Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: thermogravimetry

32 Synthesis, Characterization and Gas Sensing Applications of Perovskite CaZrO3 Nanoparticles

Authors: B. M. Patil


Calcium Zirconate (CaZrO3) has high protonic conductivities at elevated temperature in water or hydrogen atmosphere. Undoped calcium zirconate acts as a p-type semiconductor in air. In this paper, we reported synthesis of CaZrO3 nanoparticles via modified molecular precursor method. The precursor calcium zirconium oxalate (CZO) was synthesized by exchange reaction between freshly generated aqueous solution of sodium zirconyl oxalate and calcium acetate at room temperature. The controlled pyrolysis of CZO in air at 700°C for one hour resulted in the formation nanocrystalline CaZrO3 powder. CaZrO3 obtained by the present method was characterized by Simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry (TG-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infra-red spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The pellets of synthesized CaZrO3 fabricated, sintered at 1000°C for 5 hr and tested as sensors for NO2 and NH3 gases.

Keywords: CaZrO3, CZO, NO2, NH3

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31 Investigation of the Composition and Structure of Tar by Lignite Pyrolysis Using Thermogravimetry, Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrum Coupled Instrument System

Authors: Li Feng, Cheng Zhang, Chuanzhou Yuang


Understanding the macromolecular structure of low-rank coal is very important for its gasification and liquefaction. The pyrolysis is one of the methods of analyzing the macromolecular structure of coal. The gaseous products decomposed directly by the raw lignite at 500 °C and indirectly by tar products from raw lignite pyrolysis at 500 °C were investigated and compared by thermogravimetry, gas chromatography and mass spectrum coupled instrument system (TG/GC/MS) in this paper. The results show that 52 kinds of products were found from the raw lignite and 70 kinds of products from the tar. The pyrolysis products directly from the lignite appear more monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and less substituent groups or branch chain, compared with the products from the tar. There is less linear chain and double bonds structure in the tar, which can be speculated that linear chain and double bonds structure took part in the generation of condensed rings and other reactions. There are more kinds of phenol and furan in the tar, which indicate that these products may be generated from the secondary reaction. The formation process of phenol, phenol naphthalene, naphthene and furan are discussed.

Keywords: composition and structure, lignite, pyrolysis of coal, tar, TG/GC/MS

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30 Influence of Silica Fume on the Hydration of Cement Pastes Studied by Simultaneous TG-DSC Analysis

Authors: Anton Trník, Lenka Scheinherrová, Robert Černý


Silica fume is a by-product of the ferro-silicon and silicon metal industries. It is mainly in the form of amorphous silica. Silica fume belongs to pozzolanic active materials which can be used in concrete to improve its final properties. In this paper, the influence of silica fume on hydration of cement pastes is studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG) at various curing times (2, 7, 28, and 90 days) in the temperature range from 25 to 1000 °C in an argon atmosphere. Samples are prepared from Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R which is partially replaced with the silica fume of 4, 8, and 12 wt.%. The water/binder ratio is chosen as 0.5. It is identified and described the liberation of physically bound water, calcium–silicate–hydrates dehydration, portlandite and calcite decomposition in studied samples. Also, it is found out that an exothermic peak at 950 °C is observed without a significant mass change for samples with 12 wt.% of silica fume after two days of hydration. This peak is probably caused by the pozzolanic reaction between silica fume and Portland cement. Its size corresponds to the degree of crystallization between Ca and Si. The portlandite content is lower for the samples with a higher amount of silica fume.

Keywords: differential scanning calorimetry, hydration, silica fume, thermogravimetry

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29 Investigating the Thermal Characteristics of Reclaimed Solid Waste from a Landfill Site Using Thermogravimetry

Authors: S. M. Al-Salem, G.A. Leeke, H. J. Karam, R. Al-Enzi, A. T. Al-Dhafeeri, J. Wang


Thermogravimetry has been popularized as a thermal characterization technique since the 1950s. It aims at investigating the weight loss against both reaction time and temperature, whilst being able to characterize the evolved gases from the volatile components of the organic material being tested using an appropriate hyphenated analytical technique. In an effort to characterize and identify the reclaimed waste from an unsanitary landfill site, this approach was initiated. Solid waste (SW) reclaimed from an active landfill site in the State of Kuwait was collected and prepared for characterization in accordance with international protocols. The SW was segregated and its major components were identified after washing and air drying. Shredding and cryomilling was conducted on the plastic solid waste (PSW) component to yield a material that is representative for further testing and characterization. The material was subjected to five heating rates (b) with minimal repeatable weight for high accuracy thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) following the recommendation of the International Confederation for Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry (ICTAC). The TGA yielded thermograms that showed an off-set from typical behavior of commercial grade resin which was attributed to contact of material with soil and thermal/photo-degradation.

Keywords: polymer, TGA, pollution, landfill, waste, plastic

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28 Using the Transient Plane Source Method for Measuring Thermal Parameters of Electroceramics

Authors: Peter Krupa, Svetozár Malinarič


Transient plane source method has been used to measure the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of a compact isostatic electro-ceramics at room temperature. The samples were fired at temperatures from 100 up to 1320 degrees Celsius in steps of 50. Bulk density and specific heat capacity were also measured with their corresponding standard uncertainties. The results were compared with further thermal analysis (dilatometry and thermogravimetry). Structural processes during firing were discussed.

Keywords: TPS method, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal analysis, electro-ceramics, firing

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27 Energy Efficient Recycling of In-Plant Fines

Authors: H. Ahmed, A. Persson, L. Sundqvist, B. Biorkman


Numerous amounts of metallurgical dusts and sludge containing iron as well as some other valuable elements such as Zn, Pb and C are annually produced in the steelmaking industry. These alternative iron ore resources (fines) with unsatisfying physical and metallurgical properties are difficult to recycle. However, agglomerating these fines to be further used as a feed stock for existing iron and steel making processes is practiced successfully at several plants but for limited extent. In the present study, briquettes of integrated steelmaking industry waste materials (namely, BF-dust and sludge, BOF-dust and sludge) were used as feed stock to produce direct reduced iron (DRI). Physical and metallurgical properties of produced briquettes were investigated by means of TGA/DTA/QMS in combination with XRD. Swelling, softening and melting behavior were also studied using heating microscope.

