Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6820

Search results for: urban green space

6820 Urban Green Space Analysis Incorporated at Bodakdev, Ahmedabad City Based on the RS and GIS Techniques

Authors: Nartan Rajpriya

Abstract:

City is a multiplex ecological system made up of social, economic and natural sub systems. Green space system is the foundation of the natural system. It is also suitable part of natural productivity in the urban structure. It is dispensable for constructing a high quality human settlements and a high standard ecocity. Ahmedabad is the fastest growing city of India. Today urban green space is under strong pressure in Ahmedabad city. Due to increasing urbanization, combined with a spatial planning policy of densification, more people face the prospect of living in less green residential environments. In this research analyzes the importance of available Green Space at Bodakdev Park, Ahmedabad, using remote sensing and GIS technologies. High resolution IKONOS image and LISS IV data has been used in this project. This research answers the questions like: • Temporal changes in urban green space area. • Proximity to heavy traffic or roads or any recreational facilities. • Importance in terms of health. • Availability of quality infrastructure. • Available green space per area, per sq. km and per total population. This projects incorporates softwares like ArcGIS, Ecognition and ERDAS Imagine, GPS technologies etc. Methodology includes the field work and collection of other relevant data while preparation of land use maps using the IKONOS imagery which is corrected using GPS.

Keywords: urban green space, ecocity, IKONOS, LISS IV

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6819 Spatial Analysis of the Impact of City Developments Degradation of Green Space in Urban Fringe Eastern City of Yogyakarta Year 2005-2010

Authors: Pebri Nurhayati, Rozanah Ahlam Fadiyah

Abstract:

In the development of the city often use rural areas that can not be separated from the change in land use that lead to the degradation of urban green space in the city fringe. In the long run, the degradation of green open space this can impact on the decline of ecological, psychological and public health. Therefore, this research aims to (1) determine the relationship between the parameters of the degradation rate of urban development with green space, (2) develop a spatial model of the impact of urban development on the degradation of green open space with remote sensing techniques and Geographical Information Systems in an integrated manner. This research is a descriptive research with data collection techniques of observation and secondary data . In the data analysis, to interpret the direction of urban development and degradation of green open space is required in 2005-2010 ASTER image with NDVI. Of interpretation will generate two maps, namely maps and map development built land degradation green open space. Secondary data related to the rate of population growth, the level of accessibility, and the main activities of each city map is processed into a population growth rate, the level of accessibility maps, and map the main activities of the town. Each map is used as a parameter to map the degradation of green space and analyzed by non-parametric statistical analysis using Crosstab thus obtained value of C (coefficient contingency). C values were then compared with the Cmaximum to determine the relationship. From this research will be obtained in the form of modeling spatial map of the City Development Impact Degradation Green Space in Urban Fringe eastern city of Yogyakarta 2005-2010. In addition, this research also generate statistical analysis of the test results of each parameter to the degradation of green open space in the Urban Fringe eastern city of Yogyakarta 2005-2010.

Keywords: spatial analysis, urban development, degradation of green space, urban fringe

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6818 Federal College of Education Kano

Authors: Mahnaz Babaei Morad, Mojtaba Zargarzadeh, Behnaz Babaei Morad, Najmeh Salari Nasab

Abstract:

Green roofs and walls are one of the key elements of sustainable design in ecology design of cities. Lack of open space and urban green at different scales from one neighborhood to district is as subject that has become challenge for urban management Use change from green space to other use is familiar for Iranian citizens. The high price of land in this area, it seems only justified reason for municipalities that reduce the green space per capita. In this paper, examines the rooftops of Iranian city as a fifth facade, as well as the opportunity to offset some of the capital's urban spaces that has been removed. Today green roof isn't a matter of taste in the world. Be proportional to the quantity and quality of the architecture become the first concern of urban professionals and ecological approaches such as "sustainable" and "green architecture" is checked. In this paper we review and present examples of green roofs have been executed in Iran over the past decade. Survey some of the urban management policies in leading province in this article constitutes the second dimension. The purpose of this paper is study example of green roof performance in different parts of Iran, along with criteria for sustainable urban development and achieves the policies and components collection of implementation sustainable development , specific of Iranian green roof and monitor the develops ways to it.

Keywords: sustainable development, green roofs, Iran, green architecture

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6817 Green Roofs and Xeriscape Planting that Contribute to Sustainable Urban Green Space

Authors: Derya Sarı, Banu Karasah

Abstract:

In the recent years, urban green areas decrease dramatically as a result of increasing industrialization and population growth. At the same time, green spaces provide many ecosystem services such as controls of air pollution, noise reduction, prevents flooding and reduces the stress in the urban areas. Therefore, the plants help to these areas to get more livable and active, and also plants are one of the most significant identity elements in these open spaces. Roof gardens comes significant design comprehension as a result of global warming and also they contribute to cities with regard to ecological, economic, visual and recreational aspects. This study is mainly based on evaluation potential of green roofs and xeriscape planting design approach of Artvin (Turkey) known that generally has a remarkable floristic richness. Artvin is located on a sloping terrain, and the amount of green spaces that can be used is very limited in this city. Therefore, green roofs approach should be evaluated to supply urban green space sustainability. This study shows that it is appropriate about 20 perennial plants for green roofs and xeriscape planting design in Artvin city center. Usage of native plant species would be support to sustainable urban green spaces.

