Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7386

Search results for: transport problem

7386 Optimization of Maritime Platform Transport Problem of Solid, Special and Dangerous Waste

Authors: Ocotlán Díaz-Parra, Jorge A. Ruiz-Vanoye, Alejandro Fuentes-Penna, Beatriz Bernabe-Loranca, Patricia Ambrocio-Cruz, José J. Hernández-Flores


The Maritime Platform Transport Problem of Solid, Special and Dangerous Waste consist of to minimize the monetary value of carry different types of waste from one location to another location using ships. We offer a novel mathematical, the characterization of the problem and the use CPLEX to find the optimal values to solve the Solid, Special and Hazardous Waste Transportation Problem of offshore platforms instances of Mexican state-owned petroleum company (PEMEX). The set of instances used are WTPLib real instances and the tool CPLEX solver to solve the MPTPSSDW problem.

Keywords: oil platform, transport problem, waste, solid waste

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7385 Public Transport Analysis and Introducing of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) System in Kabul City

Authors: Ramin Mirzada


This research investigates the valuation of public transport importance in decreasing congestion and in introduction of bus rapid transit in Kabul city. The main concern and main problem of the Kabul city public transport is traffic congestion. When buses and trams are stuck in traffic jams, it is clear that they fall behind from the schedule and this cause lots of problem for Kabul residence. In this research, the main attention has been given to improve current public transport in Kabul city which Public transport has large share almost 50% share among all mode. The main purpose of this research is to improve public transport system, to examine the demand and the supply of public transport in Kabul city, and to improve public transport system by introducing Bus rapid transit (BRT) system in Kabul city. The data which is used in this research is gathered by Transport Ministry, Kabul Municipality and Japan Cooperation Agency in Afghanistan (JICA). Urban transportation modeling system (UTMS) which is also known as traditional four-step modeling is used as the methodology of this research. The outcome of this research shows that by improving public transport which is local bus system mostly congestion problem of Kabul city become solve, and for those lanes which has the high demand and has more congestion, it is needed to introduce bus rapid transit system.

Keywords: transportation, planning, public transport, bus rapid transit, Kabul, Afghanistan

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7384 A Polynomial Approach for a Graphical-based Integrated Production and Transport Scheduling with Capacity Restrictions

Authors: M. Ndeley


The performance of global manufacturing supply chains depends on the interaction of production and transport processes. Currently, the scheduling of these processes is done separately without considering mutual requirements, which leads to no optimal solutions. An integrated scheduling of both processes enables the improvement of supply chain performance. The integrated production and transport scheduling problem (PTSP) is NP-hard, so that heuristic methods are necessary to efficiently solve large problem instances as in the case of global manufacturing supply chains. This paper presents a heuristic scheduling approach which handles the integration of flexible production processes with intermodal transport, incorporating flexible land transport. The method is based on a graph that allows a reformulation of the PTSP as a shortest path problem for each job, which can be solved in polynomial time. The proposed method is applied to a supply chain scenario with a manufacturing facility in South Africa and shipments of finished product to customers within the Country. The obtained results show that the approach is suitable for the scheduling of large-scale problems and can be flexibly adapted to different scenarios.

Keywords: production and transport scheduling problem, graph based scheduling, integrated scheduling

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7383 Optimisation of Intermodal Transport Chain of Supermarkets on Isle of Wight, UK

Authors: Jingya Liu, Yue Wu, Jiabin Luo


This work investigates an intermodal transportation system for delivering goods from a Regional Distribution Centre to supermarkets on the Isle of Wight (IOW) via the port of Southampton or Portsmouth in the UK. We consider this integrated logistics chain as a 3-echelon transportation system. In such a system, there are two types of transport methods used to deliver goods across the Solent Channel: one is accompanied transport, which is used by most supermarkets on the IOW, such as Spar, Lidl and Co-operative food; the other is unaccompanied transport, which is used by Aldi. Five transport scenarios are studied based on different transport modes and ferry routes. The aim is to determine an optimal delivery plan for supermarkets of different business scales on IOW, in order to minimise the total running cost, fuel consumptions and carbon emissions. The problem is modelled as a vehicle routing problem with time windows and solved by genetic algorithm. The computing results suggested that accompanied transport is more cost efficient for small and medium business-scale supermarket chains on IOW, while unaccompanied transport has the potential to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of large business scale supermarket chains.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, intermodal transport system, Isle of Wight, optimization, supermarket

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7382 Modeling Methodologies for Optimization and Decision Support on Coastal Transport Information System (Co.Tr.I.S.)

