Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3032

Search results for: urban planners

3032 Changing Roles and Skills of Urban Planners in the Turkish Planning System

Authors: Fatih Eren

Abstract:

This research aims to find an answer to the question of which knowledge and skills do the Turkish urban planners need in their business practice. Understanding change in cities, making a prediction, making an urban decision and putting it into practice, working together with actors from different organizations from various academic disciplines, persuading people to accept something and developing good personal and professional relationships have become very complex and difficult in today’s world. The truth is that urban planners work in many institutions under various positions which are not similar to each other by field of activity and all planners are forced to develop some knowledge and skills for success in their business in Turkey. This study targets to explore what urban planners do in the global information age. The study is the product of a comprehensive nation-wide research. In-depth interviews were conducted with 174 experienced urban planners, who work in different public institutions and private companies under varied positions in the Turkish Planning System, to find out knowledge and skills needed by next-generation urban planners. The main characteristics of next-generation urban planners are defined; skills that planners needed today are explored in this paper. Findings show that the positivist (traditional) planning approach has given place to anti-positivist planning approaches in the Turkish Planning System so next-generation urban planners who seek success and want to carve out a niche for themselves in business life have to equip themselves with innovative skills. The result section also includes useful and instructive findings for planners about what is the meaning of being an urban planner and what is the ideal content and context of planning education at universities in the global age.

Keywords: global information age, Turkish Planning System, the institutional approach, urban planners, roles, skills, values

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3031 Photogrammetry and Topographic Information for Urban Growth and Change in Amman

Authors: Mahmoud M. S. Albattah

Abstract:

Urbanization results in the expansion of administrative boundaries, mainly at the periphery, ultimately leading to changes in landcover. Agricultural land, naturally vegetated land, and other land types are converted into residential areas with a high density of constructs, such as transportation systems and housing. In urban regions of rapid growth and change, urban planners need regular information on up to date ground change. Amman (the capital of Jordan) is growing at unprecedented rates, creating extensive urban landscapes. Planners interact with these changes without having a global view of their impact. The use of aerial photographs and satellite images data combined with topographic information and field survey could provide effective information to develop urban change and growth inventory which could be explored towards producing a very important signature for the built-up area changes.

Keywords: highway design, satellite technologies, remote sensing, GIS, image segmentation, classification

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3030 Analyzing of the Urban Landscape Configurations and Expansion of Dire Dawa City, Ethiopia Using Satellite Data and Landscape Metrics Approaches

Authors: Berhanu Keno Terfa

Abstract:

To realize the consequences of urbanization, accurate, and up-to-date representation of the urban landscape patterns is critical for urban planners and policymakers. Thus, the study quantitatively characterized the spatiotemporal composition and configuration of the urban landscape and urban expansion process in Dire Dawa City, Ethiopia, form the year 2006 to 2018. The integrated approaches of various sensors satellite data, Spot (2006) and Sentinel 2 (2018) combined with landscape metrics analysis was employed to explore the pattern, process, and overall growth status in the city. The result showed that the built-up area had increased by 62% between 2006 and 2018, at an average annual increment of 3.6%, while the other land covers were lost significantly due to urban expansion. The highest urban expansion has occurred in the northwest direction, whereas the most fragmented landscape pattern was recorded in the west direction. Overall, the analysis showed that Dire Dawa City experienced accelerated urban expansion with a fragmented and complicated spatiotemporal urban landscape patterns, suggesting a strong tendency towards sprawl over the past 12 years. The findings in the study could help planners and policy developers to insight the historical dynamics of the urban region for sustainable development.

Keywords: zonal metrics, multi-temporal, multi-resolution, urban growth, remote sensing data

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3029 Application of RayMan Model in Quantifying the Impacts of the Built Environment and Surface Properties on Surrounding Temperature

Authors: Maryam Karimi, Rouzbeh Nazari

Abstract:

Introduction: Understanding thermal distribution in the micro-urban climate has now been necessary for urban planners or designers due to the impact of complex micro-scale features of Urban Heat Island (UHI) on the built environment and public health. Hence, understanding the interrelation between urban components and thermal pattern can assist planners in the proper addition of vegetation to build-environment, which can minimize the UHI impact. To characterize the need for urban green infrastructure (UGI) through better urban planning, this study proposes the use of RayMan model to measure the impact of air quality and increased temperature based on urban morphology in the selected metropolitan cities. This project will measure the impact of build environment for urban and regional planning using human biometeorological evaluations (Tmrt). Methods: We utilized the RayMan model to estimate the Tmrt in an urban environment incorporating location and height of buildings and trees as a supplemental tool in urban planning and street design. The estimated Tmrt value will be compared with existing surface and air temperature data to find the actual temperature felt by pedestrians. Results: Our current results suggest a strong relationship between sky-view factor (SVF) and increased surface temperature in megacities based on current urban morphology. Conclusion: This study will help with Quantifying the impacts of the built environment and surface properties on surrounding temperature, identifying priority urban neighborhoods by analyzing Tmrt and air quality data at the pedestrian level, and characterizing the need for urban green infrastructure cooling potential.