Keywords: Artvin, green roofs, urban green spaces, xeriscape planting

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6816 The Influences of Green Infrastructure Develop on Urban Renewals for Real Essence and Non-Real Essence Economic Value

Authors: Chao Jen-Chih, Hsu Kuo-Wei

Abstract:

Climate change and natural disasters take effect on urban development. It has been discussed urban renewals can prevent natural disasters. Integrating green infrastructure and urban renewals may have great effect on adapting the impact of climate change. To highlight the economic value of green infrastructure development on urban renewals, some strategies need to be carry on to reduce environmental impact. A number of urban renewals studies has been conducted on right transfer, financial risk, urban renewal policy, and public participation. Little research has been devoted on the subject of the economic value of green infrastructure development on urban renewals. The purpose of this study is to investigate the affecting factors on the economic value of green infrastructure development on urban renewals. This study will present the benefits of green infrastructure development and summarize the critical factors of green infrastructure develop on urban renewals for real essence and non-real essence on economic value from literature. Our results indicate that factors of housing price, land value, floor area incentive, and facilitation of the construction industry affect the outcome of real essence economic value. Factors of enhancement of urban disaster prevention, improvement of urban environment and landscape, crime reduction, climate control, pollution reduction, biological diversity, health impacts, and leisure space affects the outcome of non-real essence economic value.

Keywords: economic value, green infrastructure, urban renewals, urban development

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6815 Temperature Control and Comfort Level of Elementary School Building with Green Roof in New Taipei City, Taiwan

Authors: Ying-Ming Su, Mei-Shu Huang

Abstract:

To mitigate the urban heat island effect has become a global issue facing the challenge of climate change. Through literature reviews, plant photosynthesis can reduce the carbon dioxide and mitigate the urban heat island effect relatively. Because there are not enough open space and park, green roof has become an important policy in Taiwan. We selected elementary school buildings in northern New Taipei City as research subjects since elementary school is asked priority to build green roof and important educational place to promote green roof concept. Testo 175-H1 recording device was used to record the temperature and humidity difference between roof surface and interior space below roof with and without green roof for the long-term. We also use questionnaire to investigate the awareness of comfort level of green roof and sensation of teachers and students of the elementary school. The results indicated the temperature of roof without greening was higher than that with greening about 2°C. But sometimes during noontime, the temperature of green roof was higher than that of non-green roof related to the character of the accumulation and dissipation of heat of greening probably. The temperature of interior space below green roof was normally lower than that without green roof about 1°C showed that green roof could lower the temperature. The humidity of the green roof was higher than the one without greening also indicated that green roof retained water better. Teachers liked to combine green roof concept in the curriculum, students wished all classes can take turns to maintain the green roof. Teachers and students that school had integrated green roof concept in the curriculum were more willing to participate in the maintenance work of green roof. Teachers and students who may access and touch the green roof can be more aware of the green roof benefit. We suggest architect to increase the accessibility and visibility of green roof, such as a part of the activity space. This idea can be a reference of the green roof curriculum design.

Keywords: comfort level, elementary school, green roof, heat island effect

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6814 Exploring Neural Responses to Urban Spaces in Older People Using Mobile EEG

Authors: Chris Neale, Jenny Roe, Peter Aspinall, Sara Tilley, Steve Cinderby, Panos Mavros, Richard Coyne, Neil Thin, Catharine Ward Thompson

Abstract:

This research directly assesses older people’s neural activation in response to walking through a changing urban environment, as measured by electroencephalography (EEG). As the global urban population is predicted to grow, there is a need to understand the role that the urban environment may play on the health of its older inhabitants. There is a large body of evidence suggesting green space has a beneficial restorative effect, but this effect remains largely understudied in both older people and by using a neuroimaging assessment. For this study, participants aged 65 years and over were required to walk between a busy urban built environment and a green urban environment, in a counterbalanced design, wearing an Emotiv EEG headset to record real-time neural responses to place. Here we report on the outputs for these responses derived from both the proprietary Affectiv Suite software, which creates emotional parameters with a real time value assigned to them, as well as the raw EEG output focusing on alpha and beta changes, associated with changes in relaxation and attention respectively. Each walk lasted around fifteen minutes and was undertaken at the natural walking pace of the participant. The two walking environments were compared using a form of high dimensional correlated component regression (CCR) on difference data between the urban busy and urban green spaces. For the Emotiv parameters, results showed that levels of ‘engagement’ increased in the urban green space (with a subsequent decrease in the urban busy built space) whereas levels of ‘excitement’ increased in the urban busy environment (with a subsequent decrease in the urban green space). In the raw data, low beta (13 – 19 Hz) increased in the urban busy space with a subsequent decrease shown in the green space, similar to the pattern shown with the ‘excitement’ result. Alpha activity (9 – 13 Hz) shows a correlation with low beta, but not with dependent change in the regression model. This suggests that alpha is acting as a suppressor variable. These results suggest that there are neural signatures associated with the experience of urban spaces which may reflect the age of the cohort or the spatiality of the settings themselves. These are shown both in the outputs of the proprietary software as well as the raw EEG output. Built busy urban spaces appear to induce neural activity associated with vigilance and low level stress, while this effect is ameliorated in the urban green space, potentially suggesting a beneficial effect on attentional capacity in urban green space in this participant group. The interaction between low beta and alpha requires further investigation, in particular the role of alpha in this relationship.

