Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6386

Search results for: traditional city

6386 Transformation of the Traditional Landscape of Kabul Old City: A Study for Its Conservation

Authors: Mohammad Umar Azizi, Tetsuya Ando

Abstract:

This study investigates the transformation of the traditional landscape of Kabul Old City through an examination of five case study areas. Based on physical observation, three types of houses are found: traditional, mixed and modern. Firstly, characteristics of the houses are described according to construction materials and the number of stories. Secondly, internal and external factors are considered in order to implement a conservation plan. Finally, an adaptive conservation plan is suggested to protect the traditional landscape of Kabul Old City.

Keywords: conservation, district 1, Kabul Old City, landscape, transformation, traditional houses

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6385 Sustainable Traditional Urban Design of the Old City of Ghadames

Authors: Hazem Bunkheila

Abstract:

Ghadames is an oasis on the edge of the Sahara Desert in southwestern Libya at the border with Algeria and Tunisia. It is the oldest oasis in the world that provides a fascinating example of traditional urban in the desert environment. The urban of the small city is considered a genuine adaptation to the harsh desert climate. The historic city of Ghadames remained unaffected by the rapid after oil changes. That makes it a good field to study sustainable, vernacular, earth architecture and urban design. The aim of this paper is to investigate the urban structure, concept, and fabric of the old oasis. The research also surveys the environmental considerations in the city that shades the sustainable features in this traditional residential area. In addition, the paper addresses the modern applications in the new city of Ghadams and sides of success and failure compared to the traditional urban fabric.

Keywords: dessert climate design, Ghadames, sustainable urban design, traditional urban design

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6384 Comparative Study of Ecological City Criteria in Traditional Iranian Cities

Authors: Zahra Yazdani Paraii, Zohreh Yazdani Paraei

Abstract:

Many urban designers and planners have been involved in the design of environmentally friendly or nature adaptable urban development models due to increase in urban populations in the recent century, limitation on natural resources, climate change, and lack of enough water and food. Ecological city is one of the latest models proposed to accomplish the latter goal. In this work, the existing establishing indicators of the ecological city are used regarding energy, water, land use and transportation issues. The model is used to compare the function of traditional settlements of Iran. The result of investigation shows that the specifications and functions of the traditional settlements of Iran fit well into the ecological city model. It is found that the inhabitants of the old cities and villages in Iran had founded ecological cities based on their knowledge of the environment and its natural opportunities and limitations.

Keywords: ecological city, traditional city, urban design, environment

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6383 Urban Form of the Traditional Arabic City in the Light of Islamic Values

Authors: Akeel Noori Al-Mulla Hwaish

Abstract:

The environmental impact, economics, social and cultural factors, and the processes by which people define history and meaning had influenced the dynamic shape and character of the traditional Islamic Arabic city. Therefore, in regard to the period when Islam was at its peak (7th- 13th Centuries), Islamic city wasn’t the highly dynamited at the scale of buildings and city planning that demonstrates a distinguished city as an ‘Islamic’ as appeared after centuries when the function of the buildings and their particular arrangement and planning scheme in relation to one another that defined an Islamic city character. The architectural features of the urban fabric of the traditional Arabic Islamic city are a ‎reflection of the spiritual, social, and cultural characteristics of the people. It is a ‎combination of Islamic values ‘Din’ and life needs ‘Dunia’ as Prophet Muhammad built the first Mosque in ‎Madinah in the 1st year of his migration to it, then the Suq or market on 2nd of Hijrah, attached to ‎the mosque to signify the birth of a new Muslims community which considers both, ‎‎’Din’ and ‘Dunia’ and initiated nucleus for what which called after that as an ‘Islamic’ city. This research will discuss the main characteristics and components of the traditional Arab cities and demonstrate the impact of the Islamic values on shaping the planning layout and general built environment features of the early traditional Arab cities.

Keywords: urban, Islamic, Arabic, city

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6382 Urban Catalyst through Traditional Market Revitalization towards the MICE Tourism in Surakarta

Authors: Istijabatul Aliyah, Bambang Setioko, Rara Sugiarti

Abstract:

Surakarta is one of the cities which are formed with the concept of Javanese cosmology. As a traditional town of Java, Surakarta is known as ‘the paradise’ of traditional markets. Since its establishment, Surakarta is formed with Catur Gatra Tunggal or Four Single-Slot concept (palace, square, mosques, and markets). Current development in Surakarta downtown today indicates that traditional markets have improved themselves in both physical and non-physical aspects. The efforts start from the market façade revitalization, restoration and the overall development of market; up to social activities, competition between traders or large celebrations in the neighbourhood market. This research was conducted in Surakarta, which is aimed at: identifying the role of traditional market revitalization efforts in the development of a city. This study employs several methods of analysis, namely: 1) Spatial analysis for mapping the distribution of traditional markets in the city constellation, 2) Category-Based Analysis (CBA) to classify the revitalization of traditional markets that has an influence in the development of the city, and 3) Interactive Method of Analysis. The results of this research indicate that the presence of a constellation of traditional markets in Surakarta is dominated by the presence of Gede Market, not only as the oldest traditional market, but also as a center of economic and socio-cultural activities of the community. The role of traditional market revitalization in the development of a town is as an Urban Catalyst towards a MICE city in the sense that the revitalization effort, even done in a relatively short time and not yet covering the overall objects, is able to establish brand image of Surakarta as a city of culture which is friendly and ready to be MICE tourism city.

