Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1802

Search results for: dwelling unit

1802 Possible Number of Dwelling Units Using Waste Plastic Bottle for Construction

Authors: Dibya Jivan Pati, Kazuhisa Iki, Riken Homma

Abstract:

Unlike other metro cities of India, Bhubaneswar–the capital city of Odisha, is expected to reach 1-million-mark population by now. The demands of dwelling unit requirement mostly among urban poor belonging to Economically Weaker section (EWS) and Low Income groups (LIG) is becoming a challenge due to high housing cost and rents. As a matter of fact, it’s also noted that, with increase in population, the solid waste generation also increases subsequently affecting the environment due to inefficiency in collection of waste by local government bodies. Methods of utilizing Solid Waste - especially in form of Plastic bottles, Glass bottles and Metal cans (PGM) are now widely used as an alternative material for construction of low-cost building by Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) in developing countries like India to help the urban poor afford a shelter. The application of disposed plastic bottle used in construction of single dwelling significantly reduces the overall cost of construction to as much as 14% compared to traditional construction material. Therefore, considering its cost-benefit result, it’s possible to provide housing to EWS and LIGs at an affordable price. In this paper, we estimated the quantity of plastic bottles generated in Bhubaneswar which further helped to estimate the possible number of single dwelling unit that can be constructed on yearly basis so as to refrain from further housing shortage. The estimation results will be practically used for planning and managing low-cost housing business by local government and NGOs.

Keywords: construction, dwelling unit, plastic bottle, solid waste generation, groups

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1801 Dwelling in the Built Environment: The Resilience by Design in Modular Thinking toward an Adaptive Alternatives

Authors: Tzen-Ying Ling

Abstract:

Recently, the resilience of dwellings in urban areas has been deliberated, as to accommodate the growing demand for changing the demography and rapid urbanization. The need to incorporate sustainability and cleaner production thinking have intensified to mitigate climate risks and satisfy the demand for housing. The modular thinking satisfies both the pressing call for fast-tracked housing stocks; while meeting the goal of more sustainable production. In the other side, the importance of the dwelling as a podium for well-being and social connectedness are sought to explore the key human/environment design thinking for the modular system in dwelling. We argue the best practice incorporates the concept of systemic components thinking. The fieldwork reported in this paper illustrates the process of the case study in a modular dwelling unit prototype development; focusing on the systemic frame system design process and adjustment recommendation hereafter. Using a case study method, the study identified that: (1) inclusive human dimensional factoring through systemic design thinking results in affordable implementations possibilities. (2) The environmental dimension encourages the place-based solution suited for the locality and the increasing demand for dwelling in the urban system. (3) Prototype design consideration avails module system component as dwelling construction alternative. (4) Building code often acts as an inhibitor for such dwelling units by the restriction in lot sizes and units placement. The demand for fast-track dwelling construction and cleaner production decisively outweighs the code inhibition; we further underscored the sustainability implication of the alternative prototype as the core of this study. The research suggests that modular thinking results in a resilient solution suited for the locality and the increasing demand for dwelling in the urban system.

Keywords: system prototype, urban resilience, human/environment dimension, modular thinking, dwelling alternative

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1800 The Analysis of Urban Part-To-Whole Relationship in Terms of Residential Areas: Example of Konya

Authors: Gevher Sayar, Dicle Aydın

Abstract:

The need for shelter which is one of the essential requirement of humanity has emerged for different type of dwelling needs depend on upon different culture and location. Almost all dwellings as an element of the public improvements effect the physical appearance of the city. Dwelling zones create part of whole in terms of urban area use. Whereas in traditional texture merger of parcels create city blocks, in new settlement area city blocks become a part, so the property of each part differs. The perspective of this study is part-to-whole relationship of residential areas and diversified residential areas are illustrated. The purpose of this study is that dwelling applications which have constructed quickly as gated community in the last 20 years in new settlement area of Konya (Turkey) have compared traditional texture in terms of part-to-whole relationship. According to the perception of traditional neighborhood in Konya, the relationship of houses between street pattern and each other are suited for city culture and location. In contrast, new settlement areas cannot become integrated another part of city, they have become restricted areas, so new settlement areas have not integrated, they have separated. The perception of part forms whole has changed, roads provide the relationship of growing parts with one another and walls of gated communities has disjunctive feature. In this study, by using visual analysis photographs and technical drawings are used. Traditional texture and current dwelling have compared.

