Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: Beatriz Bernabe-Loranca

35 Internet of Things Applications on Supply Chain Management

Authors: Beatriz Cortés, Andrés Boza, David Pérez, Llanos Cuenca

Abstract:

The Internet of Things (IoT) field is been applied in industries with different purposes. Sensing Enterprise (SE) is an attribute of an enterprise or a network that allows it to react to business stimuli originating on the internet. These fields have come into focus recently on the enterprises and there is some evidence of the use and implications in supply chain management while finding it as an interesting aspect to work on. This paper presents a revision and proposals of IoT applications in supply chain management.

Keywords: industrial, internet of things, production systems, sensing enterprises, sensor, supply chain management

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34 Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized Using Sugar Cane as a Percursor

Authors: Vanessa Romanovicz, Beatriz A. Berns, Stephen D. Carpenter, Deyse Carpenter

Abstract:

This article deals with the carbon nanotubes (CNT) synthesized from a novel precursor, sugar cane and Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO). The objective was to produce CNTs to be used as catalyst supports for Proton Exchange Membranes. The influence of temperature, inert gas flow rate and concentration of the precursor is presented. The CNTs prepared were characterized using TEM, XRD, Raman Spectroscopy, and the surface area determined by BET. The results show that it is possible to form CNT from sugar cane by pyrolysis and the CNTs are the type multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The MWCNTs are short and closed at the two ends with very small surface area of SBET = 3.691m,/g.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, sugar cane, fuel cell, catalyst support

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33 Optimization of Maritime Platform Transport Problem of Solid, Special and Dangerous Waste

Authors: Ocotlán Díaz-Parra, Jorge A. Ruiz-Vanoye, Alejandro Fuentes-Penna, Beatriz Bernabe-Loranca, Patricia Ambrocio-Cruz, José J. Hernández-Flores

Abstract:

The Maritime Platform Transport Problem of Solid, Special and Dangerous Waste consist of to minimize the monetary value of carry different types of waste from one location to another location using ships. We offer a novel mathematical, the characterization of the problem and the use CPLEX to find the optimal values to solve the Solid, Special and Hazardous Waste Transportation Problem of offshore platforms instances of Mexican state-owned petroleum company (PEMEX). The set of instances used are WTPLib real instances and the tool CPLEX solver to solve the MPTPSSDW problem.

Keywords: oil platform, transport problem, waste, solid waste

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32 A Correlational Study between Parentification and Memory Retention among Parentified Female Adolescents: A Neurocognitive Perspective on Parentification

Authors: Mary Dorothy Roxas, Jeian Mae Dungca, Reginald Agor, Beatriz Figueroa, Lennon Andre Patricio, Honey Joy Cabahug

Abstract:

Parentification occurs when children are expected to provide instrumental or emotional caregiving within the family. It was found that parentification has the latter effect on adolescents’ cognitive and emotional vulnerability. Attachment theory helps clarify the process of parentification as it involves the relationship between the child and the parent. Carandang theory of “taga-salo” helps explain parentification in the Philippines setting. The present study examined the potential risk of parentification on adolescent’s memory retention by hypothesizing that there is a correlation between the two. The research was conducted with 249 female adolescents ages 12-24, residing in Valenzuela City. Results indicated that there is a significant inverse correlation between parentification and memory retention.

Keywords: memory retention, neurocognitive, parentification, stress

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31 US Airlines Performance and Its Connection with Service Quality

Authors: Nicole Kalemba, Fernando Campa-Planas, Ana-Beatriz Hernández-Lara, Maria Victória Sánchez-Rebull

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of service quality on US airlines’ economic performance. In order to cover this goal, it has been considered four different indexes of service quality in the air transportation industry, and also two indicators of economic performance, revenues and return on investment (ROI). Data from American airline companies over a period that covers from 2006 to 2013 have been used in order to determine if airlines’ profitability increases when service quality improves. Considering the effects on airlines’ profitability, the results confirm the positive and significant influence of service quality on the ROI of the companies in our study. Meanwhile, a non-significant effect was found for airline revenues related to quality. No previous research in this area has been done and these findings could encourage airline companies to invest in quality as far as this policy can have a return on their profitability.

Keywords: airlines, economic performance, key performance indicators, quality

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30 A Parallel Poromechanics Finite Element Method (FEM) Model for Reservoir Analyses

Authors: Henrique C. C. Andrade, Ana Beatriz C. G. Silva, Fernando Luiz B. Ribeiro, Samir Maghous, Jose Claudio F. Telles, Eduardo M. R. Fairbairn

Abstract:

The present paper aims at developing a parallel computational model for numerical simulation of poromechanics analyses of heterogeneous reservoirs. In the context of macroscopic poroelastoplasticity, the hydromechanical coupling between the skeleton deformation and the fluid pressure is addressed by means of two constitutive equations. The first state equation relates the stress to skeleton strain and pore pressure, while the second state equation relates the Lagrangian porosity change to skeleton volume strain and pore pressure. A specific algorithm for local plastic integration using a tangent operator is devised. A modified Cam-clay type yield surface with associated plastic flow rule is adopted to account for both contractive and dilative behavior.