Keywords: ageing, EEG, green space, urban space

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6813 Health Benefit and Mechanism from Green Open Space: A Pathway to Connect Health to Design and Planning

Authors: Ming Ma, Rui Li

Abstract:

In the highly urbanized district, green open space is playing an important role in human’s health and wellbeing as a physical, aesthetic and natural environment resources. The aim of this paper is to close this gap through providing a comprehensive, qualitative meta-analysis of existing studies related to this issue. A systematic scoping of current quantitative research is conducted which mostly focused on cross-sectional survey and experimental studies. Health benefits from contact with green open space could be categorized into physical health, psychological health and social wellbeing. Mechanism for the health related to green open space could be clearly identified with the regard to natural restoration, physical activities and social capital. These results indicate a multiple pathways framework between the health benefits and mechanism. In order to support design and planning, the most evident relationship was picked up that people could psychologically benefit from green open space through outdoors physical activities. Additionally, three design and planning strategies are put forward. Various and multi-level contacts with green open space would be considered as an explanation of the pathway results and tie to bridge the health to design and planning. There is a need to carry out long-term research emphasizing on causal relationship between health and green open space through excluding cofounding factors such as self-selection.

Keywords: urban green open space, planning and design, health benefit, mechanism, pathway framework

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6812 Landscape Factors Eliciting the Sense of Relaxation in Urban Green Space

Authors: Kaowen Grace Chang

Abstract:

Urban green spaces play an important role in promoting wellbeing through the sense of relaxation for urban residents. Among many designing factors, what the principal ones that could effectively influence people’s sense of relaxation? And, what are the relationship between the sense of relaxation and those factors? Regarding those questions, there is still little evidence for sufficient support. Therefore, the purpose of this study, based on individual responses to environmental information, is to investigate the landscape factors that relate to well-being through the sense of relaxation in mixed-use urban environments. We conducted the experimental design and model construction utilizing choice-based conjoint analysis to test the factors of plant arrangement pattern, plant trimming condition, the distance to visible automobile, the number of landmark objects, and the depth of view. Through the operation of balanced fractional orthogonal design, the goal is to know the relationship between the sense of relaxation and different designs. In a result, the three factors of plant trimming condition, the distance to visible automobile, and the depth of view shed are significantly effective to the sense of relaxation. The stronger magnitude of maintenance and trimming, the further distance to visible automobiles, and deeper view shed that allow the users to see further scenes could significantly promote green space users’ sense of relaxation in urban green spaces.

Keywords: urban green space, landscape planning and design, sense of relaxation, choice model

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6811 The Preliminary Study of the Possible Relationship between Urban Open Space System and Residents' Health Outcome

Authors: Jia-Jin He, Tzu-Yuan Stessa Chao

Abstract:

It is generally accepted that community residents with abundant open space have better health status on average, and thus more and more cities around the world began their pursuit of the greatest possible amount of green space within urban areas through urban planning approach. Nevertheless, only a few studies managed to provide empirical evidence regarding the actual relationship between 'providing' green space and 'improving' human health at city level. There is also lack of evidence of direct positive improvement of health by increasing the amount of green space. For urban planning professional, it is important to understand citizens’ usage behaviour towards green space as a critical evidence for future planning and design strategies. There is a research need to further investigate the amount of green space, user behaviour of green spaces and the health outcome of urban dwellers. To this end, we would like to find out other important factors for urban dwellers’ usage behaviours of green spaces. 'Average green spaces per person' is one of the National well-being Indicators in Taiwan as in many other countries. Through our preliminary research, we collected and analyzed the official data of planned open space coverages, average life expectancy, exercise frequency and obesity ratio in all cities of Taiwan. The study result indicates an interesting finding that Kaohsiung city, the second largest city in Taiwan, tells a completely different story. Citizens in Kaosiung city have more open spaces than any other city through urban planning, yet have relatively unhealthy condition in contrary. Whether it pointed out that the amount of the open spaces per person has would not direct to the health outcome. Therefore, the pre-established view which states that open spaces must have positive effects on human health should be examined more prudently. Hence, this paper intends to explore the relationship between user behaviour of open spaces and citizens’ health conditions by critically analyzing past related literature and collecting selective data from government health database in 2015. We also take Kaohsiung city, as a case study area to conduct statistical analysis first followed by questionnaire survey to gain a better understanding. Finally, we aim to feedback our findings to the current planning system in Taiwan for better health promotion urbanized areas.

Keywords: open spaces, urban planning systems, healthy cities, health outcomes

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6810 A Brief Review of Urban Green Vegetation (Green Wall) in Reduction of Air Pollution

Authors: Masoumeh Pirhadi

Abstract:

Air pollution is becoming a major health problem affecting millions. In support of this observation, the world health organization estimates that many people feel unhealthy due to pollution. This is a coupled fact that one of the main global sources of air pollution in cities is greenhouse gas emissions due heavy traffic. Green walls are developed as a sustainable strategy to reduce pollution by increasing vegetation in developed areas without occupying space in the city. This concept an offer advantageous environmental benefits and they can also be proposed for aesthetic purposes, and today they are used to preserve the urban environment. Green walls can also create environments that can promote a healthy lifestyle. Findings of multiple studies also indicate that Green infrastructure in cities is a strategy for improving air quality and increasing the sustainability of cities. Since these green solutions (green walls) act as porous materials that affect the diffusion of air pollution they can also act as a removing air vents that clean the air. Therefore, implementation of this strategy can be considered as a prominent factor in achieving a cleaner environment.