Keywords: dwelling, residential area, urban part, urban whole

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1799 Optimal Opportunistic Maintenance Policy for a Two-Unit System

Authors: Nooshin Salari, Viliam Makis, Jane Doe

Abstract:

This paper presents a maintenance policy for a system consisting of two units. Unit 1 is gradually deteriorating and is subject to soft failure. Unit 2 has a general lifetime distribution and is subject to hard failure. Condition of unit 1 of the system is monitored periodically and it is considered as failed when its deterioration level reaches or exceeds a critical level N. At the failure time of unit 2 system is considered as failed, and unit 2 will be correctively replaced by the next inspection epoch. Unit 1 or 2 are preventively replaced when deterioration level of unit 1 or age of unit 2 exceeds the related preventive maintenance (PM) levels. At the time of corrective or preventive replacement of unit 2, there is an opportunity to replace unit 1 if its deterioration level reaches the opportunistic maintenance (OM) level. If unit 2 fails in an inspection interval, system stops operating although unit 1 has not failed. A mathematical model is derived to find the preventive and opportunistic replacement levels for unit 1 and preventive replacement age for unit 2, that minimize the long run expected average cost per unit time. The problem is formulated and solved in the semi-Markov decision process (SMDP) framework. Numerical example is provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed model and the comparison of the proposed model with an optimal policy without opportunistic maintenance level for unit 1 is carried out.

Keywords: condition-based maintenance, opportunistic maintenance, preventive maintenance, two-unit system

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
1798 Cogeneration Unit for Small Stove

Authors: Michal Spilacek, Marian Brazdil, Otakar Stelcl, Jiri Pospisil

Abstract:

This paper shows an experimental testing of a small unit for combustion of solid fuels, such as charcoal and wood logs, that can provide electricity. One of the concepts is that the unit does not require a qualified personnel for its operation. The unit itself is composed of two main parts. The design requires a heat producing stove and an electricity producing thermoelectric generator. After the construction the unit was tested and the results shows that the emission release is within the legislative requirements for emission production and environmental protection. That qualifies such unit for indoor application.

Keywords: micro-cogeneration, thermoelectric generator, biomass combustion, wood stove

Procedia PDF Downloads 507
1797 Residential Satisfaction and Public Perception of Socialized Housing Projects in Davao City, Philippines

Authors: Micah Amor P. Yares

Abstract:

Aside from the provision of adequate housing, the Philippine government faces the challenge of ensuring that the housing units provided conform to the Filipino’s ambition to self as manifested by owning a small house on a big lot. The study aimed to explore the levels of satisfaction of end-users and the public perception towards socialized housing in Davao City, Philippines. The residential satisfaction survey includes three types of respondents, which are end-users of single-detached, duplex and rowhouse socialized housing units. Respondents were asked to rate their level of satisfaction and perception to the following housing components: Dwelling Unit; Public Facilities; Social Environment; Neighborhood Facilities; Management Systems; and Acquisition and Financing. The data were subjected to Exploratory Factor Analysis to determine if variables can be grouped together, and Confirmatory Factor Analysis to measure if the model fits the construct. In determining which component affects the level of perception and satisfaction, a Multiple Linear Regression Analysis was employed. Lastly, an Individual Samples T-Test was performed to compare the levels of satisfaction and perception among respondents. Results revealed that residents of socialized housing were highly satisfied with their living conditions despite concerns on management systems, public and neighborhood facilities. Residents' satisfaction is primarily influenced by the Social Environment, Acquisition and Financing, and the Dwelling Unit. However, a significant difference in residential satisfaction level was observed among different types of housing with rowhouse residents recording the lowest satisfaction level compared to single-detached and duplex units. Moreover, the general public perceived Socialized housing as moderately satisfactory having the same determinant as the end-users aside from the Public Facilities. This study recommends revisiting the current Socialized Housing policies by considering the feedback from the end-users based on their lived experience and the public according to their perception.