Keywords: iron and steel wastes, recycling, self-reducing briquettes, thermogravimetry

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26 Effect of Coupling Agent on the Properties of Durian Skin Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene Composite

Authors: Hazleen Anuar, Nur Aimi Mohd Nasir


Durian skin is a newly explores natural fibre potentially reinforced polyolefin for diverse applications. In this work, investigation on the effect of coupling agent, maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP) on the mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of polypropylene (PP) reinforced with durian skin fibre (DSF) was conducted. The presence of 30 wt% DSF significantly reduced the tensile strength of PP-DSF composite. Interestingly, even though the same trend goes to PP-DSF with the presence of MAPP, the reduction is only about 4% relative to unreinforced PP and 18% higher than PP-DSF without MAPP (untreated composite or UTC). The used of MAPP in treated composite (TC) also increased the tensile modulus, flexural properties and degradation temperature. The enhanced mechanical properties are consistent with good interfacial interaction as evidenced under scanning electron microscopy.

Keywords: durian skin fiber, coupling agent, mechanical properties, thermogravimetry analysis

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25 Mechanism and Kinetic of Layers Growth: Application to Nitriding of 32CrMoV13 Steel

Authors: Torchane Lazhar


In this work, our task consists in optimizing the nitriding treatment at low-temperature of the steel 32CrMoV13 by the way of the mixtures of ammonia gas, nitrogen and hydrogen to improve the mechanical properties of the surface (good wear resistance, friction and corrosion), and of the diffusion layer of the nitrogen (good resistance to fatigue and good tenacity with heart). By limiting our work to the pure iron and to the alloys iron-chromium and iron-chrome-carbon, we have studied the various parameters which manage the nitriding: flow rate and composition of the gaseous phase, the interaction chromium-nitrogen and chromium-carbon by the help of experiments of nitriding realized in the laboratory by thermogravimetry. The acquired knowledge have been applied by the mastery of the growth of the combination layer on the diffusion layer in the case of the industrial steel 32CrMoV13.

Keywords: diffusion of nitrogen, gaseous nitriding, layer growth kinetic, steel

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24 New Heterogenous α-Diimine Nickel (II)/MWCNT Catalysts for Ethylene Polymerization

Authors: Sasan Talebnezhad, Saeed Pourmahdian, Naghi Assali


Homogeneous α-diimine nickel (II) catalyst complexes, with and without amino para-aryl position functionality, were synthesized. These complexes were immobilized on carboxyl, hydroxyl and acyl chloride functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes to form five novel heterogeneous α diiminonickel catalysts. Immobilization was performed by covalent or electrostatic bonding via methylaluminoxane (MAO) linker or amide linkage. Both the nature of α-diimine ligands and the kind of interaction between anchored catalyst complexes and multi-walled carbon nanotube surface influenced the catalytic performance, microstructure, and morphology of obtained polyethylenes. The catalyst prepared by amide bonding showed lowest relative weight loss in thermogravimetry analysis and highest activities up to 5863 gr PE This catalyst produced polyethylene with dense botryoidal morphology.

Keywords: α-diimine nickel (II) complexes, immobilization, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, ethylene polymerization

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23 New Heterogenous α-Diimine Nickel (II)/ MWCNT Catalysts for Ethylene Polymerization

Authors: Sasan Talebnezhad, Saeed Pormahdian, Naghi Assali


Homogeneous α-diimine nickel (II) catalyst complexes, with and without amino para-aryl position functionality, were synthesized. These complexes were immobilized on carboxyl, hydroxyl, and acyl chloride functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes to form five novel heterogeneous α-diiminonickel catalysts. Immobilization was performed by covalent or electrostatic bonding via methylaluminoxane (MAO) linker or amide linkage. Both the nature of α-diimine ligands and the kind of interaction between anchored catalyst complexes and multi-walled carbon nanotube surface influenced the catalytic performance, microstructure, and morphology of obtained polyethylenes. The catalyst prepared by amide bonding showed lowest relative weight loss in thermogravimetry analysis and highest activities up to 5863 gr PE This catalyst produced polyethylene with dense botryoidal morphology.

Keywords: α-diimine nickel (II) complexes, immobilization, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, ethylene polymerization

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22 Kinetic Parameter Estimation from Thermogravimetry and Microscale Combustion Calorimetry

Authors: Rhoda Afriyie Mensah, Lin Jiang, Solomon Asante-Okyere, Xu Qiang, Cong Jin


Flammability analysis of extruded polystyrene (XPS) has become crucial due to its utilization as insulation material for energy efficient buildings. Using the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods, the degradation kinetics of two pure XPS from the local market, red and grey ones, were obtained from the results of thermogravity analysis (TG) and microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC) experiments performed under the same heating rates. From the experiments, it was discovered that red XPS released more heat than grey XPS and both materials showed two mass loss stages. Consequently, the kinetic parameters for red XPS were higher than grey XPS. A comparative evaluation of activation energies from MCC and TG showed an insignificant degree of deviation signifying an equivalent apparent activation energy from both methods. However, different activation energy profiles as a result of the different chemical pathways were presented when the dependencies of the activation energies on extent of conversion for TG and MCC were compared.

Keywords: flammability, microscale combustion calorimetry, thermogravity analysis, thermal degradation, kinetic analysis

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21 Thermal Degradation Kinetics of Field-Dried and Pelletized Switchgrass

Authors: Karen E. Supan


Thermal degradation kinetics of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) from the field, as well as in a pellet form, are presented. Thermogravimetric analysis tests were performed at heating rates of 10-40 K min⁻¹ in an inert atmosphere. The activation energy and the pre-exponential factor were calculated using the Ozawa/Flynn/Wall method as suggested by the ASTM Standard Test Method for Decomposition Kinetics by Thermogravimetry. Four stages were seen in the degradation: dehydration, active pyrolysis of hemicellulose, active pyrolysis of cellulose, and passive pyrolysis. The derivative mass loss peak for active pyrolysis of cellulose in the field-dried sample was much higher than the pelletized. The range of activation energy in the 0.15 – 0.70 conversion interval was 191 – 242 kJ mol⁻¹ for the field-dried and 130-192 kJ mol⁻¹ for the pellets. The highest activation energies were achieved at 0.50 conversion and were 242 kJ mol⁻¹ and 192 kJ mol⁻¹ for the field-dried and pellets, respectively. The thermal degradation and activation energies were comparable to switchgrass and other biomass reported in the literature.