Authors: Vassilios Moussas, Dimos N. Pantazis, Panagioths Stratakis


The aim of this paper is to present the optimization methodology developed in the frame of a Coastal Transport Information System. The system will be used for the effective design of coastal transportation lines and incorporates subsystems that implement models, tools and techniques that may support the design of improved networks. The role of the optimization and decision subsystem is to provide the user with better and optimal scenarios that will best fulfill any constrains, goals or requirements posed. The complexity of the problem and the large number of parameters and objectives involved led to the adoption of an evolutionary method (Genetic Algorithms). The problem model and the subsystem structure are presented in detail, and, its support for simulation is also discussed.

Keywords: coastal transport, modeling, optimization

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7381 Innovative Methods of Improving Train Formation in Freight Transport

Authors: Jaroslav Masek, Juraj Camaj, Eva Nedeliakova


The paper is focused on the operational model for transport the single wagon consignments on railway network by using two different models of train formation. The paper gives an overview of possibilities of improving the quality of transport services. Paper deals with two models used in problematic of train formatting - time continuously and time discrete. By applying these models in practice, the transport company can guarantee a higher quality of service and expect increasing of transport performance. The models are also applicable into others transport networks. The models supplement a theoretical problem of train formation by new ways of looking to affecting the organization of wagon flows.

Keywords: train formation, wagon flows, marshalling yard, railway technology

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7380 On Demand Transport: Feasibility Study - Local Needs and Capabilities within the Oran Wilaya

Authors: Nadjet Brahmia


The evolution of urban forms, the new aspects of mobility, the ways of life and economic models make public transport conventional collective low-performing on the majority of largest Algerian cities, particularly in the west of Algeria. On the other side, the information and communication technologies (ICT) open new eventualities to develop a new mode of transport which brings together both the tenders offered by the public service collective and those of the particular vehicle, suitable for urban requirements, social and environmental. Like the concrete examples made in the international countries in terms of on-demand transport systems (ODT) more particularly in the developed countries, this article has for objective the opportunity analysis to establish a service of ODT at the level of a few towns of Oran Wilaya, such a service will be subsequently spread on the totality of the Wilaya if not on the whole of Algeria. In this context, we show the different existing means of transport in the current network whose aim to illustrate the points of insufficiency accented in the present transport system, then we discuss the solutions that may exhibit a service of ODT to the problem studied all around the transport sector, to carry at the end to highlight the capabilities of ODT replying to the transformation of mobilities, this in the light of well-defined cases.

Keywords: mobility, on-demand transport, public transport collective, transport system

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7379 Solution of Logistics Center Selection Problem Using the Axiomatic Design Method

Authors: Fulya Zaralı, Harun Resit Yazgan


Logistics centers represent areas that all national and international logistics and activities related to logistics can be implemented by the various businesses. Logistics centers have a key importance in joining the transport stream and the transport system operations. Therefore, it is important where these centers are positioned to be effective and efficient and to show the expected performance of the centers. In this study, the location selection problem to position the logistics center is discussed. Alternative centers are evaluated according certain criteria. The most appropriate center is identified using the axiomatic design method.

Keywords: axiomatic design, logistic center, facility location, information systems

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7378 Flexible and Integrated Transport System in India

Authors: Aayushi Patidar, Nishant Parihar


One of the principal causes of failure in existing vehicle brokerage solutions is that they require the introduction of a single trusted third party to whom transport offers and requirements are sent, and which solves the scheduling problem. Advances in planning and scheduling could be utilized to address the scalability issues inherent here, but such refinements do not address the key need to decentralize decision-making. This is not to say that matchmaking of potential transport suppliers to consumers is not essential, but information from such a service should inform rather than determining the transport options for customers. The approach that is proposed, is the use of intelligent commuters that act within the system and to identify options open to users, weighing the evidence for desirability of each option given a model of the user’s priorities, and to drive dialogue among commuters in aiding users to solve their individual (or collective) transport goals. Existing research in commuter support for transport resource management has typically been focused on the provider. Our vision is to explore both the efficient use of limited transport resources and also to support the passengers in the transportation flexibility & integration among various modes in India.