Keywords: public perception, residential satisfaction, rowhouse, socialized housing

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1796 Unit Root Tests Based On the Robust Estimator

Authors: Wararit Panichkitkosolkul

Abstract:

The unit root tests based on the robust estimator for the first-order autoregressive process are proposed and compared with the unit root tests based on the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimator. The percentiles of the null distributions of the unit root test are also reported. The empirical probabilities of Type I error and powers of the unit root tests are estimated via Monte Carlo simulation. Simulation results show that all unit root tests can control the probability of Type I error for all situations. The empirical power of the unit root tests based on the robust estimator are higher than the unit root tests based on the OLS estimator.

Keywords: autoregressive, ordinary least squares, type i error, power of the test, Monte Carlo simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
1795 Using Tilted Façade to Reduce Thermal Discomfort in a UK Passivhaus Dwelling for a Warming Climate

Authors: Yahya Lavafpour, Steve Sharples

Abstract:

This study investigated the potential negative impacts of future UK climate change on dwellings. In particular, the risk of overheating was considered for a Passivhaus dwelling in London. The study used dynamic simulation modelling software to investigate the potential use of building geometry to control current and future overheating risks in the dwelling for London climate. Specifically, the focus was on the optimum inclination of a south façade to make use of the building’s shape to self-protect itself. A range of different inclined façades were examined to test their effectiveness in reducing the overheating risk. The research found that implementing a 115° tilted façade could completely eliminate the risk of overheating in current climate, but with some consequence for natural ventilation and daylighting. Future overheating was significantly reduced by the tilted façade. However, geometric considerations could not eradicate completely the risk of overheating particularly by the 2080s. The study also used CFD modelling and sensitivity analysis to investigate the effect of the façade geometry on the wind pressure distributions on and around the building surface. This was done to assess natural ventilation flows for alternative façade inclinations.

Keywords: climate change, tilt façade, thermal comfort, passivhaus, overheating

Procedia PDF Downloads 449
1794 Small Scale Stationary and Mobile Production of Biodiesel

Authors: Muhammad Yusuf Abduh, Robert Manurung, Hero Jan Heeres

Abstract:

Biodiesel can be produced in small scale mobile units which are designed with local input and demand. Unlike the typical biodiesel production plants, mobile biodiesel unit consiss of a biodiesel production facility placed inside a standard cargo container and mounted on a truck so that it can be transported to a region near the location of raw materials. In this paper, we review the existing concept and unit for the development of community-scale and mobile production of biodiesel. This includes the main reactor technology to produce biodiesel as well as the pre-treatment prior to the reaction unit. The pre-treatment includes the oil-expeller unit to obtain oil from the oilseeds as well as the quality control of the oil before it enters the reaction unit. This paper also discusses the post-treatment after the production of biodiesel. It includes the refining and purification of biodiesel to meet the product specification set by the biodiesel industry.

Keywords: biodiesel, community scale, mobile biodiesel unit, reactor technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
1793 Low Back Pain and Patients Lifting Behaviors among Nurses Working in Al Sadairy Hospital, Aljouf

Authors: Fatma Abdel Moneim Al Tawil

Abstract:

Low back pain (LBP) among nurses has been the subject of research studies worldwide. However, evidence of the influence of patients lifting behaviors and LBP among nurses in Saudi Arabia remains scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between LBP and nurses lifting behaviors. LBP questionnaire was distributed to 100 nurses working in Alsadairy Hospital distributed as Emergency unit(9),Coronary Care unit (9), Intensive Care Unit (7), Dialysis unit (30), Burn unit (5), surgical unit (11), Medical (14) and, X-ray unit (15). The questionnaire included demographic data, attitude scale, Team work scale, Back pain history and Knowledge scale. Regarding to emergency unit, there is appositive significant relation between teamwork scale and Knowledge as r = (0.807) and P =0.05. Regarding to ICU unit, there is a positive significant relation between teamwork scale and attitude scale as r= (0.781) and P =0.05. Regarding to Dialysis unit, there is a positive significant relation between attitude scale and teamwork scale as r=(0.443) and P =0.05. The findings suggest enhanced awareness of occupational safety with safe patient handling practices among nursing students must be emphasized and integrated into their educational curriculum. Moreover, back pain prevention program should incorporate the promotion of an active lifestyle and fitness training the implementation of institutional patient handling policies.