Keywords: green vegetation, air pollution, green wall, urban area

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6809 Green Space and Their Possibilities of Enhancing Urban Life in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

Authors: Ummeh Saika, Toshio Kikuchi

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Population growth and urbanization is a global phenomenon. As the rapid progress of technology, many cities in the international community are facing serious problems of urbanization. There is no doubt that the urbanization will proceed to have significant impact on the ecology, economy and society at local, regional, and global levels. The inhabitants of Dhaka city suffer from lack of proper urban facilities. The green spaces are needed for different functional and leisure activities of the urban dwellers. Again growing densification, a number of green space are transferred into open space in the Dhaka city. As a result greenery of the city's decreases gradually. Moreover, the existing green space is frequently threatened by encroachment. The role of green space, both at community and city level, is important to improve the natural environment and social ties for future generations. Therefore, it seems that the green space needs to be more effective for public interaction. The main objective of this study is to address the effectiveness of urban green space (Urban Park) of Dhaka City. Two approaches are selected to fulfill the study. Firstly, analyze the long-term spatial changes of urban green space using GIS and secondly, investigate the relationship of urban park network with physical and social environment. The case study site covers eight urban parks of Dhaka metropolitan area of Bangladesh. Two aspects (Physical and Social) are applied for this study. For physical aspect, satellite images and aerial photos of different years are used to find out the changes of urban parks. And for social aspect, methods are used as questionnaire survey, interview, observation, photographs, sketch and previous information of parks to analyze about the social environment of parks. After calculation of all data by descriptive statistics, result is shown by maps using GIS. According to physical size, parks of Dhaka city are classified into four types: Small, Medium, Large and Extra Large parks. The observed result showed that the physical and social environment of urban parks varies with their size. In small size parks physical environment is moderate by newly tree plantation and area expansion. However, in medium size parks physical environment are poor, example- tree decrease, exposed soil increase. On the other hand, physical environment of large size and extra large size parks are in good condition, because of plenty of vegetation and well management. Again based on social environment, in small size parks people mainly come from surroundings area and mainly used as waiting place. In medium-size parks, people come to attend various occasion from different places. In large size and extra large size parks, people come from every part of the city area for tourism purpose. Urban parks are important source of green space. Its influence both physical and social environment of urban area. Nowadays green space area gradually decreases and transfer into open space. The consequence of this research reveals that changes of urban parks influence both physical and social environment and also impact on urban life.

Keywords: physical environment, social environment, urban life, urban parks

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6808 Using Urban Conversion to Green Public Space as a Tool to Generate Urban Change: Case of Seoul

Authors: Rachida Benabbou, Sang Hun Park, Hee Chung Lee

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The world’s population is increasing with unprecedented speed, leading to fast growing urbanization pace. Cities since the Industrial revolution had evolved to fit the growing demand on infrastructure, roads, transportation, and housing. Through this evolution, cities had grown into grey, polluted, and vehicle-oriented urban areas with a significant lack of green spaces. Consequently, we ended up with low quality of life for citizens. Therefore, many cities, nowadays, are revising the way we think urbanism and try to grow into more livable and citizen-friendly, by creating change from the inside out. Thus, cities are trying to bring back nature in its crowded grey centers and regenerate many urban areas as green public spaces not only as a way to give new breath to the city, but also as a way to create change either in the environmental, social and economic levels. The city of Seoul is one of the fast growing global cities. Its population is over 12 million and it is expected to continue to grow to a point where the quality of life may seriously deteriorate. As most green areas in Seoul are located in the suburbs in form of mountains, the city’s urban areas suffer from lack of accessible green spaces in a walking distance. Understanding the gravity and consequences of this issue, Seoul city is undergoing major changes. Many of its projects are oriented to be green public spaces where citizens can enjoy the public life in healthy outdoors. The aim of this paper is to explore the results of urban conversions into green public spaces. Starting with different locations, nature, size, and scale, these conversions can lead to significant change in the surrounding areas, thus can be used as an efficient tool of regeneration for urban areas. Through a comparative analysis of three different types of urban conversions projects in the city of Seoul, we try to show the positive urban influence of the outcomes, in order to encourage cities to use green spaces as a strategic tool for urban regeneration and redevelopment.

Keywords: urban conversion, green public space, change, urban regeneration

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6807 Adaptive Reuse of Lost Urban Space

Authors: Rana Sameeh

Abstract:

The city is the greatest symbol of human civilization and has been built for safety and comfort. However, uncontrolled urban growth caused some anonymous and unsightly images of the cities such as unused or abandoned spaces. When social interaction is missed in a public space it means the public space is lost since public spaces reflect the social life and interaction of people. Accordingly; this space became one of the most meaningless parts of the cities and has broken the continuity of the urban fabric. Lost urban spaces are the leftover unstructured landscape within the urban fabric. They are generally the unrecognized urban areas that are in need of redesign, since they have a great value that can add to their surrounding urban context. The research significance lies within the importance of urban open spaces, their value and their impact on the urban fabric. The research also addresses the reuse and reclamation of lost urban spaces in order to increase the percentage of green areas along the urban fabric, provide urban open spaces, develop a sustainable approach towards urban landscape and enhance the quality of the public open space and user experience. In addition, the reuse of lost space will give it the identity and function it lacks while also providing places for presence, spending time and observing. Creating continuity in a broken urban fabric represents an exploratory process in the relationship between infrastructure and the urban fabric and seeks to establish an architectural solution to leftover space within the city. In doing so, the research establishes a framework (criteria) for adaptive reuse of lost urban space throughout inductive and deductive methodology, analytical methodology; by analyzing some relevant examples and similar cases of lost spaces and finally through field methodology; by applying the achieved criteria on a case study in Alexandria and carrying on SWOT analysis and evaluation of the potentials of this case study.