Keywords: built environment, urban planning, urban cooling, extreme heat

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3028 Strategic Citizen Participation in Applied Planning Investigations: How Planners Use Etic and Emic Community Input Perspectives to Fill-in the Gaps in Their Analysis

Authors: John Gaber

Abstract:

Planners regularly use citizen input as empirical data to help them better understand community issues they know very little about. This type of community data is based on the lived experiences of local residents and is known as "emic" data. What is becoming more common practice for planners is their use of data from local experts and stakeholders (known as "etic" data or the outsider perspective) to help them fill in the gaps in their analysis of applied planning research projects. Utilizing international Health Impact Assessment (HIA) data, I look at who planners invite to their citizen input investigations. Research presented in this paper shows that planners access a wide range of emic and etic community perspectives in their search for the “community’s view.” The paper concludes with how planners can chart out a new empirical path in their execution of emic/etic citizen participation strategies in their applied planning research projects.

Keywords: citizen participation, emic data, etic data, Health Impact Assessment (HIA)

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3027 A Proposal to Integrate Spatially Explicit Ecosystem Services with Urban Metabolic Modelling

Authors: Thomas Elliot, Javier Babi Almenar, Benedetto Rugani

Abstract:

The integration of urban metabolism (UM) with spatially explicit ecosystem service (ES) stocks has the potential to advance sustainable urban development. It will correct the lack of spatially specificity of current urban metabolism models. Furthermore, it will include into UM not only the physical properties of material and energy stocks and flows, but also the implications to the natural capital that provides and maintains human well-being. This paper presents the first stages of a modelling framework by which urban planners can assess spatially the trade-offs of ES flows resulting from urban interventions of different character and scale. This framework allows for a multi-region assessment which takes into account sustainability burdens consequent to an urban planning event occurring elsewhere in the environment. The urban boundary is defined as the Functional Urban Audit (FUA) method to account for trans-administrative ES flows. ES are mapped using CORINE land use within the FUA. These stocks and flows are incorporated into a UM assessment method to demonstrate the transfer and flux of ES arising from different urban planning implementations.

Keywords: ecological economics, ecosystem services, spatial planning, urban metabolism

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3026 Surface Water Flow of Urban Areas and Sustainable Urban Planning

Authors: Sheetal Sharma

Abstract:

Urban planning is associated with land transformation from natural areas to modified and developed ones which leads to modification of natural environment. The basic knowledge of relationship between both should be ascertained before proceeding for the development of natural areas. Changes on land surface due to build up pavements, roads and similar land cover, affect surface water flow. There is a gap between urban planning and basic knowledge of hydrological processes which should be known to the planners. The paper aims to identify these variations in surface flow due to urbanization for a temporal scale of 40 years using Storm Water Management Mode (SWMM) and again correlating these findings with the urban planning guidelines in study area along with geological background to find out the suitable combinations of land cover, soil and guidelines. For the purpose of identifying the changes in surface flows, 19 catchments were identified with different geology and growth in 40 years facing different ground water levels fluctuations. The increasing built up, varying surface runoff are studied using Arc GIS and SWMM modeling, regression analysis for runoff. Resulting runoff for various land covers and soil groups with varying built up conditions were observed. The modeling procedures also included observations for varying precipitation and constant built up in all catchments. All these observations were combined for individual catchment and single regression curve was obtained for runoff. Thus, it was observed that alluvial with suitable land cover was better for infiltration and least generation of runoff but excess built up could not be sustained on alluvial soil. Similarly, basalt had least recharge and most runoff demanding maximum vegetation over it. Sandstone resulted in good recharging if planned with more open spaces and natural soils with intermittent vegetation. Hence, these observations made a keystone base for planners while planning various land uses on different soils. This paper contributes and provides a solution to basic knowledge gap, which urban planners face during development of natural surfaces.

Keywords: runoff, built up, roughness, recharge, temporal changes

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3025 Multi-Criteria Decision Support System for Modeling of Civic Facilities Using GIS Applications: A Case Study of F-11, Islamabad

Authors: Asma Shaheen Hashmi, Omer Riaz, Khalid Mahmood, Fahad Ullah, Tanveer Ahmad

Abstract:

The urban landscapes are being change with the population growth and advancements in new technologies. The urban sprawl pattern and utilizes are related to the local socioeconomic and physical condition. Urban policy decisions are executed mostly through spatial planning. A decision support system (DSS) is very powerful tool which provides flexible knowledge base method for urban planning. An application was developed using geographical information system (GIS) for urban planning. A scenario based DSS was developed to integrate the hierarchical muti-criteria data of different aspects of urban landscape. These were physical environment, the dumping site, spatial distribution of road network, gas and water supply lines, and urban watershed management, selection criteria for new residential, recreational, commercial and industrial sites. The model provided a framework to incorporate the sustainable future development. The data can be entered dynamically by planners according to the appropriate criteria for the management of urban landscapes.