Keywords: biomass, switchgrass, thermal degradation, thermogravimetric analysis

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20 Low Temperature Powders Synthesis of la1-xMgxAlO3 through Sol-Gel Method

Authors: R. Benakcha, M. Omari


Powders of La1-xMgxAlO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 5) oxides, with large surface areas were synthesized by sol-gel process, utilizing citric acid. Heating of a mixed solution of CA, EtOH, and nitrates of lanthanum, aluminium and magnesium at 70°C gave transparent gel without any precipitation. The formation of pure perovskite La1-xMgxAlO3, occurred when the precursor was heat-treated at 800°C for 6 h. No X-ray diffraction evidence for the presence of crystalline impurities was obtained. The La1-xMgxAlO3 powders prepared by the sol-gel method have a considerably large surface area in the range of 12.9–20 m^2.g^-1 when compared with 0.3 m^2.g^-1 for the conventional solid-state reaction of LaAlO3. The structural characteristics were examined by means of conventional techniques namely X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential thermal (TG-DTA) and specific surface SBET. Pore diameters and crystallite sizes are in the 8.8-11.28 nm and 25.4-30.5 nm ranges, respectively. The sol-gel method is a simple technique that has several advantages. In addition to that of not requiring high temperatures, it has the potential to synthesize many kinds of mixed oxides and obtain other materials homogeneous and large purities. It also allows formatting a variety of materials: very fine powders, fibers and films.

Keywords: aluminate, lanthan, perovskite, sol-gel

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19 The Effect of Calcining Temperature on Photocatalytic Activity of Porous ZnO Architecture

Authors: M. Masar, P. Janota, J. Sedlak, M. Machovsky, I. Kuritka


Zinc oxide (ZnO) nano crystals assembled porous architecture was prepared by thermal decomposition of zinc oxalate precursor at various temperatures ranging from 400-900°C. The effect of calcining temperature on structure and morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetry, and BET adsorption analysis. The porous nano crystalline ZnO morphology was developed due to the release of volatile precursor products, while the overall shape of ZnO micro crystals was retained as a legacy of the precursor. The average crystallite size increased with increasing temperature of calcination from approximately 21 nm to 79 nm, while the specific surface area decreased from 30 to 1.7 m2g-1. The photo catalytic performance of prepared ZnO powders was evaluated by degradation of methyl violet 2B, a model compound. The significantly highest photo catalytic activity was achieved with powder calcined at 500°C. This may be attributed to the sufficiently well-developed crystalline arrangement, while the specific surface area is still high enough.

Keywords: ZnO, porous structure, photodegradation, methyl violet

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18 Effect of Fibres-Chemical Treatment on the Thermal Properties of Natural Composites

Authors: J. S. S. Neto, R. A. A. Lima, D. K. K. Cavalcanti, J. P. B. Souza, R. A. A. Aguiar, M. D. Banea


In the last decade, investments in sustainable processes and products have gained space in several segments, such as in the civil, automobile, textile and other industries. In addition to increasing concern about the development of environmentally friendly materials that reduce, energy costs and reduces environmental impact in the production of these products, as well as reducing CO2 emissions. Natural fibers offer a great alternative to replace synthetic fibers, totally or partially, because of their low cost and their renewable source. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of surface chemical treatment on the thermal properties of hybrid fiber reinforced natural fibers (NFRC), jute + ramie, jute + sisal, jute + curauá, and jute fiber in polymer matrices. Two types of chemical treatment: alkalinization and silanization were employed, besides the condition without treatment. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG) and dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA) were performed to explore the thermal stability and weight loss in the natural fiber reinforced composite as a function of chemical treatment.

Keywords: chemical treatment, hybrid composite, jute, thermal

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17 Carbonation and Mechanical Performance of Reactive Magnesia Based Formulations

Authors: Cise Unluer


Reactive MgO hydrates to form brucite (Mg(OH)2, magnesium hydroxide), which can then react with CO2 and additional water to form a range of strength providing hydrated magnesium carbonates (HMCs) within cement-based formulations. The presented work focuses on the use of reactive MgO in a range of concrete mixes, where it carbonates by absorbing CO2 and gains strength accordingly. The main goal involves maximizing the amount of CO2 absorbed within construction products, thereby reducing the overall environmental impact of the designed formulations. Microstructural analyses including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) are used in addition to porosity, permeability and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) testing to understand the performance mechanisms. XRD Reference Intensity Ratio (RIR), acid digestion and TG/DTA are utilized to quantify the amount of CO2 sequestered, with the goal of achieving 100% carbonation through careful mix design, leading to a range of carbon neutral products with high strengths. As a result, samples stronger than those containing Portland cement (PC) were produced, revealing the link between the mechanical performance and microstructural development of the developed formulations with the amount of CO2 sequestered.

Keywords: carbonation, compressive strength, reactive MgO cement, sustainability

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16 Improving Gas Separation Performance of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Based Membranes Containing Ionic Liquid

Authors: S. Al-Enezi, J. Samuel, A. Al-Banna


Polymer based membranes are one of the low-cost technologies available for the gas separation. Three major elements required for a commercial gas separating membrane are high permeability, high selectivity, and good mechanical strength. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is a commercially available fluoropolymer and a widely used membrane material in gas separation devices since it possesses remarkable thermal, chemical stability, and excellent mechanical strength. The PVDF membrane was chemically modified by soaking in different ionic liquids and dried. The thermal behavior of modified membranes was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetry (TGA), and the results clearly show the best affinity between the ionic liquid and the polymer support. The porous structure of the PVDF membranes was clearly seen in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The CO₂ permeability of blended membranes was explored in comparison with the unmodified matrix. The ionic liquid immobilized in the hydrophobic PVDF support exhibited good performance for separations of CO₂/N₂. The improved permeability of modified membrane (PVDF-IL) is attributed to the high concentration of nitrogen rich imidazolium moieties.