Keywords: finite element method, poromechanics, poroplasticity, reservoir analysis

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29 Cellular Automata Model for Car Accidents at a Signalized Intersection

Authors: Rachid Marzoug, Noureddine Lakouari, Beatriz Castillo Téllez, Margarita Castillo Téllez, Gerardo Alberto Mejía Pérez

Abstract:

This paper developed a two-lane cellular automata model to explain the relationship between car accidents at a signalized intersection and traffic-related parameters. It is found that the increase of the lane-changing probability P?ₕ? increases the risk of accidents, besides, the inflow α and the probability of accidents Pₐ? exhibit a nonlinear relationship. Furthermore, depending on the inflow, Pₐ? exhibits three different phases. The transition from phase I to phase II is of first (second) order when P?ₕ?=0 (P?ₕ?>0). However, the system exhibits a second (first) order transition from phase II to phase III when P?ₕ?=0 (P?ₕ?>0). In addition, when the inflow is not very high, the green light length of one road should be increased to improve road safety. Finally, simulation results show that the traffic at the intersection is safer adopting symmetric lane-changing rules than asymmetric ones.

Keywords: two-lane intersection, accidents, fatality risk, lane-changing, phase transition

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28 The Moderating Effects of Attachment Style on the Relationship between the Psychological Symptoms and Well-Being of Mental Health Practitioners in Rehabilitation Centers: A Preliminary Study

Authors: Amaba, Marinela C., Espino, Gianne Ericka S. J. Valencia, Zeia Beatriz C.

Abstract:

This study aims to determine the moderating role of attachment style on the relationship between psychological symptoms and well-being of mental health practitioners in rehabilitation centers that are accredited of the Department of Health in Pampanga. Using the data gathered from 46 mental health practitioners, multiple regression models were conducted to test the main and moderating effects of attachment styles. The findings show that all three psychological symptoms namely depression, anxiety, and stress have main effects on their general well-being on a negative direction. However, attachment style did not moderate the relationship between the psychological symptoms and general well-being. On one hand, results about the relationship of psychological symptoms and well-being are consistent to previous findings of other studies while on the other hand, results in moderation were contradicting.

Keywords: attachment style, psychological symptoms, well-being, mental health practitioners, rehabilitation centers

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27 Application Methodology for the Generation of 3D Thermal Models Using UAV Photogrammety and Dual Sensors for Mining/Industrial Facilities Inspection

Authors: Javier Sedano-Cibrián, Julio Manuel de Luis-Ruiz, Rubén Pérez-Álvarez, Raúl Pereda-García, Beatriz Malagón-Picón

Abstract:

Structural inspection activities are necessary to ensure the correct functioning of infrastructures. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) techniques have become more popular than traditional techniques. Specifically, UAV Photogrammetry allows time and cost savings. The development of this technology has permitted the use of low-cost thermal sensors in UAVs. The representation of 3D thermal models with this type of equipment is in continuous evolution. The direct processing of thermal images usually leads to errors and inaccurate results. A methodology is proposed for the generation of 3D thermal models using dual sensors, which involves the application of visible Red-Blue-Green (RGB) and thermal images in parallel. Hence, the RGB images are used as the basis for the generation of the model geometry, and the thermal images are the source of the surface temperature information that is projected onto the model. Mining/industrial facilities representations that are obtained can be used for inspection activities.

Keywords: aerial thermography, data processing, drone, low-cost, point cloud

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26 Whole Body Cooling Hypothermia Treatment Modelling Using a Finite Element Thermoregulation Model

Authors: Ana Beatriz C. G. Silva, Luiz Carlos Wrobel, Fernando Luiz B. Ribeiro

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This paper presents a thermoregulation model using the finite element method to perform numerical analyses of brain cooling procedures as a contribution to the investigation on the use of therapeutic hypothermia after ischemia in adults. The use of computational methods can aid clinicians to observe body temperature using different cooling methods without the need of invasive techniques, and can thus be a valuable tool to assist clinical trials simulating different cooling options that can be used for treatment. In this work, we developed a FEM package applied to the solution of the continuum bioheat Pennes equation. Blood temperature changes were considered using a blood pool approach and a lumped analysis for intravascular catheter method of blood cooling. Some analyses are performed using a three-dimensional mesh based on a complex geometry obtained from computed tomography medical images, considering a cooling blanket and a intravascular catheter. A comparison is made between the results obtained and the effects of each case in brain temperature reduction in a required time, maintenance of body temperature at moderate hypothermia levels and gradual rewarming.

Keywords: brain cooling, finite element method, hypothermia treatment, thermoregulation

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25 An Epistemological Approach of the Social Movements Studies in Cali (Colombia) between 2002 and 2016

Authors: Faride Crespo Razeg, Beatriz Eugenia Rivera Pedroza

Abstract:

While Colombian’s society has changed, the way that Colombian’s civil society participates has changed too. Thus, the social movements as a form of participation should be research to understand as the society structure as the groups’ interactions. In fact, in the last decades, the social movements in Colombia have been transformed in three categories: actors, spaces, and demands. For this reason, it is important to know from what perspectives have been researched this topic, allowing to recognize an epistemological and ontological reflections of it. The goal of this research has been characterizing the social movements of Cali – Colombia between 2002 and 2016. Cali is the southwest largest Colombian city; for this reason, it could be considered as a representative data for the social dynamic of the region. Qualitative methods as documental analysis have been used, in order to know the way that the research on social movements has been done. Thus taking into account this methodological technique, it has been found the goals that are present in most of the studies, which represents what are the main concerns around this topic. Besides, the methodology more used, to understand the way that the data was collected, its problems and its advantages. Finally, the ontological and epistemological reflections are important to understand which have been the theory and conceptual approach of the studies and how its have been contextualized to Cali, taking into account its own history.