Keywords: flexibility, integration, service design, technology

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7377 Sustainability as a Criterion in the Reconstruction of Libya’s Public Transport Infrastructure

Authors: Haitam Emhemad, Brian Agnew, David Greenwood


Amongst the many priorities facing Libya following the 2011 uprising is the provision of a transport infrastructure that will meet the nation’s needs and not undermine its prospects for economic prosperity as with many developing economies non-technical issues such as management, planning and financing are the major barriers to the efficient and effective provision of transport infrastructure. This is particularly true in the case of the effective incorporation of sustainability criteria, and the research upon which this paper is based involves the examination of alternative ways of approaching this problem. It is probably fair to say that criteria that relate to sustainability have not, historically, featured strongly in Libya’s approach to the development of its transport infrastructure. However, the current reappraisal of how best to redevelop the country’s transport infrastructure that has been afforded by recent events may offer the opportunity to alter this. The research examines recent case studies from a number of countries to explore ways in which sustainability has been included as a criterion for planning and procurement decisions. There will also be an in-depth investigation into the Libyan planning and legislative context to examine the feasibility of the introduction of such sustainability criteria into the process of planning and procurement of Libya’s transport infrastructure.

Keywords: Libya reconstruction, sustainability criteria, transport infrastructure, public transport

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7376 Using Trip Planners in Developing Proper Transportation Behavior

Authors: Grzegorz Sierpiński, Ireneusz Celiński, Marcin Staniek


The article discusses multi modal mobility in contemporary societies as a main planning and organization issue in the functioning of administrative bodies, a problem which really exists in the space of contemporary cities in terms of shaping modern transport systems. The article presents classification of available resources and initiatives undertaken for developing multi modal mobility. Solutions can be divided into three groups of measures–physical measures in the form of changes of the transport network infrastructure, organizational ones (including transport policy) and information measures. The latter ones include in particular direct support for people travelling in the transport network by providing information about ways of using available means of transport. A special measure contributing to this end is a trip planner. The article compares several selected planners. It includes a short description of the Green Travelling Project, which aims at developing a planner supporting environmentally friendly solutions in terms of transport network operation. The article summarizes preliminary findings of the project.

Keywords: mobility, modal split, multimodal trip, multimodal platforms, sustainable transport

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7375 Intelligent Crowd Management Systems in Trains

Authors: Sai S. Hari, Shriram Ramanujam, Unnati Trivedi


The advent of mass transit systems like rail, metro, maglev, and various other rail based transport has pacified the requirement of public transport for the masses to a great extent. However, the abatement of the demand does not necessarily mean it is managed efficiently, eloquently or in an encapsulating manner. The primary problem identified that the one this paper seeks to solve is the dipsomaniac like manner in which the compartments are occupied. This problem is solved by using a comparison of an empty train and an occupied one. The pixel data of an occupied train is compared to the pixel data of an empty train. This is done using canny edge detection technique. After the comparison it intimates the passengers at the consecutive stops which compartments are not occupied or have low occupancy. Thus, redirecting them and preventing overcrowding.

Keywords: canny edge detection, comparison, encapsulation, redirection

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7374 Solving the Transportation Problem for Warehouses and Dealers in Bangalore City

Authors: S. Aditya, K. T. Nideesh, N. Guruprasad


Being a subclass of linear programing problem, the Transportation Problem is a classic Operations Research problem where the objective is to determine the schedule for transporting goods from source to destination in a way that minimizes the shipping cost while satisfying supply and demand constraints. In this paper, we are representing the transportation problem for various warehouses along with various dealers situated in Bangalore city to reduce the transportation cost incurred by them as of now. The problem is solved by obtaining the Initial Basic feasible Solution through various methods and further proceeding to obtain optimal cost.