Keywords: urban, GIS, spatial, criteria

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3024 GIS Model for Sanitary Landfill Site Selection Based on Geotechnical Parameters

Authors: Hecson Christian, Joel Macwan

Abstract:

Landfill site selection in an urban area is a critical issue in the planning process. With the growth of the urbanization, it has a mammoth impact on the economy, ecology, and environmental health of the region. Outsized amount of wastes are produced and the problem gets soared every day. Hence, selection of ideal site for sanitary landfill is a challenge for urban planners and solid waste managers. Disposal site is a function of many parameters. Among all, Geotechnical parameters are very vital as the same is related to surrounding open land. Moreover, the accessible safe and acceptable land is also scarce. Therefore, in this paper geotechnical parameters are used to develop a GIS model to identify an ideal location for landfill purpose. Metropolitan city of Surat is highly populated and fastest growing urban area in India. The research objectives are to conduct field experiments to collect data and to transfer the facts in GIS platform to evolve a model, to find ideal location. Planners’ preferences were obtained to use analytical hierarchical process (AHP) to find weights of each parameter. Integration of GIS and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) techniques are applied to improve decision-making. It augments an environment for transformation and combination of geographical data and planners’ preferences. GIS performs deterministic overlay and buffer operations. MCDA methods evaluate alternatives based on the decision makers’ subjective values and priorities. Research results have shown many alternative locations. Economic analysis of selected site from actual operations point of view is not included in this research.

Keywords: GIS, AHP, MCDA, Geo-technical

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3023 Urban Planning Compilation Problems in China and the Corresponding Optimization Ideas under the Vision of the Hyper-Cycle Theory

Authors: Hong Dongchen, Chen Qiuxiao, Wu Shuang

Abstract:

Systematic science reveals the complex nonlinear mechanisms of behaviour in urban system. However, in China, when the current city planners face with the system, most of them are still taking simple linear thinking to consider the open complex giant system. This paper introduces the hyper-cycle theory, which is one of the basis theories of systematic science, based on the analysis of the reasons why the current urban planning failed, and proposals for optimization ideas that urban planning compilation should change, from controlling quantitative to the changes of relationship, from blueprint planning to progressive planning based on the nonlinear characteristics and from management control to dynamically monitor feedback.

Keywords: systematic science, hyper-cycle theory, urban planning, urban management

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3022 Spatial Patterns of Urban Expansion in Kuwait City between 1989 and 2001

Authors: Saad Algharib, Jay Lee

Abstract:

Urbanization is a complex phenomenon that occurs during the city’s development from one form to another. In other words, it is the process when the activities in the land use/land cover change from rural to urban. Since the oil exploration, Kuwait City has been growing rapidly due to its urbanization and population growth by both natural growth and inward immigration. The main objective of this study is to detect changes in urban land use/land cover and to examine the changing spatial patterns of urban growth in and around Kuwait City between 1989 and 2001. In addition, this study also evaluates the spatial patterns of the changes detected and how they can be related to the spatial configuration of the city. Recently, the use of remote sensing and geographic information systems became very useful and important tools in urban studies because of the integration of them can allow and provide the analysts and planners to detect, monitor and analyze the urban growth in a region effectively. Moreover, both planners and users can predict the trends of the growth in urban areas in the future with remotely sensed and GIS data because they can be effectively updated with required precision levels. In order to identify the new urban areas between 1989 and 2001, the study uses satellite images of the study area and remote sensing technology for classifying these images. Unsupervised classification method was applied to classify images to land use and land cover data layers. After finishing the unsupervised classification method, GIS overlay function was applied to the classified images for detecting the locations and patterns of the new urban areas that developed during the study period. GIS was also utilized to evaluate the distribution of the spatial patterns. For example, Moran’s index was applied for all data inputs to examine the urban growth distribution. Furthermore, this study assesses if the spatial patterns and process of these changes take place in a random fashion or with certain identifiable trends. During the study period, the result of this study indicates that the urban growth has occurred and expanded 10% from 32.4% in 1989 to 42.4% in 2001. Also, the results revealed that the largest increase of the urban area occurred between the major highways after the forth ring road from the center of Kuwait City. Moreover, the spatial distribution of urban growth occurred in cluster manners.

Keywords: geographic information systems, remote sensing, urbanization, urban growth

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3021 A Framework for Vacant City-Owned Land to Be Utilised for Urban Agriculture: The Case of Cape Town, South Africa

Authors: P. S. Van Staden, M. M. Campbell

Abstract:

Vacant City of Cape Town-owned land lying un-utilized and -productive could be developed for land uses such as urban agriculture that may improve the livelihoods of low income families. The new City of Cape Town zoning scheme includes an Urban Agriculture zoning for the first time. Unstructured qualitative interviews among town planners revealed their optimism about this inclusion as it will provide low-income residents with opportunities to generate an income. An existing farming community at Philippi, located within the municipal boundary of the city, was approached and empirical data obtained through questionnaires provided proof that urban agriculture could be viable in a coastal metropolitan city such as Cape Town even if farmers only produce for their own households. The lease method proposed for urban agriculture is a usufruct agreement conferring the right to another party, other than the legal owner, to enjoy the use and advantages of the property.