Keywords: traditional market revitalization, urban catalyst, MICE tourism, Surakarta

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6381 The Modern Significance of Chinese Traditional Gardens for the Development of Modern Eco-Garden Cities

Authors: Liang Zhang

Abstract:

Chinese traditional gardens are the historical and cultural treasures of the whole mankind, among which the excellent parts still have important guiding significance for modern urban design. Based on the background of eco-garden city and reality, through the analysis of various design elements of classical gardens, combined with the needs of today's urban development, starting from the three needs of landscape, energy saving and environmental protection. To explore how Chinese traditional gardens can be revitalized in modern urban planning.

Keywords: Chinese traditional gardens, eco-garden city, modern urban planning, urban development

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6380 The Sustainable Strategies Research for Renewal of “Villages in City”: A Case Study of Liuzhou in Southwestern China

Authors: Kai Zhang

Abstract:

Transformation under the reconfiguration of urban-rural relation in Liuzhou city has never been as radical and visible as it has been since the tremendous turn of the last century in China. Huanjiang village is located in Linhuashan Scenic Area in the middle east of Liuzhou city, with spectacular landscape and traditional features. Nowadays Huanjiang village has become a so-called "village in city", which is considered full of great potential for development because of the economic value of regional advantages during the urban sprawl. Communities of village found it difficult to acclimatize with the dramatic changes, which later led to numerous problems including ecological damage, unemployment of landless farmers and loss of traditional culture. Government has started up a series of renewal planings to resolve the problems, which are based on advanced technology and conform to sustainable and integrated strategies of city planning considering the original context and historical culture, superseding the traditional arrangements based on the guide of extensive economic growth. This paper aims to elaborate the context of Liuzhou city and Huanjiang village offered to both the traditional and sustainable planning approaches, in order to understand challenges and solutions of the rebuilding process. Through the analysis of the place relevant to architecture, society and culture, it will establish the corresponding systematic strategies. Considering the local features, it concludes with a comprehensive perspective on organic renewal in the case of Huanjiang village.

Keywords: China, Liuzhou, sustainable strategy, urban renewal, village in city

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6379 The Analysis of Urban Part-To-Whole Relationship in Terms of Residential Areas: Example of Konya

Authors: Gevher Sayar, Dicle Aydın

Abstract:

The need for shelter which is one of the essential requirement of humanity has emerged for different type of dwelling needs depend on upon different culture and location. Almost all dwellings as an element of the public improvements effect the physical appearance of the city. Dwelling zones create part of whole in terms of urban area use. Whereas in traditional texture merger of parcels create city blocks, in new settlement area city blocks become a part, so the property of each part differs. The perspective of this study is part-to-whole relationship of residential areas and diversified residential areas are illustrated. The purpose of this study is that dwelling applications which have constructed quickly as gated community in the last 20 years in new settlement area of Konya (Turkey) have compared traditional texture in terms of part-to-whole relationship. According to the perception of traditional neighborhood in Konya, the relationship of houses between street pattern and each other are suited for city culture and location. In contrast, new settlement areas cannot become integrated another part of city, they have become restricted areas, so new settlement areas have not integrated, they have separated. The perception of part forms whole has changed, roads provide the relationship of growing parts with one another and walls of gated communities has disjunctive feature. In this study, by using visual analysis photographs and technical drawings are used. Traditional texture and current dwelling have compared.

Keywords: dwelling, residential area, urban part, urban whole

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6378 Reviewing the Public Participation Criteria in Traditional Cities: To Achieve Social Sustainability

Authors: Najmeh Malekpour Bahabadi

Abstract:

Small fast-developing Iranian cities with a historical background have no defined criteria for their social sustainability. However, their traditional architecture is well-known as a socially and environmentally sustainable role model. In today's cities, citizens' participation has been considered an effective strategy to achieve social sustainability. By scrutinizing the extent and manner of public participation in traditional Iranian cities, taking Yazd's historical context as a case study, this study examines how these criteria can be applied to developing parts of the city. The paper first reviews the concepts, levels, and approaches of public participation to analyze different modes of citizen participation. Then, exploring social behavior and activities in Yazd, using the qualitative-analytical methodology, the paper compares diverse elements influencing participation with contemporary approaches. The findings of this study would lead to suggestions for the developing parts of the city to enhance their socially sustainable development.

