Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 763

Search results for: clay minerals

763 Clay Mineralogy of Mukdadiya Formation in Shewasoor Area: Northeastern Kirkuk City, Iraq

Authors: Abbas R. Ali, Diana A. Bayiz


14 mudstone samples were collected within the sedimentary succession of Mukdadiya Formation (Late Miocene – Early Pliocene) from Shewasoor area at Northeastern Iraq. The samples were subjected to laboratory studies including mineralogical analysis (using X-ray Diffraction technique) in order to identify the clay mineralogy of Mukdadiya Formation of both clay and non-clay minerals. The results of non-clay minerals are: quartz, feldspar and carbonate (calcite and dolomite) minerals. The clay minerals are: montmorillonite, kaolinite, palygorskite, chlorite, and illite by the major basal reflections of each mineral. The origins of these minerals are deduced also.

Keywords: Mukdadiya Formation, mudstone, clay minerals, XRD, Shewasoor

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762 Characterizing the Diffused Double Layer Properties of Clay Minerals

Authors: N. Saranya


The difference in characteristic behavior of clay minerals for different electrolyte solution is dictated by the corresponding variation occurring at its diffused double layer thickness (DDL). The diffused double layer of clay mineral has two distinct regions; the inner region is termed as ‘Stern layer’ where ions are strongly attached to the clay surface. In the outer region, the ions are not strongly bonded with the clay surface, and this region is termed as ‘diffuse layer’. Within the diffuse layer, there is a plane that forms a boundary between the moving ions and the ions attached to the clay surface, which is termed as slipping or shear plane, and the potential of this plane is defined as zeta potential (ζ). Therefore, the variation in diffused double layer properties of clay mineral for different electrolyte solutions can be modeled if the corresponding variation in surface charge, surface potential, and zeta potential are computed. In view of this, the present study has attempted to characterize the diffused double layer properties of three different clay minerals interacting with different pore fluids by measuring the corresponding variation in surface charge, surface potential, and zeta potential. Further, the obtained variation in the diffused double layer property is compared with the Gouy-Chapman model, which is the widely accepted theoretical model to characterize the diffused double layer properties of clay minerals.

Keywords: DDL, surface charge, surface potential, zeta potential

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761 Behavior of Clay effect on Electrical Parameter of Reservoir Rock Using Global Hydraulic Elements (GHEs) Approach

Authors: Noreddin Mousa


The main objective of this study is to estimate which type of clay minerals that more effect on saturation exponent using Global Hydraulic Elements (GHEs) approach to estimating the distribution of saturation exponent factor. Two wells and seven core samples have been selected from various (GHEs) for detailed study. There are many factors affecting saturation exponent such as wettability, grain pattern pressure of certain authigenic clays, which may promote oil wet characteristics of history of fluid displacement. The saturation exponent is related to the texture and affected by wettability and clay minerals. Capillary pressure (mercury injection) has been used to confirm GHEs which are selected to define rock types; the porous plate method is used to derive the saturation exponent in the laboratory. The petrography is very important in order to study the mineralogy and texture. In this study the results showing excellent relation between saturation exponent and the type of clay minerals which was observed that the Global Hydraulic Elements GHE-2 and GHE-5 which are containing Chlorite is more affect on saturation exponent comparing with the other GHE’s.

Keywords: GHEs, wettability, global hydraulic elements, petrography

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760 Porosity Characterization and Its Destruction by Authigenic Minerals: Reservoir Sandstones, Mamuniyat Formation, Murzuq Basin, SW Libya

Authors: Mohamrd Ali Alrabib


Sandstones samples were selected from cores of seven wells ranging in depth from 5040 to 7181.4 ft. The dominant authigenic cement phase is quartz overgrowth cement (up to 13% by volume) and this is the major mechanism for porosity reduction. Late stage carbonate cements (siderite and dolomite/ferroan dolomite) are present and these minerals infill intergranular porosity and, therefore, further reduce porosity and probably permeability. Authigenic clay minerals are represented by kaolinite, illite, and grain coating clay minerals. Kaolinite occurs as booklet and vermicular forms. Minor amounts of illite were noted in the studied samples, which commonly block pore throats, thereby reducing permeability. Primary porosity of up to 26.5% is present. Secondary porosity (up to 17%) is also present as a result of feldspar dissolution. The high intergranular volume (IGV) of the sandstones indicates that mechanical and chemical compaction played a more important role than cementation of porosity loss.