Keywords: adaptive reuse, lost urban space, quality of public open space, urban fabric

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6806 Construction Strategy of Urban Public Space in Driverless Era

Authors: Yang Ye, Hongfei Qiu, Yaqi Li

Abstract:

The planning and construction of traditional cities are oriented by cars, which leads to the problems of insufficient urban public space, fragmentation, and low utilization efficiency. With the development of driverless technology, the urban structure will change from the traditional single-core grid structure to the multi-core model. In terms of traffic organization, with the release of land for traffic facilities, public space will become more continuous and integrated with traffic space. In the context of driverless technology, urban public reconstruction is characterized by modularization and high efficiency, and its planning and layout features accord with points (service facilities), lines (smart lines), surfaces (activity centers). The public space of driverless urban roads will provide diversified urban public facilities and services. The intensive urban layout makes the commercial public space realize the functions of central activities and style display, respectively, in the interior (building atrium) and the exterior (building periphery). In addition to recreation function, urban green space can also utilize underground parking space to realize efficient dispatching of shared cars. The roads inside the residential community will be integrated into the urban landscape, providing conditions for the community public activity space with changing time sequence and improving the efficiency of space utilization. The intervention of driverless technology will change the thinking of traditional urban construction and turn it into a human-oriented one. As a result, urban public space will be richer, more connected, more efficient, and the urban space justice will be optimized. By summarizing the frontier research, this paper discusses the impact of unmanned driving on cities, especially urban public space, which is beneficial for landscape architects to cope with the future development and changes of the industry and provides a reference for the related research and practice.

Keywords: driverless, urban public space, construction strategy, urban design

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6805 Renewed Urban Waterfront: Spatial Conditions of a Contemporary Urban Space Typology

Authors: Beate Niemann, Fabian Pramel

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The formerly industrially or militarily used Urban Waterfront is a potential area for urban development. Extensive interventions in the urban space come along with the development of these previously inaccessible areas in the city. The development of the Urban Waterfront in the European City is not subject to any recognizable urban paradigm. In this study, the development of the Urban Waterfront as a new urban space typology is analyzed by case studies of Urban Waterfront developments in European Cities. For humans, perceptible spatial conditions are categorized and it is identified whether the themed Urban Waterfront Developments are congruent or incongruent urban design interventions and which deviations the Urban Waterfront itself induce. As congruent urban design, a design is understood, which fits in the urban fabric regarding its similar spatial conditions to the surrounding. Incongruent urban design, however, shows significantly different conditions in its shape. Finally, the spatial relationship of the themed Urban Waterfront developments and their associated environment are compared in order to identify contrasts between new and old urban space. In this way, conclusions about urban design paradigms of the new urban space typology are tried to be drawn.

Keywords: composition, congruence, identity, paradigm, spatial condition, urban design, urban development, urban waterfront

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6804 Evaluating the Impact of Urban Green Spaces on Urban Microclimate of Lahore: A Rapidly Urbanizing Metropolis of the Punjab-Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Nasar-U-Minallah, Dagmar Haase, Salman Qureshi, Safdar Ali Shirazi

Abstract:

Urban green spaces (UGS) play a key role in the urban ecology of an area since they provide significant ecological services to compensate for natural environment functions damaged by the rapid growth of urbanization. The transformation of urban green specs to impervious landscapes has been recognized as a key factor prompting the distinctive urban heat and associated microclimatic changes. There is no doubt that urban green spaces offer a range of ecosystem services that can help to mitigate the ill effects of urbanization, heat anomalies, and climate change. The present study attempts to appraise the impact of urban green spaces on the urban thermal environment for the development of the microclimatic conditions in Lahore, Pakistan. The influence of urban heat has been studied through Landsat 8 data. The land surface temperature (LST) of Lahore was computed through the Radiative transfer method (RTM). The spatial variation of land surface temperature is retrieved to describe their local heat effect on urban microclimate. The association between the LST, normalized difference vegetation index, and the normalized difference built-up index are investigated to explore the impact of the urban green spaces and impervious surfaces on urban microclimate. The results of this study show significant changes in (impervious land surface 18% increase) land use within the study area. However, conversion of natural green cover to commercial and residential uses considerably increases the LST. Furthermore, results show that green spaces were the major heat sinks while impervious landscapes were the major heat source in the study area. Urban green spaces reveal 1 to 3℃ lower LST associated with their surrounding urban built-up area. This study shows that urban green spaces will help to mitigate the effect of urban microclimate and it is significant for the sustainable urban environment as well as to improve the quality of life of the urban inhabitants.