Keywords: citizen participation, social behaviors, traditional city, built environment, social sustainability

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6377 Disidentification of Historical City Centers: A Comparative Study of the Old and New Settlements of Mardin, Turkey

Authors: Fatma Kürüm Varolgüneş, Fatih Canan

Abstract:

Mardin is one of the unique cities in Turkey with its rich cultural and historical heritage. Mardin’s traditional dwellings have been affected both by natural data such as climate and topography and by cultural data like lifestyle and belief. However, in the new settlements, housing is formed with modern approaches and unsuitable forms clashing with Mardin’s culture and environment. While the city is expanding, traditional textures are ignored. Thus, traditional settlements are losing their identity and are vanishing because of the rapid change and transformation. The main aim of this paper is to determine the physical and social data needed to define the characteristic features of Mardin’s old and new settlements. In this context, based on social and cultural data, old and new settlement formations of Mardin have been investigated from various aspects. During this research, the following methods have been utilized: observations, interviews, public surveys, literature review, as well as site examination via maps, photographs and questionnaire methodology. In conclusion, this paper focuses on how changes in the physical forms of cities affect the typology and the identity of cities, as in the case of Mardin.

Keywords: urban and local identity, historical city center, traditional settlements, Mardin

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6376 Mosque as a Sustainable Model in Iranian Traditional Urban Development: The Case Study of Vakil Mosque in Shiraz

Authors: Amir Hossein Ashari, Sedighe Erfan Manesh

Abstract:

When investigating Iranian traditional and historical urban development, such as that seen in Shiraz, our attention is drawn to mosques as a focal point. Vakil Mosque in Shiraz is completely consistent, coordinated and integrated with the Bazaar, square and school. This is a significant example of traditional urban development. The position of the mosque in the most important urban joint near bazaar in a way that it is considered part of the bazaar structure are factors that have given it social, political, and economic roles in addition to the original religious role. These are among characteristics of sustainable development. The mosque has had an important effect in formation of the city because it is connected to main gates. In terms of access, the mosque has different main and peripheral access paths from different parts of the city. The courtyard of the mosque was located next to the main elements of the city so that it was considered as an urban open space, which made it a more active and more dynamic place. This study is carried out via library and field research with the purpose of finding strategies for taking advantage of useful features of the mosque in traditional urban development. These features include its role as a gathering center for people and city in sustainable urban development. Mosque can be used as a center for enhancing social interactions and creating a sense of association that leads to sustainable social space. These can act as a model which leads us to sustainable cities in terms of social and economic factors.

Keywords: mosque, traditional urban development, sustainable social space, Vakil Mosque, Shiraz

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6375 Urban Analysis of the Old City of Oran and Its Building after an Earthquake

Authors: A. Zatir, A. Mokhtari, A. Foufa, S. Zatir

Abstract:

The city of Oran, like any other region of northern Algeria, is subject to frequent seismic activity, the study presented in this work will be based on an analysis of urban and architectural context of the city of Oran before the date of the earthquake of 1790, and then try to deduce the differences between the old city before and after the earthquake. The analysis developed as a specific objective to tap into the seismic history of the city of Oran parallel to its urban history. The example of the citadel of Oran indicates that constructions presenting the site of the old citadel, may present elements of resistance for face to seismic effects. Removed in city observations of these structures, showed the ingenuity of the techniques used by the ancient builders, including the good performance of domes and arches in resistance to seismic forces.

Keywords: earthquake, citadel, performance, traditional techniques, constructions

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6374 Traditional Sustainable Architecture Techniques and Its Applications in Contemporary Architecture: Case Studies of the Islamic House in Fatimid Cairo and Sana'a, Cities in Egypt and Yemen

Authors: Ahmed S. Attia

Abstract:

This paper includes a study of modern sustainable architectural techniques and elements that are originally found in vernacular and traditional architecture, particularly in the Arab region. Courtyards, Wind Catchers, and Mashrabiya, for example, are elements that have been developed in contemporary architecture using modern technology to create sustainable architecture designs. An analytical study of the topic will deal with some examples of the Islamic House in Fatimid Cairo city in Egypt, analyzing its elements and their relationship to the environment, in addition to the examples in southern Egypt (Nubba) of sustainable architecture systems, and traditional houses in Sana'a city, Yemen, using earth resources of mud bricks and other construction materials. In conclusion, a comparative study between traditional and contemporary techniques will be conducted to confirm that it is possible to achieve sustainable architecture through the use of low-technology in buildings in Arab regions.