Keywords: authigenic minerals, porosity types, porosity reduction, mamuniyat sandstone reservoir

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759 Insight into Enhancement of CO2 Capture by Clay Minerals

Authors: Mardin Abdalqadir, Paul Adzakro, Tannaz Pak, Sina Rezaei Gomari


Climate change and global warming recently became significant concerns due to the massive emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, predominantly CO2 gases. Therefore, it is necessary to find sustainable and inexpensive methods to capture the greenhouse gasses and protect the environment for live species. The application of naturally available and cheap adsorbents of carbon such as clay minerals became a great interest. However, the minerals prone to low storage capacity despite their high affinity to adsorb carbon. This paper aims to explore ways to improve the pore volume and surface area of two selected clay minerals, ‘montmorillonite and kaolinite’ by acid treatment to overcome their low storage capacity. Montmorillonite and kaolinite samples were treated with different sulfuric acid concentrations (0.5, 1.2 and 2.5 M) at 40 °C for 8 hours to achieve the above aim. The grain size distribution and morphology of clay minerals before and after acid treatment were explored with Scanning Electron Microscope to evaluate surface area improvement. The ImageJ software was used to find the porosity and pore volume of treated and untreated clay samples. The structure of the clay minerals was also analyzed using an X-ray Diffraction machine. The results showed that the pore volume and surface area were increased substantially through acid treatment, which speeded up the rate of carbon dioxide adsorption. XRD pattern of kaolinite did not change after sulfuric acid treatment, which indicates that acid treatment would not affect the structure of kaolinite. It was also discovered that kaolinite had a higher pore volume and porosity than montmorillonite before and after acid treatment. For example, the pore volume of untreated kaolinite was equal to 30.498 um3 with a porosity of 23.49%. Raising the concentration of acid from 0.5 M to 2.5 M in 8 hours’ time reaction led to increased pore volume from 30.498 um3 to 34.73 um3. The pore volume of raw montmorillonite was equal to 15.610 um3 with a porosity of 12.7%. When the acid concentration was raised from 0.5 M to 2.5 M for the same reaction time, pore volume also increased from 15.610 um3 to 20.538 um3. However, montmorillonite had a higher specific surface area than kaolinite. This study concludes that clay minerals are inexpensive and available material sources to model the realistic conditions and apply the results of carbon capture to prevent global warming, which is one of the most critical and urgent problems in the world.

Keywords: acid treatment, kaolinite, montmorillonite, pore volume, porosity, surface area

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758 Assessment of Some Local Clay Minerals Used for the Production of Floor Tiles: Panacea for Economic Growth

Authors: Ekenyem Stan Chinweike


The suitability of some clay deposits in south eastern Nigeria (Unwana, Ekebedi and Nsu) as materials for the production of floor tiles was investigated. The clay samples were analyzed using wet classical method to determine their chemical composition. Floor tile test specimens were produced using standard method. The test specimens were tested for physical properties such as compressive strength and porosity at 1050◦c and 1150◦c temperature levels. The chemical analysis showed the following results: Unwana (5102 52.24%, AL2o3, 27.20%, Fe2o3 7%, T102 (1.52%), Ekebedi (S102 (58.53%), Al2o3 28.42%, Fe2o3 7%, Ti o2 (1.12%),NSU SIo2 (58.16%), Al2O3 (28.42%), Fe2O3 1.89%, T102 (0.82%) The compressive strength of Unwana, Ekebedi and Nsu clays at 1050◦c are respectively: 15MPa, 13.75MPa and 13.5MPa. At 1150◦c, the values are 16.2MPa and 16.0MPa for Ekebedi and Nsu clays respectively. The porosity of Unwana, Ekebedi and Nsu clays at 1050◦c are respectively31.57%, 23.15% and 24.21%. At 1150◦c, the values are 23.65% and 24.75% for Ekebedi and Nsu respectively. The three clays can be used for production of tiles but Ekebedi has the highest compressive strength which makes it the most suitable clay for the production of floor tiles when compared with floor tiles of the same nominal size stipulated by ASTM standard.