Keywords: land uses, urban agriculture, agriculture, food engineering

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3020 Spatial Data Science for Data Driven Urban Planning: The Youth Economic Discomfort Index for Rome

Authors: Iacopo Testi, Diego Pajarito, Nicoletta Roberto, Carmen Greco

Abstract:

Today, a consistent segment of the world’s population lives in urban areas, and this proportion will vastly increase in the next decades. Therefore, understanding the key trends in urbanization, likely to unfold over the coming years, is crucial to the implementation of sustainable urban strategies. In parallel, the daily amount of digital data produced will be expanding at an exponential rate during the following years. The analysis of various types of data sets and its derived applications have incredible potential across different crucial sectors such as healthcare, housing, transportation, energy, and education. Nevertheless, in city development, architects and urban planners appear to rely mostly on traditional and analogical techniques of data collection. This paper investigates the prospective of the data science field, appearing to be a formidable resource to assist city managers in identifying strategies to enhance the social, economic, and environmental sustainability of our urban areas. The collection of different new layers of information would definitely enhance planners' capabilities to comprehend more in-depth urban phenomena such as gentrification, land use definition, mobility, or critical infrastructural issues. Specifically, the research results correlate economic, commercial, demographic, and housing data with the purpose of defining the youth economic discomfort index. The statistical composite index provides insights regarding the economic disadvantage of citizens aged between 18 years and 29 years, and results clearly display that central urban zones and more disadvantaged than peripheral ones. The experimental set up selected the city of Rome as the testing ground of the whole investigation. The methodology aims at applying statistical and spatial analysis to construct a composite index supporting informed data-driven decisions for urban planning.

Keywords: data science, spatial analysis, composite index, Rome, urban planning, youth economic discomfort index

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3019 Study on the Relationship between the Urban Geography and Urban Agglomeration to the Effects of Carbon Emissions

Authors: Peng-Shao Chen, Yen-Jong Chen

Abstract:

In recent years, global warming, the dramatic change in energy prices and the exhaustion of natural resources illustrated that energy-related topic cannot be ignored. Despite the relationship between the cities and CO₂ emissions has been extensively studied in recent years, little attention has been paid to differences in the geographical location of the city. However, the geographical climate has a great impact on lifestyle from city to city, such as the type of buildings, the major industry of the city, etc. Therefore, the paper instigates empirically the effects of kinds of urban factors and CO₂ emissions with consideration of the different geographic, climatic zones which cities are located. Using the regression model and a dataset of urban agglomeration in East Asia cities with over one million population, including 2005, 2010, and 2015 three years, the findings suggest that the impact of urban factors on CO₂ emissions vary with the latitude of the cities. Surprisingly, all kinds of urban factors, including the urban population, the share of GDP in service industry, per capita income, and others, have different level of impact on the cities locate in the tropical climate zone and temperate climate zone. The results of the study analyze the impact of different urban factors on CO₂ emissions in urban area with different geographical climate zones. These findings will be helpful for the formulation of relevant policies for urban planners and policy makers in different regions.

Keywords: carbon emissions, urban agglomeration, urban factor, urban geography

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3018 Outwrestling Cataclysmic Tsunamis at Hilo, Hawaii: Using Technical Developments of the past 50 Years to Improve Performance

Authors: Mark White

Abstract:

The best practices for owners and urban planners to manage tsunami risk have evolved during the last fifty years, and related technical advances have created opportunities for them to obtain better performance than in earlier cataclysmic tsunami inundations. This basic pattern is illustrated at Hilo Bay, the waterfront area of Hilo, Hawaii, an urban seaport which faces the most severe tsunami hazard of the Hawaiian archipelago. Since April 1, 1946, Hilo Bay has endured tsunami waves with a maximum water height exceeding 2.5 meters following four severe earthquakes: Unimak Island (Mw 8.6, 6.1 m) in 1946; Valdiva (Mw 9.5, the largest earthquake of the 20th century, 10.6 m) in 1960; William Prince Sound (Mw 9.2, 3.8 m) in 1964; and Kalapana (Mw 7.7, the largest earthquake in Hawaii since 1868, 2.6 m) in 1975. Ignoring numerous smaller tsunamis during the same time frame, these four cataclysmic tsunamis have caused property losses in Hilo to exceed $1.25 billion and more than 150 deaths. It is reasonable to foresee another cataclysmic tsunami inundating the urban core of Hilo in the next 50 years, which, if unchecked, could cause additional deaths and losses in the hundreds of millions of dollars. Urban planners and individual owners are now in a position to reduce these losses in the next foreseeable tsunami that generates maximum water heights between 2.5 and 10 meters in Hilo Bay. Since 1946, Hilo planners and individual owners have already created buffer zones between the shoreline and its historic downtown area. As these stakeholders make inevitable improvements to the built environment along and adjacent to the shoreline, they should incorporate new methods for better managing the obvious tsunami risk at Hilo. At the planning level, new manmade land forms, such as tsunami parks and inundation reservoirs, should be developed. Individual owners should require their design professionals to include sacrificial seismic and tsunami fuses that will perform well in foreseeable severe events and that can be easily repaired in the immediate aftermath. These investments before the next cataclysmic tsunami at Hilo will yield substantial reductions in property losses and fatalities.