Keywords: Islamic context, cultural environment, natural environment, Islamic house, low-technology, mud brick, vernacular and traditional architecture

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6373 Analysis of Creative City Indicators in Isfahan City, Iran

Authors: Reza Mokhtari Malek Abadi, Mohsen Saghaei, Fatemeh Iman

Abstract:

This paper investigates the indices of a creative city in Isfahan. Its main aim is to evaluate quantitative status of the creative city indices in Isfahan city, analyze the dispersion and distribution of these indices in Isfahan city. Concerning these, this study tries to analyze the creative city indices in fifteen area of Isfahan through secondary data, questionnaire, TOPSIS model, Shannon entropy and SPSS. Based on this, the fifteen areas of Isfahan city have been ranked with 12 factors of creative city indices. The results of studies show that fifteen areas of Isfahan city are not equally benefiting from creative indices and there is much difference between the areas of Isfahan city.

Keywords: grading, creative city, creative city evaluation indicators, regional planning model

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6372 Research on the Overall Protection of Historical Cities Based on the 'City Image' in Ancient Maps: Take the Ancient City of Shipu, Zhejiang, China as an Example

Authors: Xiaoya Yi, Yi He, Zhao Lu, Yang Zhang

Abstract:

In the process of rapid urbanization, many historical cities have undergone excessive demolition and construction under the protection and renewal mechanism. The original pattern of the city has been changed, the urban context has been cut off, and historical features have gradually been lost. The historical city gradually changed into the form of decentralization and fragmentation. The understanding of the ancient city includes two levels. The first one refers to the ancient city on the physical space, which defined an ancient city by its historic walls. The second refers to the public perception of the image, which is derived from people's spatial identification of the ancient city. In ancient China, people draw maps to show their way of understanding the city. Starting from ancient maps and exploring the spatial characteristics of traditional Chinese cities from the perspective of urban imagery is a key clue to understanding the spatial characteristics of historical cities on an overall level. The spatial characteristics of the urban image presented by the ancient map are summarized into two levels by typology. The first is the spatial pattern composed of the center, axis and boundary. The second is the space element that contains the city, street, and sign system. Taking the ancient city of Shipu as a typical case, the "city image" in the ancient map is analyzed as a prototype, and it is projected into the current urban space. The research found that after a long period of evolution, the historical spatial pattern of the ancient city has changed from “dominant” to “recessive control”, and the historical spatial elements are non-centralized and fragmented. The wall that serves as the boundary of the ancient city is transformed into “fragmentary remains”, the streets and lanes that serve as the axis of the ancient city are transformed into “structural remains”, and the symbols of the ancient city center are transformed into “site remains”. Based on this, the paper proposed the methods of controlling the protection of land boundaries, the protecting of the streets and lanes, and the selective restoring of the city wall system and the sign system by accurate assessment. In addition, this paper emphasizes the continuity of the ancient city's traditional spatial pattern and attempts to explore a holistic conservation method of the ancient city in the modern context.

Keywords: ancient city protection, ancient maps, Shipu ancient city, urban intention

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6371 Morphological Transformation of Traditional Cities: The Case Study of the Historic Center of the City of Najaf

Authors: Sabeeh Lafta Farhan, Ihsan Abbass Jasim, Sohaib Kareem Al-Mamoori

Abstract:

This study addresses the subject of transformation of urban structures and how does this transformation affect the character of traditional cities, which represents the research issue. Hence, the research has aimed at studying and learning about the urban structure characteristics and morphological transformation features in the traditional cities centers, and to look for means and methods to preserve the character of those cities. Cities are not merely locations inhabited by a large number of people, they are political and legal entities, in addition to economic activities that distinguish these cities, thus, they are a complex set of institutions, and the transformation in urban environment cannot be recognized without understanding these relationships. The research presumes an existing impact of urbanization on the properties of traditional structure of the Holy City of Najaf. The research has defined urbanization as restructuring and re-planning of urban areas that have lost their functions and bringing them into social and cultural life in the city, to be able to serve economy in order to better respond to the needs of users. Sacred Cities provide the organic connection between acts of worship and dealings and reveal the mechanisms and reasons behind the regulatory nature of the sacred shrine and their role in achieving organizational assimilation of urban morphology. The research has reached a theoretical framework of the particulars of urbanization. This framework has been applied to the historic center of the old city of Najaf, where the most important findings of the research were that the visual and structural dominant presence of holy shrine of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) remains to emphasize the visual particularity, and the main role of the city, which hosts one of the most important Muslim shrines in the world, in addition to the visible golden dome rising above the skyline, and the Imam Ali Mosque the hub and the center for religious activities. Thus, in view of being a place of main importance and a symbol of religious and Islamic culture, it is very important to have the shrine of Imam Ali (AS) prevailing on all zones of re-development in the old city. Consequently, the research underlined that the distinctive and unique character of the city of Najaf did not proceed from nothing, but was achieved through the unrivaled characteristics and features possessed by the city of Najaf alone, which allowed it and enabled it to occupy this status among the Arab and Muslim cities. That is why the activities arising from the development have to enhance the historical role of the city in order to have this development as clear support, strength and further addition to the city assets and its cultural heritage, and not seeing the developmental activities crushing the city urban traditional fabric, cultural heritage and its historical specificity.