Keywords: social movements, civil society, forms of participation, collective actions

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24 The Influence of Audio on Perceived Quality of Segmentation

Authors: Silvio Ricardo Rodrigues Sanches, Bianca Cogo Barbosa, Beatriz Regina Brum, Cléber Gimenez Corrêa

Abstract:

To evaluate the quality of a segmentation algorithm the authors use subjective or objective metrics. Although subjective metrics are more accurate, objective metrics do not require user feedback to test an algorithm. Objective metrics require subjective experiments only during their development. Subjective experiments typically display to users some videos (generated from frames with segmentation errors) that simulate the environment of an application domain. This user feedback is the key information for metric definition. In the subjective experiments applied to develop some state-of-the-art metrics used to test segmentation algorithms, the videos displayed during the experiments did not contain audio. In applications such as videoconference and augmented reality, audio is an important component. If the audio influences the user’s perception, using only videos without audio in subjective experiments can compromise the efficiency of an objective metric generated using data from these experiments. The aim of this work is to identify if the audio influences the user’s perception of segmentation quality in background substitution applications with audio. For this, a subjective method based on formal methods of video quality assessment was applied. The results showed audio influences the quality of segmentation perceived by user.

Keywords: background substitution, influence of audio, segmentation evaluation, segmentation quality

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23 Properties of Bacterial Nanocellulose for Scenic Arts

Authors: Beatriz Suárez López, Gabriela Forma

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Kombucha (a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast) produces material capable of acquiring multiple shapes and textures that change significantly under different environment or temperature variations (e.g., when it is exposed to wet conditions), properties that may be explored in the scenic industry. This paper presents an analysis of its specific characteristics, exploring them as a non-conventional material for arts and performance. Costume Design uses surfaces as a powerful way of expression to represent concepts and stories; it may apply the unique features of nano bacterial cellulose (NBC) as assets in this artistic context. A mix of qualitative and quantitative (interventionist) methodology approaches were used -review of relevant literature to deepen knowledge on the research topic (crossing bibliography from different fields of studies: Biology, Art, Costume Design, etc.); as well as descriptive methods: laboratorial experiments, document quantities, observation to identify material properties and possibilities used to express a multiple narrative ideas, concepts and feelings. The results confirmed that NBC is an interactive and versatile material viable to be used in an alternative scenic context; its unique aesthetic and performative qualities, which change in contact to moisture, is a resource that can be used to show a visual and poetic impact on stage.

Keywords: biotechnological materials, contemporary dance, costume design, nano bacterial cellulose, performing arts

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22 COVID-19 Pandemic Influence on Toddlers and Preschoolers’ Screen Time

Authors: Juliana da Silva Cardoso, Cláudia Correia, Rita Gomes, Carolina Fraga, Inês Cascais, Sara Monteiro, Beatriz Teixeira, Sandra Ribeiro, Carolina Andrade, Cláudia Oliveira, Diana Gonzaga, Catarina Prior, Inês Vaz Matos

Abstract:

The average daily screen time (ST) has been increasing in children, even at young ages. This seems to be associated with a higher incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders, and as the time of exposure increases, the greater is the functional impact. This study aims to compare the daily ST of toddlers and preschoolers previously and during the COVID-19 pandemic. A questionnaire was applied by telephone to parents/caregivers of children between 1 and 5 years old, followed up at 4 primary care units belonging to the Group of Primary Health Care Centers of Western Porto, Portugal. 520 children were included: 52.9% male, mean age 39.4 ± 13.9 months. The mean age of first exposure to screens was 13.9 ± 8.0 months, and most of the children were exposed to more than one screen daily. Considering the WHO recommendations, before the COVID-19 pandemic, 385 (74.0%) and 408 (78.5%) children had excessive ST during the week and the weekend, respectively; during the lockdown, these values increased to 495 (95.2%) and 482 (92.7%). Maternal education and both the child's median age and the median age of first exposure to screens had a statistically significant association with excessive ST, with OR 0.2 (p = 0.03, CI 95% 0.07-0.86), OR 1.1 (p = 0.01, 95% CI 1.05-1.14) and OR 0.9 (p = 0.05, 95% CI 0. 87-0.98), respectively. Most children in this sample had a higher than recommended ST, which increased with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. These results are worrisome and point to the need for urgent intervention.

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, preschoolers, screen time, toddlers

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21 Characterization and Quantification of Relatives Amounts of Phosphorylated Glucosyl Residues in C6 and C3 Position in Banana Starch Granules by 31P-NMR

Authors: Renata Shitakubo, Hanyu Yangcheng, Jay-lin Jane, Fernanda Peroni Okita, Beatriz Cordenunsi

Abstract:

In the degradation transitory starch model, the enzymatic activity of glucan/water dikinase (GWD) and phosphoglucan/water dikinase (PWD) are essential for the granule degradation. GWD and PWD phosphorylate glucose molecules in the positions C6 and C3, respectively, in the amylopectin chains. This action is essential to allow that β-amylase degrade starch granules without previous action of α-amylase. During banana starch degradation, as part of banana ripening, both α- and β-amylases activities and proteins were already detected and, it is also known that there is a GWD and PWD protein bounded to the starch granule. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify both Gluc-6P and Gluc-3P in order to estimate the importance of the GWD-PWD-β-amylase pathway in banana starch degradation. Starch granules were isolated as described by Peroni-Okita et al (Carbohydrate Polymers, 81:291-299, 2010), from banana fruit at different stages of ripening, green (20.7%), intermediate (18.2%) and ripe (6.2%). Total phosphorus content was determinate following the Smith and Caruso method (1964). Gluc-6P and Gluc-3P quantifications were performed as described by Lim et al (Cereal Chemistry, 71(5):488-493, 1994). Total phosphorous content in green banana starch is found as 0.009%, intermediary banana starch 0.006% and ripe banana starch 0.004%, both by the colorimetric method and 31P-NMR. The NMR analysis showed the phosphorus content in C6 and C3. The results by NMR indicate that the amylopectin is phosphorylate by GWD and PWD before the bananas become ripen. Since both the total content of phosphorus and phosphorylated glucose molecules at positions C3 and C6 decrease with the starch degradation, it can be concluded that this phosphorylation occurs only in the surface of the starch granule and before the fruit be harvested.

Keywords: starch, GWD, PWD, 31P-NMR

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20 Analyzing the Factors That Influence Students' Professional Identity Using Hierarchical Regression Analysis to Ease Higher Education Transition

Authors: Alba Barbara-i-Molinero, Rosalia Cascon Pereira, Ana Beatriz Hernandez Lara

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Our general motivation in undertaking this study is to propose alternative measures to lighten students experienced tensions during the transitions from high school to higher education based on the concept of professional identity strength. In order to do so, we measured the influence that three different factors external motivational conditionals, educational experience conditionals and personal motivation conditionals exerted over students’ professional identity strength and proposed the measures considering the obtained results. By using hierarchical regression analysis we addressed this issue, across disciplines and bachelor degrees, allowing us to gain also deeper insight into first-year university students PID. Our findings suggest that students’ from the different disciplines are influenced by personal motivational conditionals; while students from sciences are also influenced by external motivational conditionals. Based on the obtained results we propose three different alternative educational and recruitment strategies which aim to increase students’ professional identity strength and reduce the tensions generated during high school-university transitions. From this study theoretical contributions regarding the differences in the influence of these factors on students from different bachelor degrees arise; and practical implications for universities, derived from the proposed strategies.

Keywords: professional identity, transitions, higher education, strategies

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19 Failure Analysis of Fuel Pressure Supply from an Aircraft Engine

Authors: M. Pilar Valles-gonzalez, Alejandro Gonzalez Meije, Ana Pastor Muro, Maria Garcia-Martinez, Beatriz Gonzalez Caballero

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This paper studies a failure case of a fuel pressure supply tube from an aircraft engine. Multiple fracture cases of the fuel pressure control tube from aircraft engines have been reported. The studied set was composed of the mentioned tube, a welded connecting pipe, where the fracture has been produced, and a union nut. The fracture has been produced in one most critical zones of the tube, in a region next to the supporting body of the union nut to the connector. The tube material was X6CrNiTi18-10, an austenitic stainless steel. Chemical composition was determined using an X-Ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) and combustion equipment. Furthermore, the material has been mechanical, by hardness test, and microstructural characterized using a stereomicroscope and an optical microscope. The results confirmed that it is within specifications. To determine the macrofractographic features, a visual examination and a stereo microscope of the tube fracture surface have been carried out. The results revealed a tube plastic macrodeformation, surface damaged, and signs of a possible corrosion process. Fracture surface was also inspected by scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), equipped with a microanalysis system by X-ray dispersive energy (EDX), to determine the microfractographic features in order to find out the failure mechanism involved in the fracture. Fatigue striations, which are typical from a progressive fracture by a fatigue mechanism, have been observed. The origin of the fracture has been placed in defects located on the outer wall of the tube, leading to a final overload fracture.

Keywords: aircraft engine, fatigue, FE-SEM, fractography, fracture, fuel tube, microstructure, stainless steel

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18 Correlation between Polysaccharides Molecular Weight Changes and Pectinases Gene Expression during Papaya Ripening

Authors: Samira B. R. Prado, Paulo R. Melfi, Beatriz T. Minguzzi, João P. Fabi

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Fruit softening is the main change that occurs during papaya (Carica papaya L.) ripening. It is characterized by the depolymerization of cell wall polysaccharides, especially the pectic fractions, which causes cell wall disassembling. However, it is uncertain how the modification of the two main pectin polysaccharides fractions (water-soluble – WSF, and oxalate-soluble fractions - OSF) accounts for fruit softening. The aim of this work was to correlate molecular weight changes of WSF and OSF with the gene expression of pectin-solubilizing enzymes (pectinases) during papaya ripening. Papaya fruits obtained from a producer were harvest and storage under specific conditions. The fruits were divided in five groups according to days after harvesting. Cell walls from all groups of papaya pulp were isolated and fractionated (WSF and OSF). Expression profiles of pectinase genes were achieved according to the MIQE guidelines (Minimum Information for publication of Quantitative real-time PCR Experiments). The results showed an increased yield and a decreased molecular weight throughout ripening for WSF and OSF. Gene expression data support that papaya softening is achieved by polygalacturonases (PGs) up-regulation, in which their actions might have been facilitated by the constant action of pectinesterases (PMEs). Moreover, BGAL1 gene was up-regulated during ripening with a simultaneous galactose release, suggesting that galactosidases (GALs) could also account for pulp softening. The data suggest that a solubilization of galacturonans and a depolymerization of cell wall components were caused mainly by the action of PGs and GALs.