Keywords: NW method, optimum utilization, transportation problem, Vogel’s approximation method

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7373 On Increase and Development Prospects of Competitiveness of Georgia’s Transport-Logistical System on the Contemporary Stage

Authors: Ketevan Goletiani


MMultimodal transport is Europe-Asia’s rational decision of the XXI century. Success prerequisite of this form of cargo carriage is not technologic decision, but the comprehensive attitude towards it. Integration of the transport industry must refer to both technical and organizational-economic fields. Support of the multimodal’s must be the priority of the transport policy in different organizations of Europe and Asia. The method of approach to the transport as a unified system has been changed to a certain extent in the market conditions. Nowadays the competition between the different kinds of transport is not to be considered as a competition of one kind of transport towards another one, but is to be considered as a stimulator of the transport development. Basically, transport logistic, as the recent methodology and organization of the rationally flow of cargos at the specialized logistic centres during their procession provides effective rise of such flow of cargos, decreases non-operating expenses and gives the opportunity to the transport companies to come along with the time, to meet market clients’ requirements. It is apparent that the advanced transport-forwarding and logistic firms are being analized.

Keywords: transport systems, multimodal transport, competition, transport logistics

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7372 Model of Multi-Criteria Evaluation for Railway Lines

Authors: Juraj Camaj, Martin Kendra, Jaroslav Masek


The paper is focused to the evaluation railway tracks in the Slovakia by using Multi-Criteria method. Evaluation of railway tracks has important impacts for the assessment of investment in technical equipment. Evaluation of railway tracks also has an important impact for the allocation of marshalling yards. Marshalling yards are in transport model as centers for the operation assigned catchment area. This model is one of the effective ways to meet the development strategy of the European Community's railways. By applying this model in practice, a transport company can guarantee a higher quality of service and then expect an increase in performance. The model is also applicable to other rail networks. This model supplements a theoretical problem of train formation problem of new ways of looking at evaluation of factors affecting the organization of wagon flows.

Keywords: railway track, multi-criteria methods, evaluation, transportation model

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7371 Cars in a Neighborhood: A Case of Sustainable Living in Sector 22 Chandigarh

Authors: Maninder Singh


The Chandigarh city is under the strain of exponential growth of car density across various neighborhood. The consumerist nature of society today is to be blamed for this menace because everyone wants to own and ride a car. Car manufacturers are busy selling two or more cars per household. The Regional Transport Offices are busy issuing as many licenses to new vehicles as they can in order to generate revenue in the form of Road Tax. The car traffic in the neighborhoods of Chandigarh has reached a tipping point. There needs to be a more empirical and sustainable model of cars per household, which should be based on specific parameters of livable neighborhoods. Sector 22 in Chandigarh is one of the first residential sectors to be established in the city. There is scope to think, reflect, and work out a method to know how many cars we need to sell our citizens before we lose the argument to traffic problems, parking problems, and road rage. This is where the true challenge of a planner or a designer of the city lies. Currently, in Chandigarh city, there are no clear visible answers to this problem. The way forward is to look at spatial mapping, planning, and design of car parking units to address the problem, rather than suggesting extreme measures of banning cars (short-term) or promoting plans for citywide transport (very long-term). This is a chance to resolve the problem with a pragmatic approach from a citizen’s perspective, instead of an orthodox development planner’s methodology. Since citizens are at the center of how the problem is to be addressed, acceptable solutions are more likely to emerge from the car and traffic problem as defined by the citizens. Thus, the idea and its implementation would be interesting in comparison to the known academic methodologies. The novel and innovative process would lead to a more acceptable and sustainable approach to the issue of number of car parks in the neighborhood of Chandigarh city.

Keywords: cars, Chandigarh, neighborhood, sustainable living, walkability

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7370 Using Convergent and Divergent Thinking in Creative Problem Solving in Mathematics

Authors: Keng Keh Lim, Zaleha Ismail, Yudariah Mohammad Yusof


This paper aims to find out how students using convergent and divergent thinking in creative problem solving to solve mathematical problems creatively. Eight engineering undergraduates in a local university took part in this study. They were divided into two groups. They solved the mathematical problems with the use of creative problem solving skills. Their solutions were collected and analyzed to reveal all the processes of problem solving, namely: problem definition, ideas generation, ideas evaluation, ideas judgment, and solution implementation. The result showed that the students were able to solve the mathematical problem with the use of creative problem solving skills.