Keywords: hilo, tsunami parks, reservoirs, fuse systems, risk managment

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3017 Regression Analysis of Travel Indicators and Public Transport Usage in Urban Areas

Authors: Mehdi Moeinaddini, Zohreh Asadi-Shekari, Muhammad Zaly Shah, Amran Hamzah

Abstract:

Currently, planners try to have more green travel options to decrease economic, social and environmental problems. Therefore, this study tries to find significant urban travel factors to be used to increase the usage of alternative urban travel modes. This paper attempts to identify the relationship between prominent urban mobility indicators and daily trips by public transport in 30 cities from various parts of the world. Different travel modes, infrastructures and cost indicators were evaluated in this research as mobility indicators. The results of multi-linear regression analysis indicate that there is a significant relationship between mobility indicators and the daily usage of public transport.

Keywords: green travel modes, urban travel indicators, daily trips by public transport, multi-linear regression analysis

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3016 Measuring Housing Quality Using Geographic Information System (GIS)

Authors: Silvija ŠIljeg, Ante ŠIljeg, Ivan Marić

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Measuring housing quality is being done on objective and subjective level using different indicators. During the research 5 urban and housing indicators formed according to 58 variables from different housing, domains were used. The aims of the research were to measure housing quality based on GIS approach and to detect critical points of housing in the example of Croatian coastal Town Zadar. The purposes of GIS in the research are to generate models of housing quality indexes by standardisation and aggregation of variables and to examine accuracy model of housing quality index. Analysis of accuracy has been done on the example of variable referring to educational objects availability. By defining weighted coefficients and using different GIS methods high, middle and low housing quality zones were determined. Obtained results can be of use to town planners, spatial planners and town authorities in the process of generating decisions, guidelines, and spatial interventions.

Keywords: housing quality, GIS, housing quality index, indicators, models of housing quality

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3015 Examining the Relational Approach Elements in City Development Strategy of Qazvin 2031

Authors: Majid Etaati, Hamid Majedi

Abstract:

Relational planning approach proposed by Patsy Healey goes beyond the physical proximity and emphasizes social proximity. This approach stresses the importance of nodes and flows between nodes. Current plans in European cities have incrementally incorporated this approach, but urban plans in Iran have still stayed very detailed and rigid. In response to the weak evaluation results of the comprehensive planning approach in Qazvin, the local authorities applied the City Development Strategy (CDS) to cope with new urban challenges. The paper begins with an explanation of relational planning and suggests that Healey gives urban planners about spatial strategies and then it surveys relational factors in CDS of Qazvin. This study analyzes the extent which CDS of Qazvin have highlighted nodes, flows, and dynamics. In the end, the study concludes that there is a relational understanding of urban dynamics in the plan, but it is weak.

Keywords: relational, dynamics, city development strategy, urban planning, Qazvin

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3014 The Planner's Pentangle: A Proposal for a 21st-Century Model of Planning for Sustainable Development

Authors: Sonia Hirt

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The Planner's Triangle, an oft-cited model that visually defined planning as the search for sustainability to balance the three basic priorities of equity, economy, and environment, has influenced planning theory and practice for a quarter of a century. In this essay, we argue that the triangle requires updating and expansion. Even if planners keep sustainability as their key core aspiration at the center of their imaginary geometry, the triangle's vertices have to be rethought. Planners should move on to a 21st-century concept. We propose a Planner's Pentangle with five basic priorities as vertices of a new conceptual polygon. These five priorities are Wellbeing, Equity, Economy, Environment, and Esthetics (WE⁴). The WE⁴ concept more accurately and fully represents planning’s history. This is especially true in the United States, where public art and public health played pivotal roles in the establishment of the profession in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It also more accurately represents planning’s future. Both health/wellness and aesthetic concerns are becoming increasingly important in the 21st century. The pentangle can become an effective tool for understanding and visualizing planning's history and present. Planning has a long history of representing urban presents and future as conceptual models in visual form. Such models can play an important role in understanding and shaping practice. For over two decades, one such model, the Planner's Triangle, stood apart as the expression of planning's pursuit for sustainability. But if the model is outdated and insufficiently robust, it can diminish our understanding of planning practice, as well as the appreciation of the profession among non-planners. Thus, we argue for a new conceptual model of what planners do.