Keywords: low back pain, lifting behaviors, nurses, team work

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
1792 A Study on Neighborhood of Dwelling with Historical-Islamic Architectural Elements

Authors: M.J. Seddighi, Moradchelleh, M. Keyvan

Abstract:

The ultimate goal in building a city is to provide pleasant, comfortable and nurturing environment as a context of public life. City environment establishes strong connection with people and their surrounding habitant, acting as relevance in social interactions between citizens itself. Urban environment and appropriate municipal facilities are the only way for proper communication between city and citizens and also citizens themselves.There is a need for complement elements between buildings and constructions to settling city life through which the move, comfort, reactions and anxiety will adjust and reflect the spirit to the city. In the surging development of society, urban’ spaces are encountered evolution, sometimes causing the symbols to fade and waste, and as a result, leading to destroy belongs among humans and their physical liquidate. Houses and living spaces exhibit materialistic reflection of life style. In the other words, way of life makes the symbolic essence of living spaces. In addition, it is of sociocultural factor of lifestyle, consisting the concepts and culture, morality, worldview, and national character. Culture is responsible for some crucial meaningful needs which can be wide because they depend on various causes such as perception and interpretation of believes, philosophy of life, interaction with neighbors and protection against climate and enemies. The bi-lateral relationship between human and nature is the main factor that needs to be properly addressed. It is because of the fact that the approach which is taken against landscape and nature has a pertinent influence on creation and shaping the structure of a house. The first response of human in tackling the environment is to build a “shelter” and place as dwelling. This has been a crucial factor in all time periods. In the proposed study, dwelling in Khorasgan’ Stream, as an area located in one of the important historical city of Iran, has been studied. Khorasgan’ Stream is the basic constituent elements of the present architectural form of Isfahan. The influence of Islamic spiritual culture and neighborhood with the historical elements on the dwelling of the selected location, subsequently on other regions of the town are presented.

Keywords: dwelling, neighborhood, historical, Islamic, architectural elements

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
1791 Neighborhood of Dwelling with Historical Architectural Elements – Case Study: Khorasgan' Stream of Isfahan

Authors: M.J. Seddighi, A. Moradchelleh, M. Keyvan

Abstract:

The ultimate goal in building a city is to provide pleasant, comfortable and nurturing environment as a context of public life. City environment establishes strong connection with people and their surrounding habitant, acting as relevance in social interactions between citizens itself. Urban environment and appropriate municipal facilities are the only way for proper communication between city and citizens and also citizens themselves. There is a need for complement elements between buildings and constructions to settling city life through which the move, comfort, reactions and anxiety will adjust and reflect the spirit to the city. In the surging development of society, urban’ spaces are encountered evolution, sometimes causing the symbols to fade and waste, and as a result, leading to destroy belongs among humans and their physical liquidate. Houses and living spaces exhibit materialistic reflection of life style. In other words, way of life makes the symbolic essence of living spaces. In addition, it is of sociocultural factor of lifestyle, consisting the concepts and culture, morality, worldview, and national character. Culture is responsible for some crucial meaningful needs which can be wide because they depend on various causes such as perception and interpretation of believes, philosophy of life, interaction with neighbors and protection against climate and enemies. The bilateral relationship between human and nature is the main factor that needs to be properly addressed. It is because of the fact that the approach which is taken against landscape and nature has a pertinent influence on creation and shaping the structure of a house. The first response of human in tackling the environment is to build a “shelter” and place as dwelling. This has been a crucial factor in all time periods. In the proposed study, dwelling in Khorasgan’ Stream, as an area located in one of the important historical city of Iran, has been studied. Khorasgan’ Stream is the basic constituent elements of the present architectural form of Isfahan. The influence of Islamic spiritual culture and neighborhood with the historical elements on the dwelling of the selected location, subsequently on other regions of the town are presented.

Keywords: historical architectural elements, dwelling' neighborhood, Khorasgan’ Stream of Isfahan, architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
1790 Optimal Maintenance Policy for a Partially Observable Two-Unit System

Authors: Leila Jafari, Viliam Makis, G. B. Akram Khaleghei

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a maintenance model of a two-unit series system with economic dependence. Unit#1, which is considered to be more expensive and more important, is subject to condition monitoring (CM) at equidistant, discrete time epochs and unit#2, which is not subject to CM, has a general lifetime distribution. The multivariate observation vectors obtained through condition monitoring carry partial information about the hidden state of unit#1, which can be in a healthy or a warning state while operating. Only the failure state is assumed to be observable for both units. The objective is to find an optimal opportunistic maintenance policy minimizing the long-run expected average cost per unit time. The problem is formulated and solved in the partially observable semi-Markov decision process framework. An effective computational algorithm for finding the optimal policy and the minimum average cost is developed and illustrated by a numerical example.