Keywords: convergent thinking, divergent thinking, creative problem solving, creativity

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7369 Fuzzy Vehicle Routing Problem for Extreme Environment

Authors: G. Sirbiladze, B. Ghvaberidze, B. Matsaberidze


A fuzzy vehicle routing problem is considered in the possibilistic environment. A new criterion, maximization of expectation of reliability for movement on closed routes is constructed. The objective of the research is to implement a two-stage scheme for solution of this problem. Based on the algorithm of preferences on the first stage, the sample of so-called “promising” routes will be selected. On the second stage, for the selected promising routes new bi-criteria problem will be solved - minimization of total traveled distance and maximization of reliability of routes. The problem will be stated as a fuzzy-partitioning problem. Two possible solutions of this scheme are considered.

Keywords: vehicle routing problem, fuzzy partitioning problem, multiple-criteria optimization, possibility theory

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7368 Transport Emission Inventories and Medical Exposure Modeling: A Missing Link for Urban Health

Authors: Frederik Schulte, Stefan Voß


The adverse effects of air pollution on public health are an increasingly vital problem in planning for urban regions in many parts of the world. The issue is addressed from various angles and by distinct disciplines in research. Epidemiological studies model the relative increase of numerous diseases in response to an increment of different forms of air pollution. A significant share of air pollution in urban regions is related to transport emissions that are often measured and stored in emission inventories. Though, most approaches in transport planning, engineering, and operational design of transport activities are restricted to general emission limits for specific air pollutants and do not consider more nuanced exposure models. We conduct an extensive literature review on exposure models and emission inventories used to study the health impact of transport emissions. Furthermore, we review methods applied in both domains and use emission inventory data of transportation hubs such as ports, airports, and urban traffic for an in-depth analysis of public health impacts deploying medical exposure models. The results reveal specific urban health risks related to transport emissions that may improve urban planning for environmental health by providing insights in actual health effects instead of only referring to general emission limits.

Keywords: emission inventories, exposure models, transport emissions, urban health

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7367 Implementing a Mobility Platform to Connect Hubs in Rural Areas

Authors: E. Neidhardt


Mobility is not only an aspect of personal freedom, but for many people mobility is also a requirement to be able to satisfy the needs of daily life. They must buy food, get to work, or go to the doctor. Many people are dependent on public transport to satisfy their needs. Especially in rural areas with a low population density this is difficult. In these areas it is often not cost-effective to provide public transport with sufficient coverage and frequency. Therefore, the available public transport is unattractive. As a result, people use their own car, which is not desirable from a sustainable point of view. Children and some elderly people also do not have this option. Sometimes people organize themselves and volunteer transport services are created, which function similarly to the demand-oriented taxis. With a platform for demand-oriented transport, we want to make the available public transport more usable and attractive by linking scheduled transport with voluntary transport services.

Keywords: demand-oriented, HubChain, living lab, public transport

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7366 Partial Knowledge Transfer Between the Source Problem and the Target Problem in Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Terence Soule, Tami Al Ghamdi


To study how the partial knowledge transfer may affect the Genetic Algorithm (GA) performance, we model the Transfer Learning (TL) process using GA as the model solver. The objective of the TL is to transfer the knowledge from one problem to another related problem. This process imitates how humans think in their daily life. In this paper, we proposed to study a case where the knowledge transferred from the S problem has less information than what the T problem needs. We sampled the transferred population using different strategies of TL. The results showed transfer part of the knowledge is helpful and speeds the GA process of finding a solution to the problem.

Keywords: transfer learning, partial transfer, evolutionary computation, genetic algorithm

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7365 Bee Colony Optimization Applied to the Bin Packing Problem

Authors: Kenza Aida Amara, Bachir Djebbar


We treat the two-dimensional bin packing problem which involves packing a given set of rectangles into a minimum number of larger identical rectangles called bins. This combinatorial problem is NP-hard. We propose a pretreatment for the oriented version of the problem that allows the valorization of the lost areas in the bins and the reduction of the size problem. A heuristic method based on the strategy first-fit adapted to this problem is presented. We present an approach of resolution by bee colony optimization. Computational results express a comparison of the number of bins used with and without pretreatment.

Keywords: bee colony optimization, bin packing, heuristic algorithm, pretreatment

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7364 A Method for Solving a Bi-Objective Transportation Problem under Fuzzy Environment

Authors: Sukhveer Singh, Sandeep Singh


A bi-objective fuzzy transportation problem with the objectives to minimize the total fuzzy cost and fuzzy time of transportation without according priorities to them is considered. To the best of our knowledge, there is no method in the literature to find efficient solutions of the bi-objective transportation problem under uncertainty. In this paper, a bi-objective transportation problem in an uncertain environment has been formulated. An algorithm has been proposed to find efficient solutions of the bi-objective transportation problem under uncertainty. The proposed algorithm avoids the degeneracy and gives the optimal solution faster than other existing algorithms for the given uncertain transportation problem.