Keywords: PVDF, polymer membrane, gas permeability, CO₂ separation, nanotubes

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15 Study of Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Ethylene/1-Octene Copolymer Based Nanocomposites

Authors: Sharmila Pradhan, Ralf Lach, George Michler, Jean Mark Saiter, Rameshwar Adhikari


Ethylene/1-octene copolymer was modified incorporating three types of nanofillers differed in their dimensionality in order to investigate the effect of filler dimensionality on mechanical properties, for instance, tensile strength, microhardness etc. The samples were prepared by melt mixing followed by compression moldings. The microstructure of the novel material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Other important properties such as melting, crystallizing and thermal stability were also investigated via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The FTIR and XRD results showed that the composites were formed by physical mixing. The TEM result supported the homogeneous dispersion of nanofillers in the matrix. The mechanical characterization performed by tensile testing showed that the composites with 1D nanofiller effectively reinforced the polymer. TGA results revealed that the thermal stability of pure EOC is marginally improved by the addition of nanofillers. Likewise, melting and crystallizing properties of the composites are not much different from that of pure.

Keywords: copolymer, differential scanning calorimetry, nanofiller, tensile strength

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14 Reactivation of Hydrated Cement and Recycled Concrete Powder by Thermal Treatment for Partial Replacement of Virgin Cement

Authors: Gustave Semugaza, Anne Zora Gierth, Tommy Mielke, Marianela Escobar Castillo, Nat Doru C. Lupascu


The generation of Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) has globally increased enormously due to the enhanced need in construction, renovation, and demolition of construction structures. Several studies investigated the use of CDW materials in the production of new concrete and indicated the lower mechanical properties of the resulting concrete. Many other researchers considered the possibility of using the Hydrated Cement Powder (HCP) to replace a part of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), but only very few investigated the use of Recycled Concrete Powder (RCP) from CDW. The partial replacement of OPC for making new concrete intends to decrease the CO₂ emissions associated with OPC production. However, the RCP and HCP need treatment to produce the new concrete of required mechanical properties. The thermal treatment method has proven to improve HCP properties before their use. Previous research has stated that for using HCP in concrete, the optimum results are achievable by heating HCP between 400°C and 800°C. The optimum heating temperature depends on the type of cement used to make the Hydrated Cement Specimens (HCS), the crushing and heating method of HCP, and the curing method of the Rehydrated Cement Specimens (RCS). This research assessed the quality of recycled materials by using different techniques such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG), Scanning electron Microscopy (SEM), and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). These recycled materials were thermally pretreated at different temperatures from 200°C to 1000°C. Additionally, the research investigated to what extent the thermally treated recycled cement could partially replace the OPC and if the new concrete produced would achieve the required mechanical properties. The mechanical properties were evaluated on the RCS, obtained by mixing the Dehydrated Cement Powder and Recycled Powder (DCP and DRP) with water (w/c = 0.6 and w/c = 0.45). The research used the compressive testing machine for compressive strength testing, and the three-point bending test was used to assess the flexural strength.

Keywords: hydrated cement powder, dehydrated cement powder, recycled concrete powder, thermal treatment, reactivation, mechanical performance

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13 Effect of Acid Activation of Vermiculite on Its Carbon Dioxide Adsorption Behaviors

Authors: Katarzyna Wal, Wojciech Stawiński, Piotr Rutkowski


The scientific community is paying more and more attention to the problem of air pollution. Carbon dioxide is classified as one of the most harmful gases. Its emissions are generated during fossil fuel burning, waste management, combustion and are responsible for global warming. Clay minerals constitute a group of promising materials to the role of adsorbents. They are composed of two types of phyllosilicate sheets: tetrahedral and octahedral, which formed 1:1 or 2:1 structures. Vermiculite isone of their best-known representative, which can be used as an adsorbent from water and gaseous phase. The aim of the presented work was carbon dioxide adsorption on vermiculite. Acid activated samples (W_NO3_x) were prepared by acid treatment with different concentrations of nitric acid (1, 2, 3, 4 mol L⁻¹). Vermiculite was subjected to modification in order to increase its porosity and adsorption properties. The prepared adsorbents were characterized using the BET specific surface area analysis, thermogravimetry (TG), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction(XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Applied modifications significantly increase the specific surface area from 78,21 m2 g⁻¹ for unmodified sample (W_REF) to 536 m2 g⁻¹ for W_NO3_4. Obtained results showed that acid treatment tunes the material’s functional properties by increasing the contact surface and generating more active sites in its structure. The adsorption performance in terms carbon dioxide adsorption capacities follows the order of W_REF (25.91 mg g⁻¹) < W_NO3⁻¹ (38.54 mg g⁻¹) < W_NO3_2 (44.03 mg g⁻¹) W_NO3_4 (67.51 mg g⁻¹) < W_NO3_3 (70.48 mg g⁻¹). Acid activation significantly improved carbon dioxide adsorption properties of modified samples compared to raw material. These results demonstrate that vermiculite-based samples have the potential for being used as effective CO₂ adsorbents. Furthermore, acid treatment is a promising technique for improving the adsorption properties of clay minerals.

Keywords: adsorption, adsorbent, clay minerals, air pollution, environment

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12 Selective Guest Accommodation in Zn(II) Bimetallic: Organic Coordination Frameworks

Authors: Bukunola K. Oguntade, Gareth M. Watkins


The synthesis and characterization of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is an area of coordination chemistry which has grown rapidly in recent years. Worldwide there has been growing concerns about future energy supplies, and its environmental impacts. A good number of MOFs have been tested for the adsorption of small molecules in the vapour phase. An important issue for potential applications of MOFs for gas adsorption and storage materials is the stability of their structure upon sorption. Therefore, study on the thermal stability of MOFs upon adsorption is important. The incorporation of two or more transition metals in a coordination polymer is a current challenge for designed synthesis. This work focused on the synthesis, characterization and small molecule adsorption properties of three microporous (one zinc monometal and two bimetallics) complexes involving Cu(II), Zn(II) and 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid using the ambient precipitation and solvothermal method. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, Infrared spectroscopy, Scanning Electron microscopy, Thermogravimetry analysis and X-ray Powder diffraction. The N2-adsorption Isotherm showed the complexes to be of TYPE III in reference to IUPAC classification, with very small pores only capable for small molecule sorption. All the synthesized compounds were observed to contain water as guest. Investigations of their inclusion properties for small molecules in the vapour phase showed water and methanol as the only possible inclusion candidates with 10.25H2O in the monometal complex [Zn4(H2B4C)2.5(OH)3(H2O)]·10H2O but not reusable after a complete structural collapse. The ambient precipitation bimetallic; [(CuZnB4C(H2O)2]·5H2O, was found to be reusable and recoverable from structure collapse after adsorption of 5.75H2O. In addition, Solvo-[CuZnB4C(H2O)2.5]·2H2O obtained from solvothermal method show two cycles of rehydration with 1.75H2O and 0.75MeOH inclusion while structure remains unaltered upon dehydration and adsorption.

