and tube latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems. The thermal behaviour in a vertical and horizontal shell-and-tube heat energy storage system using a pure thermal conduction model and a combined conduction-convection heat transfer model is compared in this paper. The model is first validated using published experimental data available in literature and then used to study the temperature variation, solid-liquid interface, phase distribution, total melting and solidification time during melting and solidification processes of PCMs. The simulated results show that the combined convection and conduction model can better describe the energy transfer in PCMs during melting process. In contrast, heat transfer by conduction is more significant during the solidification process since the two models show little difference. Also, it was concluded that during the charging process for the horizontal orientation, convective heat transfer has a strong effect on melting of the upper part of the solid PCM and is less significant during melting of the lower half of the solid PCM. However, in the vertical orientation, convective heat transfer is the same active during the entire charging process. In the solidification process, the thermal behavior does not show any difference between horizontal and vertical systems.

Keywords: latent heat thermal energy storage, phase change material, natural convection, melting, shell and tube heat exchanger, melting, solidification

Procedia PDF Downloads 464
3 The Representation of the Medieval Idea of Ugliness in Messiaen's Saint François d’Assise

Authors: Nana Katsia

Abstract:

This paper explores the ways both medieval and medievalist conceptions of ugliness might be linked to the physical and spiritual transformation of the protagonists and how it is realised through specific musical rhythm, such as the dochmiac rhythm in the opera. As Eco and Henderson note, only one kind of ugliness could be represented in conformity with nature in the Middle Ages without destroying all aesthetic pleasure and, in turn, artistic beauty: namely, a form of ugliness which arouses disgust. Moreover, Eco explores the fact that the enemies of Christ who condemn, martyr, and crucify him are represented as wicked inside. In turn, the representation of inner wickedness and hostility toward God brings with it outward ugliness, coarseness, barbarity, and rage. Ultimately these result in the deformation of the figure. In all these regards, the non-beautiful is represented here as a necessary phase, which is not the case with classical (the ancient Greek) concepts of Beauty. As we can see, the understanding of disfigurement and ugliness in the Middle Ages was both varied and complex. In the Middle Ages, the disfigurement caused by leprosy (and other skin and bodily conditions) was interpreted, in a somewhat contradictory manner, as both a curse and a gift from God. Some saints’ lives even have the saint appealing to be inflicted with the disease as part of their mission toward true humility. We shall explore that this ‘different concept’ of ugliness (non-classical beauty) might be represented in Messiaen’s opera. According to Messiaen, the Leper and Saint François are the principal characters of the third scene, as both of them will be transformed, and a double miracle will take place in the process. Messiaen mirrors the idea of the true humility of Saint’s life and positions Le Baiser au Lépreux as the culmination of the first act. The Leper’s character represents his physical and spiritual disfigurement, which are healed after the miracle. So, the scene can be viewed as an encounter between beauty and ugliness, and that much of it is spent in a study of ugliness. Dochmiac rhythm is one of the most important compositional elements in the opera. It plays a crucial role in the process of creating a dramatic musical narrative and structure in the composition. As such, we shall explore how Messiaen represents the medieval idea of ugliness in the opera through particular musical elements linked to the main protagonists’ spiritual or physical ugliness; why Messiaen makes reference to dochmiac rhythm, and how they create the musical and dramatic context in the opera for the medieval aesthetic category of ugliness.

Keywords: ugliness in music, medieval time, saint françois d’assise, messiaen

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
2 Needs-Gap Analysis on Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Grandparent Carers ‘Hidden Issues’: An Insight for Community Nurses

Authors: Mercedes Sepulveda, Saras Henderson, Dana Farrell, Gaby Heuft

Abstract:

In Australia, there is a significant number of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) Grandparent Carers who are sole carers for their grandchildren. Services in the community such as accessible healthcare, financial support, legal aid, and transport to services can assist Grandparent Carers to continue to live in their own home whilst caring for their grandchildren. Community nurses can play a major role by being aware of the needs of these grandparents and link them to services via information and referrals. The CALD Grandparent Carer experiences have only been explored marginally and may be similar to the general Grandparent Carer population, although cultural aspects may add to their difficulties. This Needs-Gap Analysis aimed to uncover ‘hidden issues’ for CALD Grandparent Carers such as service gaps and actions needed to address these issues. The stakeholders selected for this Needs-Gap Analysis were drawn from relevant service providers such as community and aged care services, child and/or grandparents support services and CALD specific services. One hundred relevant service providers were surveyed using six structured questions via face to face, phone interviews, or email correspondence. CALD Grandparents who had a significant or sole role of being a carer for grandchildren were invited to participate through their CALD community leaders. Consultative Forums asking five questions that focused on the caring role, issues encountered, and what needed to be done, were conducted with the African, Asian, Spanish-Speaking, Middle Eastern, European, Pacific Islander and Maori Grandparent Carers living in South-east Queensland, Australia. Data from the service provider survey and the CALD Grandparent Carer forums were content analysed using thematic principles. Our findings highlighted social determinants of health grouped into six themes. These were; 1) service providers and Grandparent Carer perception that there was limited research data on CALD grandparents as carers; 2) inadequate legal and financial support; 3) barriers to accessing information and advice; 4) lack of childcare options in the light of aging and health issues; 5) difficulties around transport; and 6) inadequate technological skills often leading to social isolation for both carer and grandchildren. Our Needs-Gap Analysis provides insight to service providers especially health practitioners such as doctors and community nurses, particularly on the impact of caring for grandchildren on CALD Grandparent Carers. Furthermore, factors such as cultural differences, English language difficulties, and migration experiences also impacted on the way CALD Grandparent Carers are able to cope. The findings of this Need-Gap Analysis signposts some of the ‘ hidden issues’ that CALD Grandparents Carers face and draws together recommendations for the future as put forward by the stakeholders themselves.

Keywords: CALD grandparents, carer needs, community nurses, grandparent carers

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
1 An Adiabatic Quantum Optimization Approach for the Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming Problem

Authors: Maxwell Henderson, Tristan Cook, Justin Chan Jin Le, Mark Hodson, YoungJung Chang, John Novak, Daniel Padilha, Nishan Kulatilaka, Ansu Bagchi, Sanjoy Ray, John Kelly

Abstract:

We present a method of using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO) to solve a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem instance. The MINLP problem is a general form of a set of NP-hard optimization problems that are critical to many business applications. It requires optimizing a set of discrete and continuous variables with nonlinear and potentially nonconvex constraints. Obtaining an exact, optimal solution for MINLP problem instances of non-trivial size using classical computation methods is currently intractable. Current leading algorithms leverage heuristic and divide-and-conquer methods to determine approximate solutions. Creating more accurate and efficient algorithms is an active area of research. Quantum computing (QC) has several theoretical benefits compared to classical computing, through which QC algorithms could obtain MINLP solutions that are superior to current algorithms. AQO is a particular form of QC that could offer more near-term benefits compared to other forms of QC, as hardware development is in a more mature state and devices are currently commercially available from D-Wave Systems Inc. It is also designed for optimization problems: it uses an effect called quantum tunneling to explore all lowest points of an energy landscape where classical approaches could become stuck in local minima. Our work used a novel algorithm formulated for AQO to solve a special type of MINLP problem. The research focused on determining: 1) if the problem is possible to solve using AQO, 2) if it can be solved by current hardware, 3) what the currently achievable performance is, 4) what the performance will be on projected future hardware, and 5) when AQO is likely to provide a benefit over classical computing methods. Two different methods, integer range and 1-hot encoding, were investigated for transforming the MINLP problem instance constraints into a mathematical structure that can be embedded directly onto the current D-Wave architecture. For testing and validation a D-Wave 2X device was used, as well as QxBranch’s QxLib software library, which includes a QC simulator based on simulated annealing. Our results indicate that it is mathematically possible to formulate the MINLP problem for AQO, but that currently available hardware is unable to solve problems of useful size. Classical general-purpose simulated annealing is currently able to solve larger problem sizes, but does not scale well and such methods would likely be outperformed in the future by improved AQO hardware with higher qubit connectivity and lower temperatures. If larger AQO devices are able to show improvements that trend in this direction, commercially viable solutions to the MINLP for particular applications could be implemented on hardware projected to be available in 5-10 years. Continued investigation into optimal AQO hardware architectures and novel methods for embedding MINLP problem constraints on to those architectures is needed to realize those commercial benefits.

Keywords: adiabatic quantum optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, quantum computing, NP-hard

Procedia PDF Downloads 416