Keywords: sustainable development, planning for sustainable development, planner's triangle, planner's pentangle, planning and health, planning and art, planning history

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3013 Urban Freight Station: An Innovative Approach to Urban Freight

Authors: Amit Kumar Jain, Surbhi Jain

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The urban freight in a city constitutes 10 to 18 per cent of all city road traffic, and 40 per cent of air pollution and noise emissions, are directly related to commercial transport. The policy measures implemented by urban planners have sought to restrict rather than assist goods-vehicle operations. This approach has temporarily controlled the urban transport demand during peak hours of traffic but has not effectively solved transport congestion. The solution discussed in the paper envisages the development of a comprehensive network of Urban Freight Stations (UFS) connected through underground conveyor belts in the city in line with baggage segregation and distribution in any of the major airports. The transportation of freight shall be done in standard size containers/cars through rail borne carts. The freight can be despatched or received from any of the UFS. Once freight is booked for a destination from any of the UFS, it would be stuffed in the container and digitally tagged for the destination. The container would reach the destination UFS through a network of rail borne carts. The container would be de-stuffed at the destination UFS and sent for further delivery, or the consignee may be asked to collect the consignment from urban freight station. The obvious benefits would be decongestion of roads, reduction in air and noise pollution, saving in manpower used for freight transportation.

Keywords: congestion, urban freight, intelligent transport system, pollution

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3012 Urban Areas Management in Developing Countries: Analysis of the Urban Areas Crossed with Risk of Storm Water Drains, Aswan-Egypt

Authors: Omar Hamdy, Schichen Zhao, Hussein Abd El-Atty, Ayman Ragab, Muhammad Salem

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One of the most risky areas in Aswan is Abouelreesh, which is suffering from flood disasters, as heavy deluge inundates urban areas causing considerable damage to buildings and infrastructure. Moreover, the main problem was the urban sprawl towards this risky area. This paper aims to identify the urban areas located in the risk areas prone to flash floods. Analyzing this phenomenon needs a lot of data to ensure satisfactory results; however, in this case the official data and field data were limited, and therefore, free sources of satellite data were used. This paper used ArcGIS tools to obtain the storm water drains network by analyzing DEM files. Additionally, historical imagery in Google Earth was studied to determine the age of each building. The last step was to overlay the urban area layer and the storm water drains layer to identify the vulnerable areas. The results of this study would be helpful to urban planners and government officials to make the disasters risk estimation and develop primary plans to recover the risky area, especially urban areas located in torrents.

Keywords: risk area, DEM, storm water drains, GIS

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3011 An Overview of Domain Models of Urban Quantitative Analysis

Authors: Mohan Li

Abstract:

Nowadays, intelligent research technology is more and more important than traditional research methods in urban research work, and this proportion will greatly increase in the next few decades. Frequently such analyzing work cannot be carried without some software engineering knowledge. And here, domain models of urban research will be necessary when applying software engineering knowledge to urban work. In many urban plan practice projects, making rational models, feeding reliable data, and providing enough computation all make indispensable assistance in producing good urban planning. During the whole work process, domain models can optimize workflow design. At present, human beings have entered the era of big data. The amount of digital data generated by cities every day will increase at an exponential rate, and new data forms are constantly emerging. How to select a suitable data set from the massive amount of data, manage and process it has become an ability that more and more planners and urban researchers need to possess. This paper summarizes and makes predictions of the emergence of technologies and technological iterations that may affect urban research in the future, discover urban problems, and implement targeted sustainable urban strategies. They are summarized into seven major domain models. They are urban and rural regional domain model, urban ecological domain model, urban industry domain model, development dynamic domain model, urban social and cultural domain model, urban traffic domain model, and urban space domain model. These seven domain models can be used to guide the construction of systematic urban research topics and help researchers organize a series of intelligent analytical tools, such as Python, R, GIS, etc. These seven models make full use of quantitative spatial analysis, machine learning, and other technologies to achieve higher efficiency and accuracy in urban research, assisting people in making reasonable decisions.

Keywords: big data, domain model, urban planning, urban quantitative analysis, machine learning, workflow design

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3010 Comparative Study of Ecological City Criteria in Traditional Iranian Cities

Authors: Zahra Yazdani Paraii, Zohreh Yazdani Paraei

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Many urban designers and planners have been involved in the design of environmentally friendly or nature adaptable urban development models due to increase in urban populations in the recent century, limitation on natural resources, climate change, and lack of enough water and food. Ecological city is one of the latest models proposed to accomplish the latter goal. In this work, the existing establishing indicators of the ecological city are used regarding energy, water, land use and transportation issues. The model is used to compare the function of traditional settlements of Iran. The result of investigation shows that the specifications and functions of the traditional settlements of Iran fit well into the ecological city model. It is found that the inhabitants of the old cities and villages in Iran had founded ecological cities based on their knowledge of the environment and its natural opportunities and limitations.