Keywords: carica papaya, fruit ripening, galactosidases, plant cell wall, polygalacturonases

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17 Comparison of Low Velocity Impact Test on Coir Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites

Authors: Ricardo Mendoza, Jason Briceño, Juan F. Santa, Gabriel Peluffo, Mauricio Márquez, Beatriz Cardozo, Carlos Gutiérrez

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The most common controlled method to obtain impact strength of composites materials is performing a Charpy Impact Test which consists of a pendulum with calibrated mass and length released from a known height. In fact, composites components experience impact events in normal operations such as when a tool drops or a foreign object strikes it. These events are categorized into low velocity impact (LVI) which typically occurs at velocities below 10m/s. In this study, the major aim was to calculate the absorbed energy during the impact. Tests were performed on three types of composite panels: fiberglass laminated panels, coir fiber reinforced polyester and coir fiber reinforced polyester subjected to water immersion for 48 hours. Coir fibers were obtained in local plantations of the Caribbean coast of Colombia. They were alkali treated in 5% aqueous NaOH solution for 2h periods. Three type of shape impactors were used on drop-weight impact test including hemispherical, ogive and pointed. Failure mechanisms and failure modes of specimens were examined using an optical microscope. Results demonstrate a reduction in absorbed energy correlated with the increment of water absorption of the panels. For each level of absorbed energy, it was possible to associate a different fracture state. This study compares results of energy absorbed obtained from two impact test methods.

Keywords: coir fiber, polyester composites, low velocity impact, Charpy impact test, drop-weight impact test

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16 Relevant Stakeholders in Environmental Management Organization: The Case of Industries Três Rios/RJ

Authors: Beatriz dos Anjos Furtado, Marina Barreiros Lamim, Camila Avozani Zago, Julianne Alvim Milward-de-Azevedo, Luís Cláudio Meirelles de Medeiros

Abstract:

The intense process of economic acceleration, expansion of industrial activities and capitalism, combined with population growth, while promoting the development, bring environmental consequences and dynamics of locations. It can be seen that society is seeking to break with old paradigms of capitalist society, seeking to reconcile growth with sustainable development, with a change of mentality of the stakeholders of the production process (shareholders, employees, suppliers, customers, governments, and neighbors, groups citizens and the public in general). In this context, this research aims to map the stakeholders interested in environmental management in industries located in the city of Três Rios/RJ. The city of Três Rios is located in South-Central region of the state of Rio de Janeiro - Brazil. Methodological resources used refer to descriptive and field research, whose nature is qualitative and quantitative. It is also of multicases studies in the study area, and the data collection occurred by means of semi-structured questionnaires and interviews with employees related to the environmental area of the industries located in Três Rios and registered at the Federation of Industries the State of Rio de Janeiro - FIRJAN in the version of 2013 and active in federal revenue. Through this research it observed, among other things, the stakeholders involved in the environmental management process of “Três Rios” industry respondents, and those responding to the demands of environmental management.

Keywords: stakeholders, environmental management, industry, state, customer

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15 Optimal Concentration of Fluorescent Nanodiamonds in Aqueous Media for Bioimaging and Thermometry Applications

Authors: Francisco Pedroza-Montero, Jesús Naín Pedroza-Montero, Diego Soto-Puebla, Osiris Alvarez-Bajo, Beatriz Castaneda, Sofía Navarro-Espinoza, Martín Pedroza-Montero

Abstract:

Nanodiamonds have been widely studied for their physical properties, including chemical inertness, biocompatibility, optical transparency from the ultraviolet to the infrared region, high thermal conductivity, and mechanical strength. In this work, we studied how the fluorescence spectrum of nanodiamonds quenches concerning the concentration in aqueous solutions systematically ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg/mL. Our results demonstrated a non-linear fluorescence quenching as the concentration increases for both of the NV zero-phonon lines; the 5 mg/mL concentration shows the maximum fluorescence emission. Furthermore, this behaviour is theoretically explained as an electronic recombination process that modulates the intensity in the NV centres. Finally, to gain more insight, the FRET methodology is used to determine the fluorescence efficiency in terms of the fluorophores' separation distance. Thus, the concentration level is simulated as follows, a small distance between nanodiamonds would be considered a highly concentrated system, whereas a large distance would mean a low concentrated one. Although the 5 mg/mL concentration shows the maximum intensity, our main interest is focused on the concentration of 0.5 mg/mL, which our studies demonstrate the optimal human cell viability (99%). In this respect, this concentration has the feature of being as biocompatible as water giving the possibility to internalize it in cells without harming the living media. To this end, not only can we track nanodiamonds on the surface or inside the cell with excellent precision due to their fluorescent intensity, but also, we can perform thermometry tests transforming a fluorescence contrast image into a temperature contrast image.

Keywords: nanodiamonds, fluorescence spectroscopy, concentration, bioimaging, thermometry

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14 Numerical Investigation of the Integration of a Micro-Combustor with a Free Piston Stirling Engine in an Energy Recovery System

Authors: Ayodeji Sowale, Athanasios Kolios, Beatriz Fidalgo, Tosin Somorin, Aikaterini Anastasopoulou, Alison Parker, Leon Williams, Ewan McAdam, Sean Tyrrel

Abstract:

Recently, energy recovery systems are thriving and raising attention in the power generation sector, due to the request for cleaner forms of energy that are friendly and safe for the environment. This has created an avenue for cogeneration, where Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technologies have been recognised for their feasibility, and use in homes and small-scale businesses. The efficiency of combustors and the advantages of the free piston Stirling engines over other conventional engines in terms of output power and efficiency, have been observed and considered. This study presents the numerical analysis of a micro-combustor with a free piston Stirling engine in an integrated model of a Nano Membrane Toilet (NMT) unit. The NMT unit will use the micro-combustor to produce waste heat of high energy content from the combustion of human waste and the heat generated will power the free piston Stirling engine which will be connected to a linear alternator for electricity production. The thermodynamic influence of the combustor on the free piston Stirling engine was observed, based on the heat transfer from the flue gas to working gas of the free piston Stirling engine. The results showed that with an input of 25 MJ/kg of faecal matter, and flue gas temperature of 773 K from the micro-combustor, the free piston Stirling engine generates a daily output power of 428 W, at thermal efficiency of 10.7% with engine speed of 1800 rpm. An experimental investigation into the integration of the micro-combustor and free piston Stirling engine with the NMT unit is currently underway.

Keywords: free piston stirling engine, micro-combustor, nano membrane toilet, thermodynamics

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13 Effects of Accelerated Environment Aging on the Mechanical Properties of a Coir Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composite

Authors: Ricardo Mendoza, Jason Briceño, Juan F. Santa, Gabriel Peluffo, Mauricio Márquez, Beatriz Cardozo, Carlos Gutiérrez

Abstract:

Coir natural fiber reinforced polyester composites were exposed to an accelerated environment aging in order to study the influence on the mechanical properties. Coir fibers were obtained in local plantations of the Caribbean coast of Colombia. A physical and mechanical characterization was necessary to found the best behavior between three types of coconut. Composites were fabricated by hand lay-up technique and samples were cut by water jet technique. An accelerated aging test simulates environmental climate conditions in a hygrothermal and ultraviolet chamber. Samples were exposed to the UV/moisture rich environment for 500 and 1000 hours. The tests were performed in accordance with ASTM G154. An additional water absorption test was carried out by immersing specimens in a water bath. Mechanical behaviors of the composites were tested by tensile, flexural and impact test according to ASTM standards, after aging and compared with unaged composite specimens. It was found that accelerated environment aging affects mechanical properties in comparison with unaged ones. Tensile and flexural strength were lower after aging, meantime elongation at break and flexural deflection increased. Impact strength was found that reduced after aging. Other result revealed that the percentage of moisture uptake increased with aging. This results showed that composite materials reinforced with natural fibers required an improvement adding a protective barrier to reduce water absorption and increase UV resistance.

Keywords: coir fiber, polyester composites, environmental aging, mechanical properties

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12 Programmatic Actions of Social Welfare State in Service to Justice: Law, Society and the Third Sector

Authors: Bruno Valverde Chahaira, Matheus Jeronimo Low Lopes, Marta Beatriz Tanaka Ferdinandi

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This paper proposes to dissect the meanings and / or directions of the State, in order, to present the State models to elaborate a conceptual framework about its function in the legal scope. To do so, it points out the possible contracts established between the State and the Society, since the general principles immanent in them can guide the models of society in force. From this orientation arise the contracts, whose purpose is by the effect to modify the status (the being and / or the opinion) of each of the subjects in presence - State and Society. In this logic, this paper announces the fiduciary contracts and “veredicção”(portuguese word) contracts, from the perspective of semiotics discourse (or greimasian). Therefore, studies focus on the issue of manifest language in unilateral and bilateral or reciprocal relations between the State and Society. Thus, under the biases of the model of the communicative situation and discourse, the guidelines of these contractual relations will be analyzed in order to see if there is a pragmatic sanction: positive when the contract is signed between the subjects (reward), or negative when the contract between they are broken (punishment). In this way, a third path emerges which, in this specific case, passes through the subject-third sector. In other words, the proposal, which is systemic in nature, is to analyze whether, since the contract of the welfare state is not carried out in the constitutional program on fundamental rights: education, health, housing, an others. Therefore, in the structure of the exchange demanded by the society according to its contractual obligations (others), the third way (Third Sector) advances in the empty space left by the State. In this line, it presents the modalities of action of the third sector in the social scope. Finally, the normative communication organization of these three subjects is sought in the pragmatic model of discourse, namely: State, Society and Third Sector, in an attempt to understand the constant dynamics in the Law and in the language of the relations established between them.

Keywords: access to justice, state, social rights, third sector

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11 Exploring Health-Related Inequalities between Private, Public and Active Transport Users, Using Relative Importance Index: Case Study on Santiago de Chile

Authors: Beatriz Mella Lira, Karla Yohannessen, Robin Hickman

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The aim of the paper is recognising inequalities through the self-assessment of health-related factors, in the context of daily mobilities in Santiago de Chile. Human capabilities will be used as the theoretical basis for the recognition and assessment of these factors regarding the functioning (what people are currently able to do) and capabilities (what people want to achieve and what is valuable for them), reflecting differences across social groups and among types of transport users. The self-assessment of health-related factors considers perceptions of stress, physical effort, proximity to other transport users, pollution, safety, and comfort. The types of transport users are classified as: private (cars, taxis, colectivos, motos), public (buses and metro) and active (bicycles and walking). The methodology follows a capability-based questionnaire, which was applied in different areas of Santiago de Chile, considering concepts extracted from the human capabilities list. The self-assessment of these health-related factors examines the context of peoples’ mobilities for performing their daily activities, considering socioeconomic differences as income, age, gender, disabilities, residence location and primary mode choice. The paper uses Relative Importance Index (RII) for weighting the relative influence or valuation of the factors. The respondents were asked to rate the importance of each factor on a scale from 1 to 5, in an ascending order of importance. The results suggest that these health-related factors impact not just the perceptions of users, but their well-being and their propensity for achieving their capabilities and the things they value in life. The paper is focused on the development of an applicable approach, measuring factors that should be included in transport project appraisal, as a more comprehensive and complementary method.