Keywords: Iraq, the city of Najaf, heritage, traditional cities, morphological transformation

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6370 A Second Order Genetic Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem

Authors: T. Toathom, M. Munlin, P. Sugunnasil

Abstract:

The traveling salesman problem (TSP) is one of the best-known problems in optimization problem. There are many research regarding the TSP. One of the most usage tool for this problem is the genetic algorithm (GA). The chromosome of the GA for TSP is normally encoded by the order of the visited city. However, the traditional chromosome encoding scheme has some limitations which are twofold: the large solution space and the inability to encapsulate some information. The number of solution for a certain problem is exponentially grow by the number of city. Moreover, the traditional chromosome encoding scheme fails to recognize the misplaced correct relation. It implies that the tradition method focuses only on exact solution. In this work, we relax some of the concept in the GA for TSP which is the exactness of the solution. The proposed work exploits the relation between cities in order to reduce the solution space in the chromosome encoding. In this paper, a second order GA is proposed to solve the TSP. The term second order refers to how the solution is encoded into chromosome. The chromosome is divided into 2 types: the high order chromosome and the low order chromosome. The high order chromosome is the chromosome that focus on the relation between cities such as the city A should be visited before city B. On the other hand, the low order chromosome is a type of chromosome that is derived from a high order chromosome. In other word, low order chromosome is encoded by the traditional chromosome encoding scheme. The genetic operation, mutation and crossover, will be performed on the high order chromosome. Then, the high order chromosome will be mapped to a group of low order chromosomes whose characteristics are satisfied with the high order chromosome. From the mapped set of chromosomes, the champion chromosome will be selected based on the fitness value which will be later used as a representative for the high order chromosome. The experiment is performed on the city data from TSPLIB.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, traveling salesman problem, initial population, chromosomes encoding

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6369 Transformation of Traditional Marketplaces in an Urban Context: Case of Chalai Market, Thiruvananthapuram

Authors: Aswathy Vijayan, Sharath Sunder Rajeev

Abstract:

Trade has been fundamental in the footprint of human civilization since ancient time. In most of the historic cities, city development was along trading routes, where marketplaces are the major entrance to a city and hence a major element of the urban fabric. Marketplaces are where the commercial activities flourish, people, having a sense of belonging to the place, where they easily fit in. Acknowledging the built environment in and around the market in a way, creating a sense of place is an important factor in the success of public spaces. Local markets are developed in an organic manner, which adds on to the people experience and perception of urban space. With the city development, the commercial needs within the city increase, hence marketplaces flourish, irrespective of the functional segregation within. The work-live culture in the marketplaces diminishes as the commercial expansion washes away the residential patches within it. Real estate flourishes as the newer infills are without considering the carrying capacity of the place. Chalai market is a prominent business center serving the regional level of Thiruvananthapuram city. The transformation trend of marketplaces in city cores are understood from case study on Fatimid Cairo Marketplace. The parameters that led to transformation of marketplaces in a global context is considered for the analysis of the Chalai market. The structure of the marketplace over the years is analyzed in terms of transformation in location, transformation in the land- use, change in commodity, and transformation in movement and activity. The aim of the research is to emphasize the need to understand the transformation trend, in creating a suitable development pattern for the city. The unregulated transformation within the city core has led to tremendous transformation in the user group and user pattern and eventually to the commercial trend. With the change in lifestyle and need for new amenities have led to addition of new infills leading to the degradation of the native commerce. Hence addressing the transformation of marketplaces are crucial to maintaining the locational significance and cultural importance and heritage of the place.

Keywords: bazaar, market centers, marketplaces, traditional city, traditional market, urban fabric

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6368 Urban City Centres: A Study of Centres and City Structure

Authors: B. Poorna Chander

Abstract:

Urban centre is one of the most important parts of the city where all the community activities take place. They are the active zones which enhance the structure of a city. The structure of the city refers to its form, mobility patterns, and concentration of people and lifestyles of people. The purpose of the research paper is to study how does the character or structure of city changes when a new centre is established. An attempt has been made to understand this by studying how the formation of centre has been changing the form or the structure of the city since the ancient times, what are the notions of a city and a centre by various architects, by studying the various models of the future city proposed by them. And then the data has been linked to how the formation of the new centres is changing the city. As the demands of the city are increasing, it also regulates how the new centres are formed. So both, the city and the centre are interdependent on each other.