Keywords: ecological city, traditional city, urban design, environment

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3009 The Importance of Sustainable Urban Development and Its Impacts on Turkey’s Urban Environmental Laws

Authors: Azadeh Rezafar, Sevkiye Sence Turk

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Rapid population growth in urban areas and extinction danger of natural resources in order to meet the food needs of these population, has revealed the need for sustainability. It did not last long that city planners realized the importance of an equal access to natural resources with protecting and managing them in cities, in accordance with the concept of sustainable development. Like in other countries The Turkish Government is aware of the importance of the sustainable development in their cities. The government issued new laws for protection of environmental assets and so that the preservation of natural ecology. The main objective of this article is to emphasis the importance of the sustainable development in the context of the developing world by giving special information about the method of the Turkish Government for protecting nature with approval of difference laws in this area.

Keywords: population growth, sustainable development, Turkey, Turkish Urban Environmental Laws

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3008 An Integrated Approach to Assessing Urban Nature as an Indicator to Mitigate Urban Heat Island Effect: A Case Study of Lahore, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Nasar-u-Minallah, Dagmar Haase, Salman Qureshi

Abstract:

Rapid urbanization significantly change land use, urban nature, land surface vegetation cover, and heat distribution, leading to the formation of urban heat island (UHI) effect and affecting the healthy growth of cities and the comfort of human living style. Past information and present changes in Land Surface Temperature (LST) and urban landscapes could be useful to geographers, environmentalists, and urban planners in an attempt to shape the urban development process and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands (UHI). This study aims at using Satellite Remote Sensing (SRS) and GIS techniques to develop an approach for assessing the urban nature and UHI effects in Lahore, Pakistan. The study employed the Radiative Transfer Method (RTM) in estimating LST to assess the SUHI effect during the interval of 20 years (2000-2020). The assessment was performed by the available Landsat 7/ETM+ and Landsat 8/OIL_TIRs data for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020 respectively. Pearson’s correlation and normalized mutual information were applied to investigate the relationship between green space characteristics and LST. The result of this work revealed that the influence of urban heat island is not always at the city centers but sometimes in the outskirt where a lot of development activities were going on towards the direction of expansion of Lahore, Pakistan. The present study explores the usage of image processing and spatial analysis in the drive towards achieving urban greening of Lahore and a sustainable urban environment in terms of urban planning, policy, and decision making and promoting the healthy and sustainable urban environment of the city.

Keywords: urban nature, urban heat islands, urban green space, land use, Lahore

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3007 Criteria Analysis of Residential Location Preferences: An Urban Dwellers’ Perspective

Authors: Arati Siddharth Petkar, Joel E. M. Macwan

Abstract:

Preferences for residential location are of a diverse nature. Primarily they are based on the socio-economic, socio-cultural, socio-demographic characteristics of the household. It also depends on character, and the growth potential of different areas in a city. In the present study, various criteria affecting residential location preferences from the Urban Dwellers’ perspective have been analyzed. The household survey has been conducted in two parts: Existing Buyers’ survey and Future Buyers’ survey. The analysis reveals that workplace location is the most governing criterion in deciding residential location from the majority of the urban dwellers perspective. For analyzing the importance of varied criteria, Analytical Hierarchy Process approach has been explored. The suggested approach will be helpful for urban planners, decision makers and developers, while designating a new residential area or redeveloping an existing one.

Keywords: analytical hierarchy process (AHP), household, preferences, residential location preferences, residential land use, urban dwellers

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3006 Heat Vulnerability Index (HVI) Mapping in Extreme Heat Days Coupled with Air Pollution Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) Technique: A Case Study of Amiens, France

Authors: Aiman Mazhar Qureshi, Ahmed Rachid

Abstract:

Extreme heat events are emerging human environmental health concerns in dense urban areas due to anthropogenic activities. High spatial and temporal resolution heat maps are important for urban heat adaptation and mitigation, helping to indicate hotspots that are required for the attention of city planners. The Heat Vulnerability Index (HVI) is the important approach used by decision-makers and urban planners to identify heat-vulnerable communities and areas that require heat stress mitigation strategies. Amiens is a medium-sized French city, where the average temperature has been increasing since the year 2000 by +1°C. Extreme heat events are recorded in the month of July for the last three consecutive years, 2018, 2019 and 2020. Poor air quality, especially ground-level ozone, has been observed mainly during the same hot period. In this study, we evaluated the HVI in Amiens during extreme heat days recorded last three years (2018,2019,2020). The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique is used for fine-scale vulnerability mapping. The main data we considered for this study to develop the HVI model are (a) socio-economic and demographic data; (b) Air pollution; (c) Land use and cover; (d) Elderly heat-illness; (e) socially vulnerable; (f) Remote sensing data (Land surface temperature (LST), mean elevation, NDVI and NDWI). The output maps identified the hot zones through comprehensive GIS analysis. The resultant map shows that high HVI exists in three typical areas: (1) where the population density is quite high and the vegetation cover is small (2) the artificial surfaces (built-in areas) (3) industrial zones that release thermal energy and ground-level ozone while those with low HVI are located in natural landscapes such as rivers and grasslands. The study also illustrates the system theory with a causal diagram after data analysis where anthropogenic activities and air pollution appear in correspondence with extreme heat events in the city. Our suggested index can be a useful tool to guide urban planners and municipalities, decision-makers and public health professionals in targeting areas at high risk of extreme heat and air pollution for future interventions adaptation and mitigation measures.