Keywords: adsorption, characterization, copper, metal -organic frameworks, zinc

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11 3D Interpenetrated Network Based on 1,3-Benzenedicarboxylate and 1,2-Bis(4-Pyridyl) Ethane

Authors: Laura Bravo-García, Gotzone Barandika, Begoña Bazán, M. Karmele Urtiaga, Luis M. Lezama, María I. Arriortua


Solid coordination networks (SCNs) are materials consisting of metal ions or clusters that are linked by polyfunctional organic ligands and can be designed to form tridimensional frameworks. Their structural features, as for example high surface areas, thermal stability, and in other cases large cavities, have opened a wide range of applications in fields like drug delivery, host-guest chemistry, biomedical imaging, chemical sensing, heterogeneous catalysis and others referred to greenhouse gases storage or even separation. In this sense, the use of polycarboxylate anions and dipyridyl ligands is an effective strategy to produce extended structures with the needed characteristics for these applications. In this context, a novel compound, [Cu4(m-BDC)4(bpa)2DMF]•DMF has been obtained by microwave synthesis, where m-BDC is 1,3-benzenedicarboxylate and bpa 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane. The crystal structure can be described as a three dimensional framework formed by two equal, interpenetrated networks. Each network consists of two different CuII dimers. Dimer 1 have two coppers with a square pyramidal coordination, and dimer 2 have one with a square pyramidal coordination and other with octahedral one, the last dimer is unique in literature. Therefore, the combination of both type of dimers is unprecedented. Thus, benzenedicarboxylate ligands form sinusoidal chains between the same type of dimers, and also connect both chains forming these layers in the (100) plane. These layers are connected along the [100] direction through the bpa ligand, giving rise to a 3D network with 10 Å2 voids in average. However, the fact that there are two interpenetrated networks results in a significant reduction of the available volume. Structural analysis was carried out by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. Thermal and magnetic properties have been measured by means of thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray thermodiffractometry (TDX), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Additionally, CO2 and CH4 high pressure adsorption measurements have been carried out for this compound.

Keywords: gas adsorption, interpenetrated networks, magnetic measurements, solid coordination network (SCN), thermal stability

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10 Characterization of Polymorphic Forms of Rifaximin

Authors: Ana Carolina Kogawa, Selma Gutierrez Antonio, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado


Rifaximin is an oral antimicrobial, gut - selective and not systemic with adverse effects compared to placebo. It is used for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy, travelers diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, Clostridium difficile, ulcerative colitis and acute diarrhea. The crystalline form present in the rifaximin with minimal systemic absorption is α, being the amorphous form significantly different. Regulators are increasingly attention to polymorphisms. Polymorphs can change the form by altering the drug characteristics compromising the effectiveness and safety of the finished product. International Conference on Harmonization issued the ICH Guidance Q6A, which aim to improve the control of polymorphism in new and existing pharmaceuticals. The objective of this study was to obtain polymorphic forms of rifaximin employing recrystallization processes and characterize them by thermal analysis (thermogravimetry - TG and differential scanning calorimetry - DSC), X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and solubility test. Six polymorphic forms of rifaximin, designated I to VI were obtained by the crystallization process by evaporation of the solvent. The profiles of the TG curves obtained from polymorphic forms of rifaximin are similar to rifaximin and each other, however, the DTG are different, indicating different thermal behaviors. Melting temperature values of all the polymorphic forms were greater to that shown by the rifaximin, indicating the higher thermal stability of the obtained forms. The comparison of the diffractograms of the polymorphic forms of rifaximin with rifaximin α, β and γ constant in patent indicate that forms III, V and VI are formed by mixing polymorph β and α and form III is formed by polymorph β. The polymorphic form I is formed by polymorph β, but with a significant amount of amorphous material. Already, the polymorphic form II consists of polymorph γ, amorphous. In scanning electron microscope is possible to observe the heterogeneity of morphological characteristics of crystals of polymorphic forms among themselves and with rifaximin. The solubility of forms I and II was greater than the solubility of rifaximin, already, forms III, IV and V presented lower solubility than of rifaximin. Similarly, the bioavailability of the amorphous form of rifaximin is considered significantly higher than the form α, the polymorphic forms obtained in this work can not guarantee the excellent tolerability of the reference medicine. Therefore, studies like these are extremely important and they point to the need for greater requirements by the regulatory agencies competent about polymorphs analysis of the raw materials used in the manufacture of medicines marketed globally. These analyzes are not required in the majority of official compendia. Partnerships between industries, research centers and universities would be a viable way to consolidate researches in this area and contribute to improving the quality of solid drugs.