Keywords: centre, activities, lifestyles, people, form

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6367 A Traditional Settlement in a Modernized City: Yanbu, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Hisham Mortada

Abstract:

Transition in the urban configuration of Arab cities has never been as radical and visible as it has been since the turn of the last century. The emergence of new cities near historical settlements of Arabia has spawned a series of developments in and around the old city precincts. New developments are based on advanced technology and conform to globally prevalent standards of city planning, superseding the vernacular arrangements based on traditional norms that guided so-called ‘city planning’. Evidence to this fact are the extant Arab buildings present at the urban core of modern cities, which inform us about intricate spatial organization. Organization that subscribed to multiple norms such as, satisfying gender segregation and socialization, economic sustainability, and ensuring security and environmental coherence etc., within settlement compounds. Several participating factors achieved harmony in such an inclusive city—an organization that was challenged and apparently replaced by the new planning order in the face of growing needs of globalized, economy-centric and high-tech models of development. Communities found it difficult to acclimatize with the new western planning models that were implemented at a very large scale throughout the Kingdom, which later experienced spatial re-structuring to suit users’ needs. A closer look the ancient city of Yanbu, now flanked with such new developments, allows us to differentiate and track the beginnings of this unprecedented transition in settlement formations. This paper aims to elaborate the Arabian context offered to both the ‘traditional’ and ‘modern’ planning approaches, in order to understand challenges and solutions offered by both at different times. In the process it will also establish the inconsistencies and conflicts that arose with the shift in planning paradigm, from traditional-'cultural norms’, to modern-'physical planning', in the Arabian context. Thus, by distinguishing the two divergent planning philosophies, their impact of the Arabian morphology, relevance to lifestyle and suitability to the biophysical environment, it concludes with a perspective on sustainability particularly for in case of Yanbu.

Keywords: Yanbu, traditional architecture, Hijaz, coral building, Saudi Arabia

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6366 The Role of Facades in Conserving the Image of the City

Authors: Hemadri Raut

Abstract:

The city is a blend of the possible interactions of the built form, open spaces and their spatial organization layout in a geographical area to obtain an integrated pattern and environment with building facades being a dominant figure in the body of a city. Façades of each city have their own inherent properties responsive to the human behaviour, weather conditions, safety factors, material availability and composition along with the necessary aesthetics in coordination with adjacent building facades. Cities experience a huge transformation in the culture, lifestyle; socioeconomic conditions and technology nowadays because of the increasing population, urban sprawl, industrialization, contemporary architectural style, post-disaster consequences, war reconstructions, etc. This leads to the loss of the actual identity and architectural character of the city which in turn induces chaos and turbulence in the city. This paper attempts to identify and learn from the traditional elements that would make us more aware of the unique identity of the local communities in a city. It further studies the architectural style, color, shape, and design techniques through the case studies of contextual cities. The work focuses on the observation and transformation of the image of the city through these considerations in the designing of the facades to achieve the reconciliation of the people with urban spaces.

Keywords: building facades, city, community, heritage, identity, transformation, urban

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6365 “Context” Thinking of Contemporary Urban History Space under the Basis of Enlightenment of Chinese Traditional Cultural Philology: Taking West Expansion Plan of Tianyi Pavilion as An Example

Authors: Wei Yan, Wei Dong

Abstract:

Facing the understanding problem of update and preservation of urban history space under background of rapid Chinese urbanization, so at first there is a need to dig the philosophic principles of “antithesis” and “unification” which are contained in the traditional Chinese literature known as “antithesis” and do the job of planning translation by personal understanding in order to form understanding and value systems of dialectical urban history space under the foundation of “antithesis”. Then we could put forward a “context” concept for urban history space under the foregoing basis. After that, we will take the update and preservation of Ningbo Tianyi Pavilion’s historical district as an example to discuss problems related to understanding of urban history area under the basis of Chinese tradition culture, improvement of value system, construction of urban trait space and Chinese “localization” of planning theory.