Keywords: uncertain transportation problem, efficient solution, ranking function, fuzzy transportation problem

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7363 An Unified Model for Longshore Sediment Transport Rate Estimation

Authors: Aleksandra Dudkowska, Gabriela Gic-Grusza


Wind wave-induced sediment transport is an important multidimensional and multiscale dynamic process affecting coastal seabed changes and coastline evolution. The knowledge about sediment transport rate is important to solve many environmental and geotechnical issues. There are many types of sediment transport models but none of them is widely accepted. It is bacause the process is not fully defined. Another problem is a lack of sufficient measurment data to verify proposed hypothesis. There are different types of models for longshore sediment transport (LST, which is discussed in this work) and cross-shore transport which is related to different time and space scales of the processes. There are models describing bed-load transport (discussed in this work), suspended and total sediment transport. LST models use among the others the information about (i) the flow velocity near the bottom, which in case of wave-currents interaction in coastal zone is a separate problem (ii) critical bed shear stress that strongly depends on the type of sediment and complicates in the case of heterogeneous sediment. Moreover, LST rate is strongly dependant on the local environmental conditions. To organize existing knowledge a series of sediment transport models intercomparisons was carried out as a part of the project “Development of a predictive model of morphodynamic changes in the coastal zone”. Four classical one-grid-point models were studied and intercompared over wide range of bottom shear stress conditions, corresponding with wind-waves conditions appropriate for coastal zone in polish marine areas. The set of models comprises classical theories that assume simplified influence of turbulence on the sediment transport (Du Boys, Meyer-Peter & Muller, Ribberink, Engelund & Hansen). It turned out that the values of estimated longshore instantaneous mass sediment transport are in general in agreement with earlier studies and measurements conducted in the area of interest. However, none of the formulas really stands out from the rest as being particularly suitable for the test location over the whole analyzed flow velocity range. Therefore, based on the models discussed a new unified formula for longshore sediment transport rate estimation is introduced, which constitutes the main original result of this study. Sediment transport rate is calculated based on the bed shear stress and critical bed shear stress. The dependence of environmental conditions is expressed by one coefficient (in a form of constant or function) thus the model presented can be quite easily adjusted to the local conditions. The discussion of the importance of each model parameter for specific velocity ranges is carried out. Moreover, it is shown that the value of near-bottom flow velocity is the main determinant of longshore bed-load in storm conditions. Thus, the accuracy of the results depends less on the sediment transport model itself and more on the appropriate modeling of the near-bottom velocities.

Keywords: bedload transport, longshore sediment transport, sediment transport models, coastal zone

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7362 Cooperative Coevolution for Neuro-Evolution of Feed Forward Networks for Time Series Prediction Using Hidden Neuron Connections

Authors: Ravneil Nand


Cooperative coevolution uses problem decomposition methods to solve a larger problem. The problem decomposition deals with breaking down the larger problem into a number of smaller sub-problems depending on their method. Different problem decomposition methods have their own strengths and limitations depending on the neural network used and application problem. In this paper we are introducing a new problem decomposition method known as Hidden-Neuron Level Decomposition (HNL). The HNL method is competing with established problem decomposition method in time series prediction. The results show that the proposed approach has improved the results in some benchmark data sets when compared to the standalone method and has competitive results when compared to methods from literature.

Keywords: cooperative coevaluation, feed forward network, problem decomposition, neuron, synapse

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7361 Competitor Analysis to Quantify the Benefits and for Different Use of Transport Infrastructure

Authors: Dimitrios J. Dimitriou, Maria F. Sartzetaki


Different transportation modes have key operational advantages and disadvantages, providing a variety of different transport options to users and passengers. This paper reviews key variables for the competition between air transport and other transport modes. The aim of this paper is to review the competition between air transport and other transport modes, providing results in terms of perceived cost for the users, for destinations high competitiveness for all transport modes. The competitor analysis variables include the cost and time outputs for each transport option, highlighting the level of competitiveness on high demanded Origin-Destination corridors. The case study presents the output of a such analysis for the OD corridor in Greece that connects the Capital city (Athens) with the second largest city (Thessaloniki) and the different transport modes have been considered (air, train, road). Conventional wisdom is to present an easy to handle tool for planners, managers and decision makers towards pricing policy effectiveness and demand attractiveness, appropriate to use for other similar cases.