Keywords: electronic microscopy, polymorphism, rifaximin, solubility, X-ray diffraction

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9 Study of Lanthanoide Organic Frameworks Properties and Synthesis: Multicomponent Ligands

Authors: Ayla Roberta Galaco, Juliana Fonseca De Lima, Osvaldo Antonio Serra


Coordination polymers, also known as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) or lanthanoide organic frameworks (LOFs) have been reported due of their promising applications in gas storage, separation, catalysis, luminescence, magnetism, drug delivery, and so on. As a type of organic–inorganic hybrid materials, the properties of coordination polymers could be chosen by deliberately selecting the organic and inorganic components. LOFs have received considerable attention because of their properties such as porosity, luminescence, and magnetism. Methods such as solvothermal synthesis are important as a strategy to control the structural and morphological properties as well as the composition of the target compounds. In this work the first solvothermal synthesis was employed to obtain the compound [Y0.4,Yb0.4,Er0.2(dmf)(for)(H2O)(tft)], by using terephthalic acid (tft) and oxalic acid, decomposed in formate (for), as ligands; Yttrium, Ytterbium and, Erbium as metal centers, in DMF and water for 4 days under 160 °C. The semi-rigid terephthalic acid (dicarboxylic) coordinates with Ln3+ ions and also is possible to form a polyfunctional bridge. On the other hand, oxalate anion has no high-energy vibrational groups, which benefits the excitation of Yb3+ in upconversion process. It was observed that the compounds with water molecules in the coordination sphere of the lanthanoide ions cause lower crystalline properties and change the structure of the LOF (1D, 2D, 3D). In the FTIR, the bands at 1589 and 1500 cm-1 correspond to the asymmetric stretching vibration of –COO. The band at 1383 cm-1 is assigned to the symmetric stretching vibration of –COO. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study reveals an infinite 3D coordination framework that crystalizes in space group P21/c. The other three products, [TR(chel)(ofd)0,5(H2O)2], where TR= Eu3+, Y3, and Yb3+/Er3+ were obtained by using 1, 2-phenylenedioxydiacetic acid (ofd) and chelidonic acid (chel) as organic ligands. Thermal analysis shows that the lanthanoide organic frameworks do not collapse at temperatures below 250 °C. By the polycrystalline X-ray diffraction patterns (PXRD) it was observed that the compounds with Eu3+, Y3+, and Yb3+/Er3+ ions are isostructural. From PXRD patterns, high crystallinity can be noticed for the complexes. The final products were characterized by single X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) is an effective method to investigate crystalline properties of synthesized materials. The solid crystal obtained in the synthesis show peaks at 2θ < 10°, indicating the MOF formation. The chemical composition of LOFs was also confirmed by EDS.

Keywords: isostructural, lanthanoids, lanthanoids organic frameworks (LOFs), metal organic frameworks (MOFs), thermogravimetry, X-Ray diffraction

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8 The Composition of Biooil during Biomass Pyrolysis at Various Temperatures

Authors: Zoltan Sebestyen, Eszter Barta-Rajnai, Emma Jakab, Zsuzsanna Czegeny


Extraction of the energy content of lignocellulosic biomass is one of the possible pathways to reduce the greenhouse gas emission derived from the burning of the fossil fuels. The application of the bioenergy can mitigate the energy dependency of a country from the foreign natural gas and the petroleum. The diversity of the plant materials makes difficult the utilization of the raw biomass in power plants. This problem can be overcome by the application of thermochemical techniques. Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of the raw materials under inert atmosphere at high temperatures, which produces pyrolysis gas, biooil and charcoal. The energy content of these products can be exploited by further utilization. The differences in the chemical and physical properties of the raw biomass materials can be reduced by the use of torrefaction. Torrefaction is a promising mild thermal pretreatment method performed at temperatures between 200 and 300 °C in an inert atmosphere. The goal of the pretreatment from a chemical point of view is the removal of water and the acidic groups of hemicelluloses or the whole hemicellulose fraction with minor degradation of cellulose and lignin in the biomass. Thus, the stability of biomass against biodegradation increases, while its energy density increases. The volume of the raw materials decreases so the expenses of the transportation and the storage are reduced as well. Biooil is the major product during pyrolysis and an important by-product during torrefaction of biomass. The composition of biooil mostly depends on the quality of the raw materials and the applied temperature. In this work, thermoanalytical techniques have been used to study the qualitative and quantitative composition of the pyrolysis and torrefaction oils of a woody (black locust) and two herbaceous samples (rape straw and wheat straw). The biooil contains C5 and C6 anhydrosugar molecules, as well as aromatic compounds originating from hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin, respectively. In this study, special emphasis was placed on the formation of the lignin monomeric products. The structure of the lignin fraction is different in the wood and in the herbaceous plants. According to the thermoanalytical studies the decomposition of lignin starts above 200 °C and ends at about 500 °C. The lignin monomers are present among the components of the torrefaction oil even at relatively low temperatures. We established that the concentration and the composition of the lignin products vary significantly with the applied temperature indicating that different decomposition mechanisms dominate at low and high temperatures. The evolutions of decomposition products as well as the thermal stability of the samples were measured by thermogravimetry/mass spectrometry (TG/MS). The differences in the structure of the lignin products of woody and herbaceous samples were characterized by the method of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). As a statistical method, principal component analysis (PCA) has been used to find correlation between the composition of lignin products of the biooil and the applied temperatures.

Keywords: pyrolysis, torrefaction, biooil, lignin

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7 Physicochemical-Mechanical, Thermal and Rheological Properties Analysis of Pili Tree (Canarium Ovatum) Resin as Aircraft Integral Fuel Tank Sealant

Authors: Mark Kennedy, E. Bantugon, Noruane A. Daileg


Leaks arising from aircraft fuel tanks is a protracted problem for the aircraft manufacturers, operators, and maintenance crews. It principally arises from stress, structural defects, or degraded sealants as the aircraft age. It can be ignited by different sources, which can result in catastrophic flight and consequences, exhibiting a major drain both on time and budget. In order to mitigate and eliminate this kind of problem, the researcher produced an experimental sealant having a base material of natural tree resin, the Pili Tree Resin. Aside from producing an experimental sealant, the main objective of this research is to analyze its physical, chemical, mechanical, thermal, and rheological properties, which is beneficial and effective for specific aircraft parts, particularly the integral fuel tank. The experimental method of research was utilized in this study since it is a product invention. This study comprises two parts, specifically the Optimization Process and the Characterization Process. In the Optimization Process, the experimental sealant was subjected to the Flammability Test, an important test and consideration according to 14 Code of Federal Regulation Appendix N, Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis, to get the most suitable formulation. Followed by the Characterization Process, where the formulated experimental sealant has undergone thirty-eight (38) different standard testing including Organoleptic, Instrumental Color Measurement Test, Smoothness of Appearance Test, Miscibility Test, Boiling Point Test, Flash Point Test, Curing Time, Adhesive Test, Toxicity Test, Shore A Hardness Test, Compressive Strength, Shear Strength, Static Bending Strength, Tensile Strength, Peel Strength Test, Knife Test, Adhesion by Tape Test, Leakage Test), Drip Test, Thermogravimetry-Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Calorific Value, Viscosity Test, Creep Test, and Anti-Sag Resistance Test to determine and analyze the five (5) material properties of the sealant. The numerical values of the mentioned tests are determined using product application, testing, and calculation. These values are then used to calculate the efficiency of the experimental sealant. Accordingly, this efficiency is the means of comparison between the experimental and commercial sealant. Based on the results of the different standard testing conducted, the experimental sealant exceeded all the data results of the commercial sealant. This result shows that the physicochemical-mechanical, thermal, and rheological properties of the experimental sealant are far more effective as an aircraft integral fuel tank sealant alternative in comparison to the commercial sealant. Therefore, Pili Tree possesses a new role and function: a source of ingredients in sealant production.