Keywords: active transport, health, human capabilities, Santiago de Chile, transport inequalities, transportation planning, urban planning

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10 Causal-Explanatory Model of Academic Performance in Social Anxious Adolescents

Authors: Beatriz Delgado

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Although social anxiety is one of the most prevalent disorders in adolescents and causes considerable difficulties and social distress in those with the disorder, to date very few studies have explored the impact of social anxiety on academic adjustment in student populations. The aim of this study was analyze the effect of social anxiety on school functioning in Secondary Education. Specifically, we examined the relationship between social anxiety and self-concept, academic goals, causal attributions, intellectual aptitudes, and learning strategies, personality traits, and academic performance, with the purpose of creating a causal-explanatory model of academic performance. The sample consisted of 2,022 students in the seven to ten grades of Compulsory Secondary Education in Spain (M = 13.18; SD = 1.35; 51.1% boys). We found that: (a) social anxiety has a direct positive effect on internal attributional style, and a direct negative effect on self-concept. Social anxiety also has an indirect negative effect on internal causal attributions; (b) prior performance (first academic trimester) exerts a direct positive effect on intelligence, achievement goals, academic self-concept, and final academic performance (third academic trimester), and a direct negative effect on internal causal attributions. It also has an indirect positive effect on causal attributions (internal and external), learning goals, achievement goals, and study strategies; (c) intelligence has a direct positive effect on learning goals and academic performance (third academic trimester); (d) academic self-concept has a direct positive effect on internal and external attributional style. Also, has an indirect effect on learning goals, achievement goals, and learning strategies; (e) internal attributional style has a direct positive effect on learning strategies and learning goals. Has a positive but indirect effect on achievement goals and learning strategies; (f) external attributional style has a direct negative effect on learning strategies and learning goals and a direct positive effect on internal causal attributions; (g) learning goals have direct positive effect on learning strategies and achievement goals. The structural equation model fit the data well (CFI = .91; RMSEA = .04), explaining 93.8% of the variance in academic performance. Finally, we emphasize that the new causal-explanatory model proposed in the present study represents a significant contribution in that it includes social anxiety as an explanatory variable of cognitive-motivational constructs.

Keywords: academic performance, adolescence, cognitive-motivational variables, social anxiety

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9 Hot-Spots Location During Dynamic Loading of a Power Transformer Cooled by Natural Ester

Authors: Beatriz Leal de Oliveira, Catarina Corte Real, Ricardo C. Lopes, Sandra Couto

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Power transformers play a key role on the electrical energy transmission and distribution systems. The energy requirements of all consumers connected to a power grid may lead to load variations throughout the day, week, and seasons of the year. In turn, power grid load variations cause thermal transient responses, mainly in the windings and in the cooling fluid. It is well known that the lifetime of this type of equipment depends on the temperatures inside the transformer and is dictated mainly by the hot-spots temperature. The knowledge on the hot-spots temperature and location during a power transformer dynamic loading is of utmost importance to assess the transformer ageing rate and to enable informed decisions on the transformer operational management. There are well-known models capable to predict the transformers’ temperatures during dynamic loading. These models rely on empirical constants (dependent on the transformer and cooling fluid properties, e.g.) and are widely applied to the transformers’ fleet, which is mainly composed by transformers using mineral oil as cooling fluid. However, the use of natural ester is playing an increasing role as a safer and eco-friendly alternative to mineral oil. Furthermore, these models do not advise about the possibility of the hot-spots’ location change caused by dynamic operation conditions. The major goal of this work is to find if the hot-spots’ location is maintained during dynamic loading and cooling of the transformer. In the present research, an experimental setup of a real scale 15 MVA KDAF core-type three-phase power transformer, using natural ester as cooling fluid, was used to perform temperature rise tests under dynamic loading and cooling conditions. Also, a dynamic thermal model is applied and compared to experimental results to infer about its prediction capability. The results in this work show that, for a constant and directed ester flowrate (KD), the variations of the load magnitude and external air cooling conditions were not sufficient to change the pattern of the fluid flow, meaning that the relative hot-spots’ location is maintained. Also, it was found that the applied dynamic thermal model needed calibration to enhance its accuracy.

Keywords: dynamic loading, hot-spots’ location, natural ester, power transformer

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8 Identifying Critical Links of a Transport Network When Affected by a Climatological Hazard