Keywords: feldspar, quartz, porosity, compressive strength, clay minerals

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757 Performance Evaluation of Next Generation Shale Stabilizer

Authors: N. K. Thakur


A major proportion of the formations drilled for the production of hydrocarbons consists of clay containing shales. The petroleum industry has hugely investigated the role of clay minerals and their subsequent effect on wellbore stability during the drilling and production of hydrocarbons. It has been found that when the shale formation comes in contact with water-based drilling fluid, the interaction of clay minerals like montmorillonite with infiltrated water leads to hydration of the clay minerals, which causes shale swelling. When shale swelling proceeds further, it may lead to major drilling complications like caving, pipe sticking, which invariably influences wellbore stability, wellbore diameter, the mechanical strength of shale, stress distribution in the wellbore, etc. These problems ultimately lead to an increase in nonproductive time and additional costs during drilling. Several additives are used to prevent shale instability. Among the popular additives used for shale inhibition in drilling muds, ionic liquids and nanoparticles are emerging to be the best additives. The efficiency of the proposed additives will be studied and compared with conventional clay inhibitors like KCl. The main objective is to develop a highly efficient water-based mud for mitigating shale instability and reducing fluid loss which is environmentally friendly and does not alter the formation permeability. The use of nanoparticles has been exploited to enhance the rheological and fluid loss properties in water-based drilling fluid ionic liquid have attracted significant research interest due to its unique thermal stability. It is referred to as ‘green chemical’. The preliminary experimental studies performed are promising. The application of more effective mud additives is always desirable to make the drilling process techno-economically proficient.

Keywords: ionic liquid, shale inhibitor, wellbore stability, unconventional

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756 Geochemical and Mineralogical Characters of the Coastal Plain Sediments of the Arabian Gulf, Kuwait

Authors: Adel Ahmed Aly Elhabab, Ibrahim Adsani


The present study deals with detailed geochemical and mineralogical studies of the coastal plain sediments formed along the shoreline of the Arabian Gulf area, Kuwait. These deposits are mainly fluviomarine and beach sands. The coastal plain deposits of the central Kuwait shoreline zone were found to consist of average medium-grained sand. The sand composed, on average of about 90% sand, and about 10% or less is mud, and has a unimodal distribution with a mode of medium sand (1-2 ф). The sediments consist mainly quartz, Feldspar, clay minerals with carbonate minerals (detritus calcite and dolomite) and rock fragments (chert). The mineralogy of the clay fractions of the sediments is dominated by illite, palygorskite, mixed layer illite-montmorillonite with minor amounts of chlorite and Kaolinite Heavy minerals are concentrated in the very fine sand fraction and are dominated by opaque minerals, and non opaque minerals which represented by amphiboles, pyroxenes, epidotes, dolomite, zircon, tourmaline, rutile, garnet and other which represented by Staurolite, Kyanite, Andalusite and Sillimenite as a trace amounts. The chemical analysis for the detrital amphibole grains from sandstone of coastal plain sediments shows the following features; the grains which have (Na+K) <0.50 its composition ranges from actino hornblende to magnesio hornblende, but the grains which have (Na+K) >0.50 its composition have wide variation and on the (Na+K)-AlIV diagram can be characterized two association: Association 1 which characterized by low amount of AlIV and low amount of (Na+K), by comparing the chemical composition of this association and the chemical composition of amphibole grains from older basement rock, can be say, these association may be derived from metamorphic source rocks and association 2 which characterized by high amount of AlIV and low amount of (Na+K), may be derived from volcanic source rocks.

Keywords: chemical composition, clay minerals, coastal area, electro probe micro analyzer (EPMA), fluviomarine sediments, heavy minerals

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755 Laboratory Investigation of Alkali-Surfactant-Alternate Gas (ASAG) Injection – a Novel EOR Process for a Light Oil Sandstone Reservoir

Authors: Vidit Mohan, Ashwin P. Ramesh, Anirudh Toshniwal


Alkali-Surfactant-Alternate-Gas(ASAG) injection, a novel EOR process has the potential to improve displacement efficiency over Surfactant-Alternate-Gas(SAG) by addressing the problem of surfactant adsorption by clay minerals in rock matrix. A detailed laboratory investigation on ASAG injection process was carried out with encouraging results. To further enhance recovery over WAG injection process, SAG injection was investigated at laboratory scale. SAG injection yielded marginal incremental displacement efficiency over WAG process. On investigation, it was found that, clay minerals in rock matrix adsorbed the surfactants and were detrimental for SAG process. Hence, ASAG injection was conceptualized using alkali as a clay stabilizer. The experiment of ASAG injection with surfactant concentration of 5000 ppm and alkali concentration of 0.5 weight% yields incremental displacement efficiency of 5.42% over WAG process. The ASAG injection is a new process and has potential to enhance efficiency of WAG/SAG injection process.