Keywords: thermal environmental, urban green space, cooling effect, microclimate, Lahore

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6803 Accessibility Analysis of Urban Green Space in Zadar Settlement, Croatia

Authors: Silvija Šiljeg, Ivan Marić, Ante Šiljeg

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The accessibility of urban green spaces (UGS) is an integral element in the quality of life. Due to rapid urbanization, UGS studies have become a key element in urban planning. The potential benefits of space for its inhabitants are frequently analysed. A functional transport network system and the optimal spatial distribution of urban green surfaces are the prerequisites for maintaining the environmental equilibrium of the urban landscape. An accessibility analysis was conducted as part of the Urban Green Belts Project (UGB). The development of a GIS database for Zadar was the first step in generating the UGS accessibility indicator. Data were collected using the supervised classification method of multispectral LANDSAT images and manual vectorization of digital orthophoto images (DOF). An analysis of UGS accessibility according to the ANGst standard was conducted in the first phase of research. The accessibility indicator was generated on the basis of seven objective measurements, which included average UGS surface per capita and accessibility according to six functional levels of green surfaces. The generated indicator was compared with subjective measurements obtained by conducting a survey (718 respondents) within statistical units. The collected data reflected individual assessments and subjective evaluations of UGS accessibility. This study highlighted the importance of using objective and subjective measures in the process of understanding the accessibility of urban green surfaces. It may be concluded that when evaluating UGS accessibility, residents emphasize the immediate residential environment, ignoring higher UGS functional levels. It was also concluded that large areas of UGS within a city do not necessarily generate similar satisfaction with accessibility. The heterogeneity of output results may serve as guidelines for the further development of a functional UGS city network.

Keywords: urban green spaces (UGS), accessibility indicator, subjective and objective measurements, Zadar

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6802 Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Absorption in DKI Jakarta Green Space

Authors: Mario Belseran

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The issue of climate change become world attention where one of them increase in air temperature due to greenhouse gas emissions. This climate change is caused by gases in the atmosphere, one of which is CO2. DKI Jakarta as the capital has a dense population with a variety of existing land use. Land use that is dominated by settlements resulting in fewer green space, which functions to absorb atmospheric CO2. Image interpretation SPOT-7 is used to determine the greenness level of vegetation on a green space using the vegetation index NDVI, EVI, GNDVI and OSAVI. Measuring the diameter and height of trees were also performed to obtain the value of biomass that will be used as the CO2 absorption value. The CO2 absorption value that spread in Jakarta are classified into three classes: high, medium, and low. The distribution pattern of CO2 absorption value at green space in Jakarta dominance in the medium class with the distribution pattern is located in South Jakarta, East Jakarta, North Jakarta and West Jakarta. The distribution pattern of green space in Jakarta scattered randomly and more dominate in East Jakarta and South Jakarta

Keywords: carbon dioxide, DKI Jakarta, green space, SPOT-7, vegetation index

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6801 Recommending Appropriate Type of Green Roof Considering Urban Typology and Climatic Zoning in Iran

Authors: Ghazal Raheb

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Population growth in big cities of Iran has led to limitation of land resources, more consumption of non-renewable sources of energy and many environmental problems. Emerging of overbuilt urban areas and decreasing amount of green spaces cause the appearance of an undesirable landscape in the cities. Green roof technology is a solution to improve environmental concerns in urban areas which combines green spaces with buildings as the private or semi-private spaces. Successful implementation in different areas definitely depends on accommodation of green roof type with the environment and urban and building typology in Iran. This paper is aiming to provide some recommendation for selecting appropriate type of green roof and executive solutions considering to climatic zoning and urban situation in Iran. Two main aspects which have been considered are environmental and urban typology factors.

Keywords: green roof, urban typology, climate zone, landscape

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6800 Spatial Differentiation Patterns and Influencing Mechanism of Urban Greening in China: Based on Data of 289 Cities

Authors: Fangzheng Li, Xiong Li

Abstract:

Significant differences in urban greening have occurred in Chinese cities, which accompanied with China's rapid urbanization. However, few studies focused on the spatial differentiation of urban greening in China with large amounts of data. The spatial differentiation pattern, spatial correlation characteristics and the distribution shape of urban green space ratio, urban green coverage rate and public green area per capita were calculated and analyzed, using Global and Local Moran's I using data from 289 cities in 2014. We employed Spatial Lag Model and Spatial Error Model to assess the impacts of urbanization process on urban greening of China. Then we used Geographically Weighted Regression to estimate the spatial variations of the impacts. The results showed: 1. a significant spatial dependence and heterogeneity existed in urban greening values, and the differentiation patterns were featured by the administrative grade and the spatial agglomeration simultaneously; 2. it revealed that urbanization has a negative correlation with urban greening in Chinese cities. Among the indices, the the proportion of secondary industry, urbanization rate, population and the scale of urban land use has significant negative correlation with the urban greening of China. Automobile density and per capita Gross Domestic Product has no significant impact. The results of GWR modeling showed that the relationship between urbanization and urban greening was not constant in space. Further, the local parameter estimates suggested significant spatial variation in the impacts of various urbanization factors on urban greening.

Keywords: China’s urbanization, geographically weighted regression, spatial differentiation pattern, urban greening

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6799 Evaluation of Japanese Kyoto Park in Terms of User Satisfaction

Authors: Ruhugül Özge Gemici

Abstract:

The need for open space, which is an important problem especially since the 19th century, has become more important in today's conditions. The most important factor in increasing the livability of cities is the open and green areas. Parks are the most important of the urban open and green space elements that provide the most benefit to users. In this context, the user satisfaction of the Japanese Kyoto Park, which is the subject of the research, was evaluated in the light of the questionnaires. With this analysis, the satisfaction level of the user using the park was determined. Suggestions have been developed for the park to be handled and regulated according to the user requests and requirements changing over time.