Keywords: antithesis, traditional values, city renewal and conservation, the “context” of city history space

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6364 A Study on the Strategy of Pocket Park in the Renewal of Old City in China

Authors: Xian Chen

Abstract:

In recent years, the tendency that the decline of material and social vitality of old city in China becomes more and more serious. Nowadays, transformation and renewal of the old city have become a hot topic in urban research. The traditional mode of large-scale promotion has been criticized. Thus, exploration of new ways to update the city turns to be a necessity on the way of sustainable urban development. Pocket Park is a small city open space, its location choose is based on abandoned or idle lands on urban structure, is scattered or hidden in corner of the urban. It has a great significance on improving the old city environment. Based on the theory of ‘pocket park’, this paper summarizes the successful experience of domestic and foreign practice, and discusses the update strategies which are suitable for China's national conditions according to the characteristics and predicament of the old city in China. The main methods and results are as follows: 1)Based on the conception of ‘pocket park’, though describing the research status in domestic and foreign, summarizing the experience which is worth learning and existing problems. 2) From the analysis of ‘pocket park’ function, general design principles and types of the deep-seated difficulties in renewal the old city and the possibility of the application of ‘pocket park’,the varied implementation of ‘pocket park’ form are established, and application value in the old city renewal are summed up. 3) It can’t be denied that pocket park plays an irreplaceable role in solving the recession and renewing the vitality of the old city. Anymore, It is recommended to develop corresponding supportive development policies.

Keywords: sustainable development, strategy, old city renewal, pocket park

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6363 Evaluating Social Sustainability in Historical City Center in Turkey: Case Study of Bursa

Authors: Şeyda Akçalı

Abstract:

This study explores the concept of social sustainability and its characteristics in terms of neighborhood (mahalle) which is a social phenomenon in Turkish urban life. As social sustainability indicators that moving away traditional themes toward multi-dimensional measures, the solutions for urban strategies may be achieved through learning lessons from historical precedents. It considers the inherent values of traditional urban forms contribute to the evolution of the city as well as the social functions of it. The study aims to measure non-tangible issues in order to evaluate social sustainability in historic urban environments and how they could contribute to the current urban planning strategies. The concept of neighborhood (mahalle) refers to a way of living that represents the organization of Turkish social and communal life rather than defining an administrative unit for the city. The distinctive physical and social features of neighborhood illustrate the link between social sustainability and historic urban environment. Instead of having a nostalgic view of past, it identifies both the failures and successes and extract lessons of traditional urban environments and adopt them to modern context. First, the study determines the aspects of social sustainability which are issued as the key themes in the literature. Then, it develops a model by describing the social features of mahalle which show consistency within the social sustainability agenda. The model is used to analyze the performance of traditional housing area in the historical city center of Bursa, Turkey whether it meets the residents’ social needs and contribute collective functioning of the community. Through a questionnaire survey exercised in the historic neighborhoods, the residents are evaluated according to social sustainability criteria of neighborhood. The results derived from the factor analysis indicate that social aspects of neighborhood are social infrastructure, identity, attachment, neighborliness, safety and wellbeing. Qualitative evaluation shows the relationship between key aspects of social sustainability and demographic and socio-economic factors. The outcomes support that inherent values of neighborhood retain its importance for the sustainability of community although there must be some local arrangements for few factors with great attention not to compromise the others. The concept of neighborhood should be considered as a potential tool to support social sustainability in national political agenda and urban policies. The performance of underlying factors in historic urban environment proposes a basis for both examining and improving traditional urban areas and how it may contribute to the overall city.

Keywords: historical city center, mahalle, neighborhood, social sustainability, traditional urban environment, Turkey

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6362 Redefinition of Village Landscape with Ruins-Taking Cunwei Village in Nanping City, Fujian Province as Example

Authors: Siyu Bu, Jie Wang, Yajing Jiang

Abstract:

Nowadays, villages still occupying 94.7% of the national territorial area (almost nine million square kilometers) of China. Some of them are meeting urbanization and grow as satellite; however, others are witnessing more and more citizens swarming into with nostalgia, seek enjoyment from the beautiful green countryside. In villages, new types of house come and we see billions of old houses lay unused, or even be dying at every second, which cause a lot of 'bad palaces', decadent and dangerous. In this context, there are lots of tries for gearing villages in China. This article deconstructs the traditional village house to excavate its’ landscape potential for future. By research in CunWei Village, Nanping City, Fujian Province, China, a method of reconstruction of old houses comes out: the wreckage will be a strong landscape, showing the great beauty of nature. It will be a better use of the old material as well as the space pattern. It was supposed to gain a juxtaposition of traditional village life and modern social life by offering possibilities of multiple event, replacing the bad space to attractive one by strengthen the old structures without destroy traditional patterns. Furthermore , this method acts as an exploring for building redefinition of village landscape that fit Chinese villages, using local nature resource and traditional construction logic.

Keywords: juxtaposition, replace, village, ruins

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6361 The Analysis on the Renewal Strategy of Public Space in Old Communities with an Example of GeDa Community in Xi'An

Authors: Xiyue Wen

Abstract:

With the rapid development of the city, old communities in the city are facing a series of problems. On one hand, aging facilities, obsolete spatial patterns, aging populations arouse in the aging of the community. On the other hand, public space is reduced and is taking up by cars parking or facilities setting, which lead to the collapse of traditional life in the old communities. That is to say, modern amenities haven’t helped to reform the old community, but have leading to tedious and inefficient, when it is not accommodated in the traditional space. Exploring a way is imminent to the east the contradiction between modern living facilities and spatial patterns of traditional. We select a typical site-GeDa Community in Xi’an, built in 70-80s,and carry out a concept calling 'Raising Landscape', which enables a convenient and efficient space for parking, as well as a high-quality yard for activities. In addition, the design implements low cost, simple construction, resident participation, so that it can be spread in the same texture of urban space.