Keywords: alkali surfactant alternate gas (ASAG), surfactant alternate gas (SAG), laboratory investigation, EOR process

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754 Stabilization of Clay Soil Using A-3 Soil

Authors: Mohammed Mustapha Alhaji, Sadiku Salawu


A clay soil which classified under A-7-6 soil according to AASHTO soil classification system and CH according to the unified soil classification system was stabilized using A-3 soil (AASHTO soil classification system). The clay soil was replaced with 0%, 10%, 20% to 100% A-3 soil, compacted at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy level and using unconfined compressive strength as evaluation criteria. The MDD of the compactions at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy levels showed increase in MDD from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 100% A-3 soil replacement. The trend of the OMC with varied A-3 soil replacement is similar to that of MDD but in a reversed order. The OMC reduced from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values increased to 100% A-3 soil replacement. This trend was attributed to the observed reduction in the void ratio from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the void ratio increased to 100% A-3 soil replacement. The maximum UCS for clay at varied A-3 soil replacement increased from 272 and 770kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level at 0% A-3 soil replacement to 295 and 795kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 10% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 22 and 60kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 70% A-3 soil replacement. Beyond 70% A-3 soil replacement, the mixture cannot be moulded for UCS test.

Keywords: A-3 soil, clay minerals, pozzolanic action, stabilization

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753 Industrial Kaolinite Resource Deposits Study in Grahamstown Area, Eastern Cape, South Africa

Authors: Adeola Ibukunoluwa Samuel, Afsoon Kazerouni


Industrial mineral kaolin has many favourable properties such as colour, shape, softness, non-abrasiveness, natural whiteness, as well as chemical stability. It occurs extensively in North of Bedford road Grahamstown, South Africa. The relationship between both the physical and chemical properties as lead to its application in the production of certain industrial products which are used by the public; this includes the prospect of production of paper, ceramics, rubber, paint, and plastics. Despite its interesting economic potentials, kaolinite clay mineral remains undermined, and this is threatening its sustainability in the mineral industry. This research study focuses on a detailed evaluation of the kaolinite mineral and possible ways to increase its lifespan in the industry. The methods employed for this study includes petrographic microscopy analysis, X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD), and proper field reconnaissance survey. Results emanating from this research include updated geological information on Grahamstown. Also, mineral transformation phases such as quartz, kaolinite, calcite and muscovite were identified in the clay samples. Petrographic analysis of the samples showed that the study area has been subjected to intense tectonic deformation and cement replacement. Also, different dissolution patterns were identified on the Grahamstown kaolinitic clay deposits. Hence incorporating analytical studies and data interpretations, possible ways such as the establishment of processing refinery near mining plants, which will, in turn, provide employment for the locals and land reclamation is suggested. In addition, possible future sustainable industrial applications of the clay minerals seem to be possible if additives, cellulosic wastes are used to alter the clay mineral.

Keywords: kaolinite, industrial use, sustainability, Grahamstown, clay minerals

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752 TiO2/Clay Minerals (Palygorskite/Halloysite) Nanocomposite Coatings for Water Disinfection

Authors: Dionisios Panagiotaras, Dimitrios Papoulis, Elias Stathatos


Microfibrous palygorskite and tubular halloysite clay mineral combined with nanocrystalline TiO2 are incorporating in the preparation of nanocomposite films on glass substrates via sol-gel route at 450 °C. The synthesis is employing nonionic surfactant molecule as pore directing agent along with acetic acid-based sol-gel route without addition of water molecules. Drying and thermal treatment of composite films ensure elimination of organic material lead to the formation of TiO2 nanoparticles homogeneously distributed on the palygorskite or halloysite surfaces. Nanocomposite films without cracks of active anatase crystal phase on palygorskite and halloysite surfaces are characterized by microscopy techniques, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and porosimetry methods in order to examine their structural properties. The composite palygorskite-TiO2 and halloysite-TiO2 films with variable quantities of palygorskite and halloysite were tested as photocatalysts in the photo-oxidation of Basic Blue 41 azo dye in water. These nanocomposite films proved to be most promising photocatalysts and highly effective to dye’s decoloration in spite of small amount of palygorskite -TiO2 or halloysite- TiO2 catalyst immobilized onto glass substrates mainly due to the high surface area and uniform distribution of TiO2 on clay minerals avoiding aggregation.