Authors: Beatriz Martinez-Pastor, Maria Nogal, Alan O'Connor

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During the last years, the number of extreme weather events has increased. A variety of extreme weather events, including river floods, rain-induced landslides, droughts, winter storms, wildfire, and hurricanes, have threatened and damaged many different regions worldwide. These events have a devastating impact on critical infrastructure systems resulting in high social, economical and environmental costs. These events have a huge impact in transport systems. Since, transport networks are completely exposed to every kind of climatological perturbations, and its performance is closely related with these events. When a traffic network is affected by a climatological hazard, the quality of its service is threatened, and the level of the traffic conditions usually decreases. With the aim of understanding this process, the concept of resilience has become most popular in the area of transport. Transport resilience analyses the behavior of a traffic network when a perturbation takes place. This holistic concept studies the complete process, from the beginning of the perturbation until the total recovery of the system, when the perturbation has finished. Many concepts are included in the definition of resilience, such as vulnerability, redundancy, adaptability, and safety. Once the resilience of a transport network can be evaluated, in this case, the methodology used is a dynamic equilibrium-restricted assignment model that allows the quantification of the concept, the next step is its improvement. Through the improvement of this concept, it will be possible to create transport networks that are able to withstand and have a better performance under the presence of climatological hazards. Analyzing the impact of a perturbation in a traffic network, it is observed that the response of the different links, which are part of the network, can be completely different from one to another. Consequently and due to this effect, many questions arise, as what makes a link more critical before an extreme weather event? or how is it possible to identify these critical links? With this aim, and knowing that most of the times the owners or managers of the transport systems have limited resources, the identification of the critical links of a transport network before extreme weather events, becomes a crucial objective. For that reason, using the available resources in the areas that will generate a higher improvement of the resilience, will contribute to the global development of the network. Therefore, this paper wants to analyze what kind of characteristic makes a link a critical one when an extreme weather event damages a transport network and finally identify them.

Keywords: critical links, extreme weather events, hazard, resilience, transport network

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7 Spanish Language Violence Corpus: An Analysis of Offensive Language in Twitter

Authors: Beatriz Botella-Gil, Patricio Martínez-Barco, Lea Canales

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The Internet and ICT are an integral element of and omnipresent in our daily lives. Technologies have changed the way we see the world and relate to it. The number of companies in the ICT sector is increasing every year, and there has also been an increase in the work that occurs online, from sending e-mails to the way companies promote themselves. In social life, ICT’s have gained momentum. Social networks are useful for keeping in contact with family or friends that live far away. This change in how we manage our relationships using electronic devices and social media has been experienced differently depending on the age of the person. According to currently available data, people are increasingly connected to social media and other forms of online communication. Therefore, it is no surprise that violent content has also made its way to digital media. One of the important reasons for this is the anonymity provided by social media, which causes a sense of impunity in the victim. Moreover, it is not uncommon to find derogatory comments, attacking a person’s physical appearance, hobbies, or beliefs. This is why it is necessary to develop artificial intelligence tools that allow us to keep track of violent comments that relate to violent events so that this type of violent online behavior can be deterred. The objective of our research is to create a guide for detecting and recording violent messages. Our annotation guide begins with a study on the problem of violent messages. First, we consider the characteristics that a message should contain for it to be categorized as violent. Second, the possibility of establishing different levels of aggressiveness. To download the corpus, we chose the social network Twitter for its ease of obtaining free messages. We chose two recent, highly visible violent cases that occurred in Spain. Both of them experienced a high degree of social media coverage and user comments. Our corpus has a total of 633 messages, manually tagged, according to the characteristics we considered important, such as, for example, the verbs used, the presence of exclamations or insults, and the presence of negations. We consider it necessary to create wordlists that are present in violent messages as indicators of violence, such as lists of negative verbs, insults, negative phrases. As a final step, we will use automatic learning systems to check the data obtained and the effectiveness of our guide.

Keywords: human language technologies, language modelling, offensive language detection, violent online content

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6 Early Modern Controversies of Mobility within the Spanish Empire: Francisco De Vitoria and the Peaceful Right to Travel

Authors: Beatriz Salamanca

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In his public lecture ‘On the American Indians’ given at the University of Salamanca in 1538-39, Francisco de Vitoria presented an unsettling defense of freedom of movement, arguing that the Spanish had the right to travel and dwell in the New World, since it was considered part of the law of nations [ius gentium] that men enjoyed free mutual intercourse anywhere they went. The principle of freedom of movement brought hopeful expectations, promising to bring mankind together and strengthen the ties of fraternity. However, it led to polemical situations when those whose mobility was in question represented a harmful threat or was for some reason undesired. In this context, Vitoria’s argument has been seen on multiple occasions as a justification of the expansion of the Spanish empire. In order to examine the meaning of Vitoria’s defense of free mobility, a more detailed look at Vitoria’s text is required, together with the study of some of his earliest works, among them, his commentaries on Thomas Aquinas’s Summa Theologiae, where he presented relevant insights on the idea of the law of nations. In addition, it is necessary to place Vitoria’s work in the context of the intellectual tradition he belonged to and the responses he obtained from some of his contemporaries who were concerned with similar issues. The claim of this research is that the Spanish right to travel advocated by Vitoria was not intended to be interpreted in absolute terms, for it had to serve the purpose of bringing peace and unity among men, and could not contradict natural law. In addition, Vitoria explicitly observed that the right to travel was only valid if the Spaniards caused no harm, a condition that has been underestimated by his critics. Therefore, Vitoria’s legacy is of enormous value as it initiated a long lasting discussion regarding the question of the grounds under which human mobility could be restricted. Again, under Vitoria’s argument it was clear that this freedom was not absolute, but the controversial nature of his defense of Spanish mobility demonstrates how difficult it was and still is to address the issue of the circulation of peoples across frontiers, and shows the significance of this discussion in today’s globalized world, where the rights and wrongs of notions like immigration, international trade or foreign intervention still lack sufficient consensus. This inquiry about Vitoria’s defense of the principle of freedom of movement is being placed here against the background of the history of political thought, political theory, international law, and international relations, following the methodological framework of contextual history of the ‘Cambridge School’.

Keywords: Francisco de Vitoria, freedom of movement, law of nations, ius gentium, Spanish empire

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