Keywords: condition-based maintenance, semi-Markov decision process, multivariate Bayesian control chart, partially observable system, two-unit system

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1789 Centralized Peak Consumption Smoothing Revisited for Habitat Energy Scheduling

Authors: M. Benbouzid, Q. Bresson, A. Duclos, K. Longo, Q. Morel

Abstract:

Currently, electricity suppliers must predict the consumption of their customers in order to deduce the power they need to produce. It is, then, important in a first step to optimize household consumption to obtain more constant curves by limiting peaks in energy consumption. Here centralized real time scheduling is proposed to manage the equipment's starting in parallel. The aim is not to exceed a certain limit while optimizing the power consumption across a habitat. The Raspberry Pi is used as a box; this scheduler interacts with the various sensors in 6LoWPAN. At the scale of a single dwelling, household consumption decreases, particularly at times corresponding to the peaks. However, it would be wiser to consider the use of a residential complex so that the result would be more significant. So, the ceiling would no longer be fixed. The scheduling would be done on two scales, firstly, per dwelling, and secondly, at the level of a residential complex.

Keywords: smart grid, energy box, scheduling, Gang Model, energy consumption, energy management system, wireless sensor network

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
1788 Comparison of Two Maintenance Policies for a Two-Unit Series System Considering General Repair

Authors: Seyedvahid Najafi, Viliam Makis

Abstract:

In recent years, maintenance optimization has attracted special attention due to the growth of industrial systems complexity. Maintenance costs are high for many systems, and preventive maintenance is effective when it increases operations' reliability and safety at a reduced cost. The novelty of this research is to consider general repair in the modeling of multi-unit series systems and solve the maintenance problem for such systems using the semi-Markov decision process (SMDP) framework. We propose an opportunistic maintenance policy for a series system composed of two main units. Unit 1, which is more expensive than unit 2, is subjected to condition monitoring, and its deterioration is modeled using a gamma process. Unit 1 hazard rate is estimated by the proportional hazards model (PHM), and two hazard rate control limits are considered as the thresholds of maintenance interventions for unit 1. Maintenance is performed on unit 2, considering an age control limit. The objective is to find the optimal control limits and minimize the long-run expected average cost per unit time. The proposed algorithm is applied to a numerical example to compare the effectiveness of the proposed policy (policy Ⅰ) with policy Ⅱ, which is similar to policy Ⅰ, but instead of general repair, replacement is performed. Results show that policy Ⅰ leads to lower average cost compared with policy Ⅱ. 

Keywords: condition-based maintenance, proportional hazards model, semi-Markov decision process, two-unit series systems

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1787 Causal Relationship between Macro-Economic Indicators and Fund Unit Price Behaviour: Evidence from Malaysian Equity Unit Trust Fund Industry

Authors: Anwar Hasan Abdullah Othman, Ahamed Kameel, Hasanuddeen Abdul Aziz

Abstract:

In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the relationship specifically the causal relation between fund unit prices of Islamic equity unit trust fund which measure by fund NAV and the selected macro-economic variables of Malaysian economy by using VECM causality test and Granger causality test. Monthly data has been used from Jan, 2006 to Dec, 2012 for all the variables. The findings of the study showed that industrial production index, political election and financial crisis are the only variables having unidirectional causal relationship with fund unit price. However, the global oil prices is having bidirectional causality with fund NAV. Thus, it is concluded that the equity unit trust fund industry in Malaysia is an inefficient market with respect to the industrial production index, global oil prices, political election and financial crisis. However, the market is approaching towards informational efficiency at least with respect to four macroeconomic variables, treasury bill rate, money supply, foreign exchange rate and corruption index.