Keywords: heat vulnerability index, heat mapping, heat health-illness, remote sensing, urban heat mitigation

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3005 The Relations between Spatial Structure and Land Price

Authors: Jung-Hun Cho, Tae-Heon Moon, Jin-Hak Lee

Abstract:

Land price contains the comprehensive characteristics of urban space, representing the social and economic features of the city. Accordingly, land price can be utilized as an indicator, which can identify the changes of spatial structure and socioeconomic variations caused by urban development. This study attempted to explore the changes in land price by a new road construction. Methodologically, it adopted Space Syntax, which can interpret urban spatial structure comprehensively, to identify the relationship between the forms of road networks and land price. The result of the regression analysis showed the ‘integration index’ of Space Syntax is statistically significant and has a strong correlation with land price. If the integration value is high, land price increases proportionally. Subsequently, using regression equation, it tried to predict the land price changes of each of the lots surrounding the roads that are newly opened. The research methods or study results have the advantage of predicting the changes in land price in an easy way. In addition, it will contribute to planners and project managers to establish relevant polices and smoothing urban regeneration projects through enhancing residents’ understanding by providing possible results and advantages in their land price before the execution of urban regeneration and development projects.

Keywords: space syntax, urban regeneration, spatial structure, official land price

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3004 The Effect of Physical and Functional Structure on Citizens` Social Behavior: Case Study of Valiasr Crossroads, Tehran, Iran

Authors: Seyedeh Samaneh Hosseini Yousefi

Abstract:

Space does not play role just in mentioning the place or locations. It also takes part in people attendance and social structures. Urban space is of substantial aspects of city which is a public sphere for free and unlimited appearance of citizens. Along with such appearances and regarding physical, environmental and functional conditions, different personal and social behaviors can be seen and analyzed toward people. The main principle of an urban space is including social relations and communications. In this survey, urban space has been referred to one in which physical, environmental and functional attractions cause pause and staying of people. Surveys have shown that urban designers have discussed about place more than architects or planners. With attention to mutual relations between urban space, society and civilization, proper policy making and planning are essential due to achieving an ideal urban space. The survey has been decided to analyze the effect of functional and physical structure of urban spaces on citizens' social behaviors. Hence, Valiasr crossroads, Tehran identified public space, has been selected in which analytic-descriptive method utilized. To test the accuracy of assumptions, statistical test has been accomplished by SPSS. Findings have shown that functional structure affects social behaviors, relations, integration and participation more than physical structure does.

Keywords: citizens' social behavior, functional structure, physical structure, urban space

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
3003 Analyzing Land use change and its impacts on the Urban Environment in a Fast Growing Metropolitan City of Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Nasar-u-Minallah, Dagmar Haase, Salman Qureshi

Abstract:

In a rapidly growing developing country cities are becoming more urbanized leading to modifications in urban climate. Rapid urbanization, especially unplanned urban land expansion, together with climate change has a profound impact on the urban settlement and urban thermal environment. Cities, particularly Pakistan are facing remarkably environmental issues and uneven development, and thus it is important to strengthen the investigation of urban environmental pressure brought by land-use changes and urbanization. The present study investigated the long term modification of the urban environment by urbanization utilizing Spatio-temporal dynamics of land-use change, urban population data, urban heat islands, monthly maximum, and minimum temperature of thirty years, multi remote sensing imageries, and spectral indices such as Normalized Difference Built-up Index and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. The results indicate rapid growth in an urban built-up area and a reduction in vegetation cover in the last three decades (1990-2020). A positive correlation between urban heat islands and Normalized Difference Built-up Index, whereas a negative correlation between urban heat islands and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index clearly shows how urbanization is affecting the local environment. The increase in air and land surface temperature temperatures is dangerous to human comfort. Practical approaches, such as increasing the urban green spaces and proper planning of the cities, have been suggested to help prevent further modification of the urban thermal environment by urbanization. The findings of this work are thus important for multi-sectorial use in the cities of Pakistan. By taking into consideration these results, the urban planners, decision-makers, and local government can make different policies to mitigate the urban land use impacts on the urban thermal environment in Pakistan.

Keywords: land use, urban environment, local climate, Lahore

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