Keywords: Aircraft Integral Fuel Tank, Physicochemi-mechanical, Pili Tree Resin, Properties, Rheological, Sealant, Thermal

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6 Production and Characterization of Biochars from Torrefaction of Biomass

Authors: Serdar Yaman, Hanzade Haykiri-Acma


Biomass is a CO₂-neutral fuel that is renewable and sustainable along with having very huge global potential. Efficient use of biomass in power generation and production of biomass-based biofuels can mitigate the greenhouse gasses (GHG) and reduce dependency on fossil fuels. There are also other beneficial effects of biomass energy use such as employment creation and pollutant reduction. However, most of the biomass materials are not capable of competing with fossil fuels in terms of energy content. High moisture content and high volatile matter yields of biomass make it low calorific fuel, and it is very significant concern over fossil fuels. Besides, the density of biomass is generally low, and it brings difficulty in transportation and storage. These negative aspects of biomass can be overcome by thermal pretreatments that upgrade the fuel property of biomass. That is, torrefaction is such a thermal process in which biomass is heated up to 300ºC under non-oxidizing conditions to avoid burning of the material. The treated biomass is called as biochar that has considerably lower contents of moisture, volatile matter, and oxygen compared to the parent biomass. Accordingly, carbon content and the calorific value of biochar increase to the level which is comparable with that of coal. Moreover, hydrophilic nature of untreated biomass that leads decay in the structure is mostly eliminated, and the surface properties of biochar turn into hydrophobic character upon torrefaction. In order to investigate the effectiveness of torrefaction process on biomass properties, several biomass species such as olive milling residue (OMR), Rhododendron (small shrubby tree with bell-shaped flowers), and ash tree (timber tree) were chosen. The fuel properties of these biomasses were analyzed through proximate and ultimate analyses as well as higher heating value (HHV) determination. For this, samples were first chopped and ground to a particle size lower than 250 µm. Then, samples were subjected to torrefaction in a horizontal tube furnace by heating from ambient up to temperatures of 200, 250, and 300ºC at a heating rate of 10ºC/min. The biochars obtained from this process were also tested by the methods applied to the parent biomass species. Improvement in the fuel properties was interpreted. That is, increasing torrefaction temperature led to regular increases in the HHV in OMR, and the highest HHV (6065 kcal/kg) was gained at 300ºC. Whereas, torrefaction at 250ºC was seen optimum for Rhododendron and ash tree since torrefaction at 300ºC had a detrimental effect on HHV. On the other hand, the increase in carbon contents and reduction in oxygen contents were determined. Burning characteristics of the biochars were also studied using thermal analysis technique. For this purpose, TA Instruments SDT Q600 model thermal analyzer was used and the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), derivative thermogravimetry (DTG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and differential thermal analysis (DTA) curves were compared and interpreted. It was concluded that torrefaction is an efficient method to upgrade the fuel properties of biomass and the biochars from which have superior characteristics compared to the parent biomasses.

Keywords: biochar, biomass, fuel upgrade, torrefaction

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5 Fabrication of High Energy Hybrid Capacitors from Biomass Waste-Derived Activated Carbon

Authors: Makhan Maharjan, Mani Ulaganathan, Vanchiappan Aravindan, Srinivasan Madhavi, Jing-Yuan Wang, Tuti Mariana Lim


There is great interest to exploit sustainable, low-cost, renewable resources as carbon precursors for energy storage applications. Research on development of energy storage devices has been growing rapidly due to mismatch in power supply and demand from renewable energy sources This paper reported the synthesis of porous activated carbon from biomass waste and evaluated its performance in supercapicators. In this work, we employed orange peel (waste material) as the starting material and synthesized activated carbon by pyrolysis of KOH impregnated orange peel char at 800 °C in argon atmosphere. The resultant orange peel-derived activated carbon (OP-AC) exhibited a high BET surface area of 1,901 m2 g-1, which is the highest surface area so far reported for the orange peel. The pore size distribution (PSD) curve exhibits the pores centered at 11.26 Å pore width, suggesting dominant microporosity. The OP-AC was studied as positive electrode in combination with different negative electrode materials, such as pre-lithiated graphite (LiC6) and Li4Ti5O12 for making different hybrid capacitors. The lithium ion capacitor (LIC) fabricated using OP-AC with pre-lithiated graphite delivered a high energy density of ~106 Wh kg–1. The energy density for OP-AC||Li4Ti5O12 capacitor was ~35 Wh kg–1. For comparison purpose, configuration of OP-AC||OP-AC capacitors were studied in both aqueous (1M H2SO4) and organic (1M LiPF6 in EC-DMC) electrolytes, which delivered the energy density of 6.6 Wh kg-1 and 16.3 Wh kg-1, respectively. The cycling retentions obtained at current density of 1 A g–1 were ~85.8, ~87.0 ~82.2 and ~58.8% after 2500 cycles for OP-AC||OP-AC (aqueous), OP-AC||OP-AC (organic), OP-AC||Li4Ti5O12 and OP-AC||LiC6 configurations, respectively. In addition, characterization studies were performed by elemental and proximate composition, thermogravimetry, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, Fourier transform-infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N2 sorption isotherms. The morphological features from FE-SEM exhibited well-developed porous structures. Two typical broad peaks observed in the XRD framework of the synthesized carbon implies amorphous graphitic structure. The ratio of 0.86 for ID/IG in Raman spectra infers high degree of graphitization in the sample. The band spectra of C 1s in XPS display the well resolved peaks related to carbon atoms in various chemical environments; for instances, the characteristics binding energies appeared at ~283.83, ~284.83, ~286.13, ~288.56, and ~290.70 eV which correspond to sp2 -graphitic C, sp3 -graphitic C, C-O, C=O and π-π*, respectively. Characterization studies revealed the synthesized carbon to be promising electrode material towards the application for energy storage devices. The findings opened up the possibility of developing high energy LICs from abundant, low-cost, renewable biomass waste.