Keywords: fund unit price, unit trust industry, Malaysia, macroeconomic variables, causality

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
1786 On Boundary Values of Hardy Space Banach Space-Valued Functions

Authors: Irina Peterburgsky

Abstract:

Let T be a unit circumference of a complex plane, E be a Banach space, E* and E** be its conjugate and second conjugate, respectively. In general, a Hardy space Hp(E), p ≥1, where functions act from the open unit disk to E, could contain a function for which even weak nontangential (angular) boundary value in the space E** does not exist at any point of the unit circumference T (C. Grossetete.) The situation is "better" when certain restrictions to the Banach space of values are applied (more or less resembling a classical case of scalar-valued functions depending on constrains, as shown by R. Ryan.) This paper shows that, nevertheless, in the case of a Banach space of a general type, the following positive statement is true: Proposition. For any function f(z) from Hp(E), p ≥ 1, there exists a function F(eiθ) on the unit circumference T to E** whose Poisson (in the Pettis sense) is integral regains the function f(z) on the open unit disk. Some characteristics of the function F(eiθ) are demonstrated.

Keywords: hardy spaces, Banach space-valued function, boundary values, Pettis integral

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1785 Furnishing The Envelope; 3D Printed Construction Unit as Furniture

Authors: Maryam Kalkatechi

Abstract:

The paper presents the construction unit that was proposed as a result of researching and finding solutions for challenges of the traditional masonry unit. The concept of ‘unit as arrangements of cells’ was investigated in four categories of structure, handling and assembly, thermal characteristics and weather ability which resulted in construction unit as an independent system which shapes a part of the envelope. Comparing to the traditional wall systems in which the system is in layers, the part system is a monolithic piece by itself. Even though the overall wythe-10 inches- is less than the combined layers-14 inches- in a traditional wall system, it is still seen as a spatial component. The component as a furnishing of envelope is discussed from material application point of view. The algorithm definition of the arrangement cells crafts the relationship between cells and functionality with material. This craft is realized as the envelope furnishing. Three alternative materials in relation to furnishing the envelope are discussed for printing the construction unit; transparent plastic, opaque plastic and glass. The qualities vary in the four categories, however this paper focuses on the visual qualities of materials applied. In a diagram the qualities of the materials are compared in relation to each other.

Keywords: furnishing envelope, 3D printed construction unit, opaque plastic, transparent plastic, glass

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
1784 Exergy and Energy Analysis of Pre-Heating Unit of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit in Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company

Authors: M. Nuhu, S. Bilal, A. A. Hamisu, J. A. Abbas, Y. Z. Aminu, P. O. Helen

Abstract:

Exergy and energy analysis of preheating unit of FCCU of KRPC has been calculated and presented in this study. From the design, the efficiency of each heat exchanger was 86%. However, on completion of this work the efficiencies was calculated to be 39.90%, 55.66%, 56.22%, and 57.14% for 16E02, 16E03, 16E04, and 16E05 respectively. 16E04 has the minimum energy loss of 0.86%. The calculated second law and exergy efficiencies of the system were 43.01 and 56.99% respectively.

Keywords: exergy analysis, ideal work, efficiency, exergy destruction, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
1783 An Analytical Study on Rotational Capacity of Beam-Column Joints in Unit Modular Frames

Authors: Kyung-Suk Choi, Hyung-Joon Kim

Abstract:

Modular structural systems are constructed using a method that they are assembled with prefabricated unit modular frames on-site. This provides a benefit that can significantly reduce building construction time. Their structural design is usually carried out under the assumption that the load-carrying mechanism is similar to that of a traditional steel moment-resisting system. However, both systems are different in terms of beam-column connection details which may strongly influence the lateral structural behavior. Specially, the presence of access holes in a beam-column joint of a unit modular frame could cause undesirable failure during strong earthquakes. Therefore, this study carried out finite element analyses (FEM) of unit modular frames to investigate the cyclic behavior of beam-column joints with the structural influence of access holes. Analysis results show that the unit modular frames present stable cyclic response with large deformation capacities, and their joints are classified into semi-rigid connections.

Keywords: unit modular frame, steel moment connection, nonlinear analytical model, moment-rotation relation

Procedia PDF Downloads 467
1782 Numerical Analysis of the Melting of Nano-Enhanced Phase Change Material in a Rectangular Latent Heat Storage Unit

Authors: Radouane Elbahjaoui, Hamid El Qarnia

Abstract:

Melting of Paraffin Wax (P116) dispersed with Al2O3 nanoparticles in a rectangular latent heat storage unit (LHSU) is numerically investigated. The storage unit consists of a number of vertical and identical plates of nano-enhanced phase change material (NEPCM) separated by rectangular channels in which heat transfer fluid flows (HTF: Water). A two dimensional mathematical model is considered to investigate numerically the heat and flow characteristics of the LHSU. The melting problem was formulated using the enthalpy porosity method. The finite volume approach was used for solving equations. The effects of nanoparticles’ volumetric fraction and the Reynolds number on the thermal performance of the storage unit were investigated.