Keywords: old communities, renewal strategy, raising landscape, public space, parking space

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6360 Influence of Urban Fabric on Child’s Upbringing: A Comparative Analysis between Modern and Traditional City

Authors: Mohamed A. Tantawy, Nourelhoda A. Hussein, Moataz A. Mahrous

Abstract:

New planning and city design theories are continuously debated and optimized for seeking efficiency and adequacy in economic and life quality aspects. Here, we examine the children-city relationship, to reflect on how modern and traditional cities affect the social climate. We adopt children as a proper caliber for urbanism, as for their very young age, they are independent and attached to family. Their fragility offers a chance to gauge how various urban settings directly affect their feeling of safety, containment, and their perception of belonging for home territory. The importance of street play for the child development process is discussed thoroughly. The authority they have on their play (when and what to play) pushes us to our conclusion. A mediocre built environment characterized by spontaneity and human-scale semi-private urban spaces, is irreplaceable by a perfectly designed far away playgrounds. Street play has a huge role in empowering children for a gradual engagement with grown-ups’ urban flow.

Keywords: child's psychology, social activity, street play, urban fabric

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6359 Importance of E-Participation by U-Society in the Development of the U-City

Authors: Jalaluddin Abdul Malek, Mohd Asruladlyi Ibrahim, Zurinah Tahir

Abstract:

This paper is to reveal developments in the areas of urban technology in Malaysia. Developments occur intend to add value intelligent city development to the ubiquitous city (U-city) or smart city. The phenomenon of change is called the development of post intelligent cities. U-City development discourse is seen from the perspective of the philosophy of the virtuous city organized by al-Farabi. The prosperity and perfection of a city is mainly caused by human personality factors, as well as its relationship with material and technological aspects of the city. The question is, to what extent to which human factors are taken into account in the concept of U-City as an added value to the intelligent city concept to realize the prosperity and perfection of the city? Previously, the intelligent city concept was developed based on global change and ICT movement, while the U-city added value to the development of intelligent cities and focused more on the development of information and communications technology (ICT). Value added is defined as the use of fiber optic technology that is wired to the use of wireless technology, such as wireless broadband. In this discourse, the debate on the concept of U-City is to the symbiosis between the U-City and the importance of local human e-participation (U-Society) for prosperity. In the context of virtuous city philosophy, it supports the thought of symbiosis so the concept of U-City can achieve sustainability, prosperity and perfection of the city.

Keywords: smart city, ubiquitous city, u-society, e-participation, prosperity

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6358 Construction of a Low Carbon Eco-City Index System Based on CAS Theory: A Case of Hexi Newtown in Nanjing, China

Authors: Xu Tao, Yilun Xu, Dingwei Xiang, Yaofei Sun

Abstract:

The practice of urban planning and construction based on the concept of the “low carbon eco-city” has been universally accepted by the academic community in response to urban issues such as population, resources, environment, and social development. Based on this, the current article first analyzes the concepts of low carbon eco-city, then builds a complex adaptive system (CAS) theory based on Chinese traditional philosophical thinking, and analyzes the adaptive relationship between material and non-material elements. A three-dimensional evaluation model of natural ecology, economic low carbon, and social harmony was constructed. Finally, the construction of a low carbon eco-city index system in Hexi Newtown of Nanjing was used as an example to verify the effectiveness of the research results; this paradigm provides a new way to achieve a low carbon eco-city system.

Keywords: complex adaptive system, low carbon ecology, index system, model

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6357 Retrofitting of Historical Structures in Van City

Authors: Eylem Güzel, Mustafa Gülen

Abstract:

Historical structures are the most important symbols of a country that link the past with the future. In order to transfer them in their present conditions to the next generations, maintaining these historical structures are one of our main tasks. Seismic performance of historical structures damaged by the earthquake effects can be enhanced by repair and retrofitting applications. However, repair and retrofitting applications of historical structures are more complicated compared with the traditional structures. For this reason, they need much more attention in repair and retrofitting applications to preserve the spirit of historical structures. In this study, the present condition of selected historical structures built up in Van city that has a very rich historical heritage is given and the necessity of repair and retrofitting applications of historical structures are debated in detail.

Keywords: historical structures, repair, retrofitting, Van city

Procedia PDF Downloads 264