Keywords: halloysite, palygorskite, photocatalysis, titanium dioxide

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751 Mechanical and Hydraulic Behavior of Arid Zone Soils Treated with Lime: Case of Abadla, Bechar Clays, South of Algeria

Authors: Sadek Younes, Fali Leyla, Rikioui Tayeb, Zizouni Khaled


Stabilization of clay with lime as bearing stratum is an alternative to replacement of original soil. By adding lime to clay soil, the soil workability is improved due to the combination of calcium ions to the clay minerals, which means, modified soil properties. The paper investigates the effect of hydrated lime on the behaviour of lime treated, arid zones clay (Abadla Clay). A number of mechanical and hydraulic tests were performed to identify the effect of lime dosage and compaction water content on the compressibility, permeability, and shear strength parameters of the soil. Test results show that the soil parameters can be improved through additives such as lime. Overall, the addition percentages of 6% and 9% lime give the best desired results. Also, results revealed that the compressibility behavior of lime-treated soil strongly affected by lime content. The results are presented in terms of modern interpretation of the behaviour of treated soils, in comparison with the parameters of the untreated soil.

Keywords: arid zones, compressibility, lime, soil behaviour, soil stabilization, unsaturated soil

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750 Evaluation on Mechanical Stabilities of Clay-Sand Mixtures Used as Engineered Barrier for Radioactive Waste Disposal

Authors: Ahmet E. Osmanlioglu


In this study, natural bentonite was used as natural clay material and samples were taken from the Kalecik district in Ankara. In this research, bentonite is the subject of an analysis from standpoint of assessing the basic properties of engineered barriers with respect to the buffer material. Bentonite and sand mixtures were prepared for tests. Some of clay minerals give relatively higher hydraulic conductivity and lower swelling pressure. Generally, hydraulic conductivity of these type clays is lower than <10-12 m/s. The hydraulic properties of clay-sand mixtures are evaluated to design engineered barrier specifications. Hydraulic conductivities of bentonite-sand mixture were found in the range of 1.2x10-10 to 9.3x10-10 m/s. Optimum B/S mixture ratio was determined as 35% in terms of hydraulic conductivity and mechanical stability. At the second stage of this study, all samples were compacted into cylindrical shape molds (diameter: 50 mm and length: 120 mm). The strength properties of compacted mixtures were better than the compacted bentonite. In addition, the larger content of the quartz sand in the mixture has the greater thermal conductivity.

Keywords: engineered barriers, mechanical stability, clay, nuclear waste disposal

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749 Effect of Acid and Alkali Treatment on Physical and Surface Charge Properties of Clayey Soils

Authors: Nikhil John Kollannur, Dali Naidu Arnepalli


Most of the surface related phenomena in the case of fine-grained soil are attributed to their unique surface charge properties and specific surface area. The temporal variations in soil behavior, to some extent, can be credited to the changes in these properties. Among the multitude of factors that affect the charge and surface area of clay minerals, the inherent system chemistry occupies the cardinal position. The impact is more profound when the chemistry change is manifested in terms of the system pH. pH plays a significant role by modifying the edge charges of clay minerals and facilitating mineral dissolution. Hence there is a need to address the variations in physical and charge properties of fine-grained soils treated over a range of acidic as well as alkaline conditions. In the present study, three soils (two soils commercially procured and one natural soil) exhibiting distinct mineralogical compositions are subjected to different pH environment over a range of 2 to 13. The soil-solutions prepared at a definite liquid to solid ratio are adjusted to the required pH value by adding measured quantities of 0.1M HCl/0.1M NaOH. The studies are conducted over a range of interaction time, varying from 1 to 96 hours. The treated soils are then analyzed for their physical properties in terms of specific surface area and particle size characteristics. Further, modifications in surface morphology are evaluated from scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging. Changes in the surface charge properties are assessed in terms of zeta potential measurements. Studies show significant variations in total surface area, probably because of the dissolution of clay minerals. This observation is further substantiated by the morphological analysis with SEM imaging. The zeta potential measurements on soils indicate noticeable variation upon pH treatment, which is partially ascribed to the modifications in the pH-dependant edge charges and partially due to the clay mineral dissolution. The results provide valuable insight into the role of pH in a clay-electrolyte system upon surface related phenomena such as species adsorption, fabric modification etc.