Keywords: nano-enhanced phase change material (NEPCM), phase change material (PCM), nanoparticles, latent heat storage unit (LHSU), melting.

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1781 The Role of the Internal Audit Unit in Detecting and Preventing Fraud at Public Universities in West Java, Indonesia

Authors: Fury Khristianty Fitriyah

Abstract:

This study aims to identify the extent of the role of the Satuan Pengawas Intern (Internal Audit Unit) in detecting and preventing fraud in public universities in West Java under the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education. The research method applied was a qualitative case study approach, while the unit of analysis for this study is the Internal Audit Unit at each public university. Results of this study indicate that the Internal Audit Unit is able to detect and prevent fraud within a public university environment by means of red flags to mark accounting anomalies. These stem from inaccurate budget planning that prompts inappropriate use of funds, exacerbated by late disbursements of funds, which potentially lead to fictitious transactions, and discrepancies in recording state-owned assets into a state property management system (SIMAK BMN), which, if not conducted properly, potentially causes loss to the state.

Keywords: governance, internal control, fraud, public university

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
1780 A Theoretical Model for a Humidification Dehumidification (HD) Solar Desalination Unit

Authors: Yasser El-Henawy, M. Abd El-Kader, Gamal H. Moustafa

Abstract:

A theoretical study of a humidification dehumidification solar desalination unit has been carried out to increase understanding the effect of weather conditions on the unit productivity. A humidification-dehumidification (HD) solar desalination unit has been designed to provide fresh water for population in remote arid areas. It consists of solar water collector and air collector; to provide the hot water and air to the desalination chamber. The desalination chamber is divided into humidification and dehumidification towers. The circulation of air between the two towers is maintained by the forced convection. A mathematical model has been formulated, in which the thermodynamic relations were used to study the flow, heat and mass transfer inside the humidifier and dehumidifier. The present technique is performed in order to increase the unit performance. Heat and mass balance has been done and a set of governing equations has been solved using the finite difference technique. The unit productivity has been calculated along the working day during the summer and winter sessions and has compared with the available experimental results. The average accumulative productivity of the system in winter has been ranged between 2.5 to 4 kg/m2.day, while the average summer productivity has been found between 8 to 12 kg/m2 day.

Keywords: solar desalination, solar collector, humidification and dehumidification, simulation, finite difference, water productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
1779 Study of a Crude Oil Desalting Plant of the National Iranian South Oil Company in Gachsaran by Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: H. Kiani, S. Moradi, B. Soltani Soulgani, S. Mousavian

Abstract:

Desalting/dehydration plants (DDP) are often installed in crude oil production units in order to remove water-soluble salts from an oil stream. In order to optimize this process, desalting unit should be modeled. In this research, artificial neural network is used to model efficiency of desalting unit as a function of input parameter. The result of this research shows that the mentioned model has good agreement with experimental data.

Keywords: desalting unit, crude oil, neural networks, simulation, recovery, separation

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
1778 Number of Parametrization of Discrete-Time Systems without Unit-Delay Element: Single-Input Single-Output Case

Authors: Kazuyoshi Mori

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the parametrization of the discrete-time systems without the unit-delay element within the framework of the factorization approach. In the parametrization, we investigate the number of required parameters. We consider single-input single-output systems in this paper. By the investigation, we find, on the discrete-time systems without the unit-delay element, three cases that are (1) there exist plants which require only one parameter and (2) two parameters, and (3) the number of parameters is at most three.