Keywords: landscape, landscape design, open and green spaces, sculpture

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6798 Riverine Urban Heritage: A Basis for Green Infrastructure

Authors: Ioanna H. Lioliou, Despoina D. Zavraka

Abstract:

The radical reformation that Greek urban space, has undergone over the last century, due to the socio-historical developments, technological development and political–geographic factors, has left its imprint on the urban landscape. While the big cities struggle to regain urban landscape balance, small towns are considered to offer high quality lifescapes, ensuring sustainable development potential. However, their unplanned urbanization process led to the loss of significant areas of nature, lack of essential infrastructure, chaotic built environment, incompatible land uses and urban cohesiveness. Natural environment reference points, such as springs, streams, rivers, forests, suburban greenbelts, and etc.; seems to be detached from urban space, while the public, open and green spaces, unequally distributed in the built environment, they are no longer able to offer a complete experience of nature in the city. This study focuses on Greek mainland, a small town Elassona, and aims to restore spatial coherence between the city’s homonymous river and its urban space surroundings. The existence of a linear aquatic ecosystem, is considered a precious greenway, also referred as blueway, able to initiate natural penetrations and ecosystems empowering. The integration of disconnected natural ecosystems forms the basis of a strategic intervention scheme, where the river becomes the urban integration tool / feature, constituting the main urban corridor and an indispensible part of a wider green network that connects open and green spaces, ensuring the function of all the established networks (transportation, commercial, social) of the town. The proposed intervention, introduces a green network highlighting the old stone bridge at the ‘entrance’ of the river in the town and expanding throughout the town with strategic uses and activities, providing accessibility for all the users. The methodology used, is based on the collection of design tools used in related urban river-design interventions around the world. The reinstallation/reactivation of the balance between natural and urban landscape, besides the environmental benefits, contributes decisively to the illustration/projection of urban green identity and re-enhancement of the quality of lifescape qualities and social interaction.

Keywords: green network, rehabilitation scheme, urban landscape, urban streams

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6797 Thermal Behavior of Green Roof: Case Study at Seoul National University Retentive Green Roof

Authors: Theresia Gita Hapsari

Abstract:

There has been major concern about urban heating as urban clusters emerge and population migration from rural to urban areas continues. Green roof has been one of the main practice for urban heat island mitigation for the past decades, thus, this study was conducted to predict the cooling potential of retentive green roof in mitigating urban heat island. Retentive green roof was developed by Han in 2010. It has 320 mm height of retention wall surrounding the vegetation and 65mm depth of retention board underneath the soil, while most conventional green roof doesn’t have any retention wall and only maximum of 25 mm depth of drainage board. Seoul National University retentive green roof significantly reduced sensible heat movement towards the air by 0.5 kWh/m2, and highly enhanced the evaporation process as much as 0.5 – 5.4 kg/m2 which equals to 0.3 – 3.6 kWh/m2 of latent heat flux. These results indicate that with design enhancement, serving as a viable alternate for conventional green roof, retentive green roof contributes to overcome the limitation of conventional green roof which is the main solution for mitigating urban heat island.

Keywords: green roof, low impact development, retention board, thermal behavior, urban heat island

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6796 Translating Ex-landfill Development Needs and Adequacy of Open Space Provision in Malaysian Urban Development

Authors: S. Mazifah, A. Azahan, A. Kadir

Abstract:

This paper aims to examine the relationship between the needs of ex-landfill redevelopment and the adequacy of open space provision in the context of sustainable urban development planning in Malaysia as seen from the perspective of the National Urban Policy. With a specific focus on the Action Plan DPN6 and DPN9, ex-landfill redevelopment needs and provision of open space are detailed to identify their potential and constraints in the development of sustainable cities. As a result, this paper found a link between the needs of urban ex-landfill redevelopment and approach to provide adequate urban open space. Through the proposal of the development of public park at urban ex-landfill sites, the needs of ex-landfill redevelopment and the adequacy of urban open space provision is being 'united' and translated as an approach to create a sustainable urban development in Malaysia.

Keywords: ex-landfill redevelopment, open spaces, National Urban Policy, sustainable urban development

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6795 Multi-Scale Urban Spatial Evolution Analysis Based on Space Syntax: A Case Study in Modern Yangzhou, China

Authors: Dai Zhimei, Hua Chen

Abstract:

The exploration of urban spatial evolution is an important part of urban development research. Therefore, the evolutionary modern Yangzhou urban spatial texture was taken as the research object, and Spatial Syntax was used as the main research tool, this paper explored Yangzhou spatial evolution law and its driving factors from the urban street network scale, district scale and street scale. The study has concluded that at the urban scale, Yangzhou urban spatial evolution is the result of a variety of causes, including physical and geographical condition, policy and planning factors, and traffic conditions, and the evolution of space also has an impact on social, economic, environmental and cultural factors. At the district and street scales, changes in space will have a profound influence on the history of the city and the activities of people. At the end of the article, the matters needing attention during the evolution of urban space were summarized.