Keywords: competitor analysis, transport economics, transport generalized cost, quantitative modelling

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7360 Study of Nitrogen Species Fate and Transport in Subsurface: To Assess the Impact of Wastewater Irrigation

Authors: C. Mekala, Indumathi M. Nambi


Nitrogen pollution in groundwater arising from wastewater and fertilizer application through vadose zone is a major problem and it causes a prime risk to groundwater based drinking water supplies. Nitrogenous compounds namely ammonium, nitrate and nitrite fate and transport in soil subsurface were studied experimentally. The major process like sorption, leaching, biotransformation involving microbial growth kinetics, and biological clogging due to biomass growth were assessed and modeled with advection-dispersion reaction equations for ammonium, nitrate and acetate in a saturated, heterogeneous soil medium. The transport process was coupled with freundlich sorption and monod inhibition kinetics for immobile bacteria and permeability reduction due to biomass growth will be verified and validated with the numerical model. This proposed mathematical model will be very helpful in the development of a management model for a sustainable and safe wastewater reuse strategies such as irrigation and groundwater recharge.

Keywords: nitrogen species transport, transformation, biological clogging, biokinetic parameters, contaminant transport model, saturated soil

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7359 Solution of Nonlinear Fractional Programming Problem with Bounded Parameters

Authors: Mrinal Jana, Geetanjali Panda


In this paper a methodology is developed to solve a nonlinear fractional programming problem in which the coefficients of the objective function and constraints are interval parameters. This model is transformed into a general optimization problem and relation between the original problem and the transformed problem is established. Finally the proposed methodology is illustrated through a numerical example.

Keywords: fractional programming, interval valued function, interval inequalities, partial order relation

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7358 Exhaustive Study of Essential Constraint Satisfaction Problem Techniques Based on N-Queens Problem

Authors: Md. Ahsan Ayub, Kazi A. Kalpoma, Humaira Tasnim Proma, Syed Mehrab Kabir, Rakib Ibna Hamid Chowdhury


Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) is observed in various applications, i.e., scheduling problems, timetabling problems, assignment problems, etc. Researchers adopt a CSP technique to tackle a certain problem; however, each technique follows different approaches and ways to solve a problem network. In our exhaustive study, it has been possible to visualize the processes of essential CSP algorithms from a very concrete constraint satisfaction example, NQueens Problem, in order to possess a deep understanding about how a particular constraint satisfaction problem will be dealt with by our studied and implemented techniques. Besides, benchmark results - time vs. value of N in N-Queens - have been generated from our implemented approaches, which help understand at what factor each algorithm produces solutions; especially, in N-Queens puzzle. Thus, extended decisions can be made to instantiate a real life problem within CSP’s framework.

Keywords: arc consistency (AC), backjumping algorithm (BJ), backtracking algorithm (BT), constraint satisfaction problem (CSP), forward checking (FC), least constrained values (LCV), maintaining arc consistency (MAC), minimum remaining values (MRV), N-Queens problem

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7357 Explicit Iterative Scheme for Approximating a Common Solution of Generalized Mixed Equilibrium Problem and Fixed Point Problem for a Nonexpansive Semigroup in Hilbert Space

Authors: Mohammad Farid


In this paper, we introduce and study an explicit iterative method based on hybrid extragradient method to approximate a common solution of generalized mixed equilibrium problem and fixed point problem for a nonexpansive semigroup in Hilbert space. Further, we prove that the sequence generated by the proposed iterative scheme converge strongly to the common solution of generalized mixed equilibrium problem and fixed point problem for a nonexpansive semigroup. This common solution is the unique solution of a variational inequality problem and is the optimality condition for a minimization problem. The results presented in this paper are the supplement, extension and generalization of the previously known results in this area.

Keywords: generalized mixed equilibrium problem, fixed-point problem, nonexpansive semigroup, variational inequality problem, iterative algorithms, hybrid extragradient method

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