Keywords: factorization approach, discrete-time system, parameterization of stabilizing controllers, system without unit-delay

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
1777 Dual-Rail Logic Unit in Double Pass Transistor Logic

Authors: Hamdi Belgacem, Fradi Aymen

Abstract:

In this paper we present a low power, low cost differential logic unit (LU). The proposed LU receives dual-rail inputs and generates dual-rail outputs. The proposed circuit can be used in Arithmetic and Logic Units (ALU) of processor. It can be also dedicated for self-checking applications based on dual duplication code. Four logic functions as well as their inverses are implemented within a single Logic Unit. The hardware overhead for the implementation of the proposed LU is lower than the hardware overhead required for standard LU implemented with standard CMOS logic style. This new implementation is attractive as fewer transistors are required to implement important logic functions. The proposed differential logic unit can perform 8 Boolean logical operations by using only 16 transistors. Spice simulations using a 32 nm technology was utilized to evaluate the performance of the proposed circuit and to prove its acceptable electrical behaviour.

Keywords: differential logic unit, double pass transistor logic, low power CMOS design, low cost CMOS design

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
1776 A Two Tailed Secretary Problem with Multiple Criteria

Authors: Alaka Padhye, S. P. Kane

Abstract:

The following study considers some variations made to the secretary problem (SP). In a multiple criteria secretary problem (MCSP), the selection of a unit is based on two independent characteristics. The units that appear before an observer are known say N, the best rank of a unit being N. A unit is selected, if it is better with respect to either first or second or both the characteristics. When the number of units is large and due to constraints like time and cost, the observer might want to stop earlier instead of inspecting all the available units. Let the process terminate at r2th unit where r1Keywords: joint distribution, marginal distribution, real ranks, secretary problem, selection criterion, two tailed secretary problem

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
1775 Distributed Manufacturing (DM)- Smart Units and Collaborative Processes

Authors: Hermann Kuehnle

Abstract:

Developments in ICT totally reshape manufacturing as machines, objects and equipment on the shop floors will be smart and online. Interactions with virtualizations and models of a manufacturing unit will appear exactly as interactions with the unit itself. These virtualizations may be driven by providers with novel ICT services on demand that might jeopardize even well established business models. Context aware equipment, autonomous orders, scalable machine capacity or networkable manufacturing unit will be the terminology to get familiar with in manufacturing and manufacturing management. Such newly appearing smart abilities with impact on network behavior, collaboration procedures and human resource development will make distributed manufacturing a preferred model to produce. Computing miniaturization and smart devices revolutionize manufacturing set ups, as virtualizations and atomization of resources unwrap novel manufacturing principles. Processes and resources obey novel specific laws and have strategic impact on manufacturing and major operational implications. Mechanisms from distributed manufacturing engaging interacting smart manufacturing units and decentralized planning and decision procedures already demonstrate important effects from this shift of focus towards collaboration and interoperability.

Keywords: autonomous unit, networkability, smart manufacturing unit, virtualization

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
1774 Energy Saving and Performance Evaluation of an Air Handling Unit Integrated with a Membrane Energy Exchanger for Cold Climates

Authors: Peng Liu, Maria Justo Alonso, Hans Martin Mathisen

Abstract:

A theoretical model is developed to evaluate the performance and energy saving potential of an air handling unit integrated with a membrane energy exchanger in cold climates. The recovered sensible and latent heat, fan preheating use for frost prevention and heating energy consumed by heating coil after the ventilator is compared for the air handling unit combined heat and energy exchanger respectively. A concept of coefficient of performance of air handling unit is presented and applied to assess the energy use of air handling unit (AHU) in cold climates. The analytic results indicate downsizing of the preheating coil before exchanger and heating coils after exchanger are expected since the required power to preheat and condition the air is reduced compared to heat exchanger when the MEE is integrated with AHU. Simultaneously, a superior ratio of energy recovered (RER) is obtained from AHU build-in a counter-flow MEE. The AHU with sensible-only heat exchanger has noticeably low RER, around 1 at low outdoor air temperature where the maximum energy rate is desired to condition the severe cold and dry air.

Keywords: membrane energy exchanger, cold climate, energy efficient building, HVAC

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
1773 Investigation of Magnetic Resonance Wireless Charger Efficiency for Mobile Device

Authors: SeungHee Ryu, Junil Moon

Abstract:

The magnetic resonance wireless power transfer system is widely researched due to its benefits such as spatial freedom. In this paper, power transmitting unit and power receiving unit of wireless battery charger for mobile devices is presented. Power transmitting unit efficiency is measured under different test conditions with power receiving units.

Keywords: magnetic resonance coupling, wireless power transfer, power transfer efficiency.

Procedia PDF Downloads 383