Keywords: block, space syntax and methodology, street, urban space, Yangzhou

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6794 A Morphological Examination of Urban Renewal Processes: The Sample of Konya City

Authors: Muzaffer Ali Yaygın, Mehmet Topçu

Abstract:

This research aims to investigate morphological changes in urban patterns in urban renewal areas by using geographic information systems and to reveal pattern differences that occur before and after urban renewal processes by applying a morphological analysis. The concept of urban morphology is not involved in urban renewal and urban planning practices in Turkey. This situation destroys the structural characteristic of urban space which appears as a consequence of changes at city, street or plot level. Different approaches and renewal interventions to urban settlements, which are formed as a reflection of cultural issues, may have positive and negative results. A morphological analysis has been applied to an urban renewal area that covers 325 ha. in Konya, in which city urban renewal projects have gained speed with the increasing of economic investments in this study. The study mentions urban renewal and urban morphology relationship, varied academic approach on the urban morphology issue, urban morphology components, changes in lots pattern and numerical differences that occur on road, construction and green space ratios that are before and after the renewal project, and the results of the morphological analysis. It is seen that the built-up area has significant differences when compared to the previous situation. The amount of green areas decreased significantly in quantitative terms; the transportation systems has been changed completely; and the property ownership has been reconstructed without taking the previous situation into account. Findings show that urban renewal projects in Turkey are put into practice with a rent-oriented approach without making an in-depth analysis. The paper discusses the morphological dimension of urban renewal projects in Turkey through a case study from Konya city.

Keywords: Konya, pattern, urban morphology, urban renewal

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6793 Review of Urban Vitality in China: Exploring the Theoretical Framework, Characteristics, and Assessment Systems

Authors: Dong Wei, Wu Jinxiu

Abstract:

As China's urban construction enters a new phase of 'stock optimization,' the key point of urban development has shifted to the development and reuse of existing public space. However, cities still face a series of challenges, such as the shortage of space quantity and insufficient space quality, which indirectly affect urban vitality. A review of the vitality of urban public space will significantly contribute to optimizing the quality of the urban built environment. It firstly analyses the research hotspots of urban vitality at home and abroad, based on a semi-systematic literature review. Then this paper summarizes the theoretical definitions of the vitality of urban public space and sorts out the influencing factors from the perspectives of society, environment, and users. Lastly, the paper concludes with the mainstream quantitative and evaluation methods, such as linear evaluation and integrated evaluation. This paper renders a multi-theoretical perspective to understand the characteristics and evaluation system of the vitality of public space, which helps to acknowledge the dynamic relationship between users, urban environment, and vitality. It also looks forward to providing optimal design strategies for constructing a vigorous public space in future cities.

Keywords: public space, quantification of vitality, spatial vitality, urban vitality

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6792 A Study on the Current Challenges Hindering Urban Park Development in Ulaanbaatar City, Mongolia

Authors: Bayarmaa Enkhbold, Kenichi Matsui

Abstract:

Urban parks are important assets to every community in terms of providing space for health, cultural and leisure activities. However, Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, faces a shortage of green spaces, particularly urban parks, due to overpopulation and haphazard growth. Therefore, in order to increase green space per person, the city government has planned to increase green space per person up to 20m² by 2020 and 30m² by 2030 by establishing more urban parks throughout the city. But this plan was estimated that it is highly unlikely to reach those goals according to the analysis of the present status of plan implementation because the current amount of green space per person is still 4m². In the past studies globally, city planners and scientists agree that it is highly improbable to develop urban parks and keep maintenance sustainably without reflecting community perceptions and their involvement in the park establishment. Therefore, this research aims to find the challenges which stymie urban park development in Ulaanbaatar city and recommend dealing with the problems. In order to reach the goal, communities’ perceptions about the current challenges and their necessity for urban parks were identified and determined whether they differentiated depending on two different types of residential areas (urban and suburban areas). It also attempted to investigate international good practices on how they deal with similar problems. The research methodology was based on a questionnaire survey among city residents, a document review regarding the involvement of stakeholders, and a literature review of relevant past studies. According to the residents’ perceptions, the biggest challenge was a lack of land availability and followed by a lack of proper policy, planning, management, and maintenance out of seven key challenges identified. The biggest community demand from the urban park was a playground for children and followed by recreation and relaxation out of six types of needs. Based on research findings, the study proposed several recommendations for enhancements as institutional and legal framework, park plan and management, supportive environment and monitoring, evaluation, and reporting.

Keywords: challenges of urban park planning and maintenance, community-based urban park establishment, community perceptions and participation, urban parks in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
6791 Assessment of Green Infrastructure for Sustainable Urban Water Management

Authors: Suraj Sharma

Abstract:

Green infrastructure (GI) offers a contemporary approach for reducing the risk of flooding, improve water quality, and harvesting stormwater for sustainable use. GI promotes landscape planning to enhance sustainable development and urban resilience. However, the existing literature is lacking in ensuring the comprehensive assessment of GI performance in terms of ecosystem function and services for social, ecological, and economical system resilience. We propose a robust indicator set and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) for quantitative and qualitative analysis for sustainable water management to assess the capacity of urban resilience. Green infrastructure in urban resilience water management system (GIUR-WMS) supports decision-making for GI planning through scenario comparisons with urban resilience capacity index. To demonstrate the GIUR-WMS, we develop five scenarios for five sectors of Chandigarh (12, 26, 14, 17, and 34) to test common type of GI (rain barrel, rain gardens, detention basins, porous pavements, and open spaces). The result shows the open spaces achieve the highest green infrastructure urban resilience index of 4.22/5. To implement the open space scenario in urban sites, suitable vacant can be converted to green spaces (example: forest, low impact recreation areas, and detention basins) GIUR-WMS is easy to replicate, customize and apply to cities of different sizes to assess environmental, social and ecological dimensions.

Keywords: green infrastructure, assessment, urban resilience, water management system, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 57