Keywords: lithium-ion capacitors, orange peel, pre-lithiated graphite, supercapacitors

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4 Strength Properties of Ca-Based Alkali Activated Fly Ash System

Authors: Jung-Il Suh, Hong-Gun Park, Jae-Eun Oh


Recently, the use of long-span precast concrete (PC) construction has increased in modular construction such as storage buildings and parking facilities. When applying long span PC member, reducing weight of long span PC member should be conducted considering lifting capacity of crane and self-weight of PC member and use of structural lightweight concrete made by lightweight aggregate (LWA) can be considered. In the process of lightweight concrete production, segregation and bleeding could occur due to difference of specific gravity between cement (3.3) and lightweight aggregate (1.2~1.8) and reducing weight of binder is needed to prevent the segregation between binder and aggregate. Also, lightweight precast concrete made by cementitious materials such as fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace (GGBFS) which is lower than specific gravity of cement as a substitute for cement has been studied. When only using fly ash for cementless binder alkali-activation of fly ash is most important chemical process in which the original fly ash is dissolved by a strong alkaline medium in steam curing with high-temperature condition. Because curing condition is similar with environment of precast member production, additional process is not needed. Na-based chloride generally used as a strong alkali activator has a practical problem such as high pH toxicity and high manufacturing cost. Instead of Na-based alkali activator calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] and sodium hydroxide [Na2CO3] might be used because it has a lower pH and less expensive than Na-based alkali activator. This study explored the influences on Ca(OH)2-Na2CO3-activated fly ash system in its microstructural aspects and strength and permeability using powder X-ray analysis (XRD), thermogravimetry (TGA), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). On the basis of microstructural analysis, the conclusions are made as follows. Increase of Ca(OH)2/FA wt.% did not affect improvement of compressive strength. Also, Ca(OH)2/FA wt.% and Na2CO3/FA wt.% had little effect on specific gravity of saturated surface dry (SSD) and absolute dry (AD) condition to calculate water absorption. Especially, the binder is appropriate for structural lightweight concrete because specific gravity of the hardened paste has no difference with that of lightweight aggregate. The XRD and TGA/DTG results did not present considerable difference for the types and quantities of hydration products depending on w/b ratio, Ca(OH)2 wt.%, and Na2CO3 wt.%. In the case of higher molar quantity of Ca(OH)2 to Na2CO3, XRD peak indicated unreacted Ca(OH)2 while DTG peak was not presented because of small quantity. Thus, presence of unreacted Ca(OH)2 is too small quantity to effect on mechanical performance. As a result of MIP, the porosity volume related to capillary pore depends on the w/b ratio. In the same condition of w/b ratio, quantities of Ca(OH)2 and Na2CO3 have more influence on pore size distribution rather than total porosity. While average pore size decreased as Na2CO3/FA w.t% increased, the average pore size increased over 20 nm as Ca(OH)2/FA wt.% increased which has inverse proportional relationship between pore size and mechanical properties such as compressive strength and water permeability.

Keywords: Ca(OH)2, compressive strength, microstructure, fly ash, Na2CO3, water absorption

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3 Immobilization of Superoxide Dismutase Enzyme on Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Istvan Szilagyi, Marko Pavlovic, Paul Rouster


Antioxidant enzymes are the most efficient defense systems against reactive oxygen species, which cause severe damage in living organisms and industrial products. However, their supplementation is problematic due to their high sensitivity to the environmental conditions. Immobilization on carrier nanoparticles is a promising research direction towards the improvement of their functional and colloidal stability. In that way, their applications in biomedical treatments and manufacturing processes in the food, textile and cosmetic industry can be extended. The main goal of the present research was to prepare and formulate antioxidant bionanocomposites composed of superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme, anionic clay (layered double hydroxide, LDH) nanoparticle and heparin (HEP) polyelectrolyte. To characterize the structure and the colloidal stability of the obtained compounds in suspension and solid state, electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, spectrophotometry, thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction, infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy were used as experimental techniques. LDH-SOD composite was synthesized by enzyme immobilization on the clay particles via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, which resulted in a strong adsorption of the SOD on the LDH surface, i.e., no enzyme leakage was observed once the material was suspended in aqueous solutions. However, the LDH-SOD showed only limited resistance against salt-induced aggregation and large irregularly shaped clusters formed during short term interval even at lower ionic strengths. Since sufficiently high colloidal stability is a key requirement in most of the applications mentioned above, the nanocomposite was coated with HEP polyelectrolyte to develop highly stable suspensions of primary LDH-SOD-HEP particles. HEP is a natural anticoagulant with one of the highest negative line charge density among the known macromolecules. The experimental results indicated that it strongly adsorbed on the oppositely charged LDH-SOD surface leading to charge inversion and to the formation of negatively charged LDH-SOD-HEP. The obtained hybrid materials formed stable suspension even under extreme conditions, where classical colloid chemistry theories predict rapid aggregation of the particles and unstable suspensions. Such a stabilization effect originated from electrostatic repulsion between the particles of the same sign of charge as well as from steric repulsion due to the osmotic pressure raised during the overlap of the polyelectrolyte chains adsorbed on the surface. In addition, the SOD enzyme kept its structural and functional integrity during the immobilization and coating processes and hence, the LDH-SOD-HEP bionanocomposite possessed excellent activity in decomposition of superoxide radical anions, as revealed in biochemical test reactions. In conclusion, due to the improved colloidal stability and the good efficiency in scavenging superoxide radical ions, the developed enzymatic system is a promising antioxidant candidate for biomedical or other manufacturing processes, wherever the aim is to decompose reactive oxygen species in suspensions.

Keywords: clay, enzyme, polyelectrolyte, formulation

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