Keywords: acid and alkali treatment, mineral dissolution , specific surface area, zeta potential

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748 Red Clay Properties and Application for Ceramic Production

Authors: Ruedee Niyomrath


This research aimed at surveying the local red clay raw material sources in Samut Songkram province, Thailand to test the physical and chemical properties of the local red clay, including to find the approach to develop the local red clay properties for ceramic production. The findings of this research would be brought to apply in the ceramic production industry of the country all at the upstream level which was the community in the raw material source, at the mid water level which was the ceramic producer and at the downstream level which was the distributor and the consumer as well as the community producer who would apply them to their identity and need of the community business.

Keywords: chemical properties of red clay, physical properties of red clay, ceramic production, red clay product

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747 Improving the Strength Characteristics of Soil Using Cotton Fibers

Authors: Bindhu Lal, Karnika Kochal


Clayey soil contains clay minerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter, which exhibits properties like low drainage, high plasticity, and shrinkage. To overcome these issues, various soil reinforcement techniques are used to elevate the stiffness, water tightness, and bearing capacity of the soil. Such techniques include cementation, bituminization, freezing, fiber inclusion, geo-synthetics, nailing, etc. Reinforcement of soil with fibers has been a cost-effective solution to soil improvement problems. An experimental study was undertaken involving the inclusion of cotton waste fibers in clayey soil as reinforcement with different fiber contents (1%, 1.5%, 2%, and 2.5% by weight) and analyzing its effects on the unconfined compressive strength of the soil. Two categories of soil were taken, comprising of natural clay and clay mixed with 5% sodium bentonite by weight. The soil specimens were subjected to proctor compaction and unconfined compression tests. The validated outcome shows that fiber inclusion has a strikingly positive impact on the compressive strength and axial strain at failure of the soil. Based on the commendatory results procured, compressive strength was found to be directly proportional to the fiber content, with the effect being more pronounced at lower water content.

Keywords: bentonite clay, clay, cotton fibers, unconfined compressive strength

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746 CO₂ Capture by Clay and Its Adsorption Mechanism

Authors: Jedli Hedi, Hedfi Hachem, Abdessalem Jbara, Slimi Khalifa


Natural and modified clay were used as an adsorbent for CO2 capture. Sample of clay was subjected to acid treatments to improve their textural properties, namely, its surface area and pore volume. The modifications were carried out by heating the clays at 120 °C and then by acid treatment with 3M sulphuric acid solution at boiling temperature for 10 h. The CO2 adsorption capacities of the acid-treated clay were performed out in a batch reactor. It was found that the clay sample treated with 3M H2SO4 exhibited the highest Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area (16.29–24.68 m2/g) and pore volume (0.056–0.064 cm3/g). After the acid treatment, the CO2 adsorption capacity of clay increased. The CO2 adsorption capacity of clay increased after the acid treatment. The CO2 adsorption by clay, were characterized by SEM, FTIR, ATD-ATG and BET method. For describing the phenomenon of CO2 adsorption for these materials, the adsorption isotherms were modeled using the Freundlich and Langmuir models. CO2 adsorption isotherm was found attributable to physical adsorption.

Keywords: clay, acid treatment, CO2 capture, adsorption mechanism

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745 Evaluation of Oligocene-Miocene Clay from the Northern Part of Palmyra Region (Syria) for Industrial Ceramic Applications

Authors: Abdul Salam Turkmani


Clay of the northern Palmyra region is one of the most important raw materials used in the Syrian ceramics industry. This study is focused on the evaluation of various laboratory analyses such as chemical analysis (XRF), mineral X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and semi-industrial tests carried out on samples collected on two representative locations of the upper Oligocene in AlMkamen valley (MK) and lower Miocene in AlZukara valley (ZR) of the northern part of Palmyra, Syria. Chemical results classify the (MK) and (ZR) clays as semi-plastic red clay slightly carbonate and (eliminate probable) illite-chlorite clays with a very fine particle size distribution. Content of SiO₂ between 46.28-57.66%, Al2O3 13.81-25.2%, Fe₂O₃ 3.47-11.58%, CaO 1.15-7.19%, Na₂O+K₂O varied between 3.34-3.71%. Based on clay chemical composition and iron and carbonate content, these deposits can be considered as red firing clays. Their mineralogical composition is mainly represented by illite, kaolinite and quartz, and accessories minerals such as calcite, feldspar, phillipsite, and goethite. The results of the DTA test confirm the presence of gypsum and quartz phases in (MK) clay. Ceramic testing shows good green and dry bending strength values, which varied between 9-14 kg/cm², at 1160°C to 1180°C. Water absorption moves from 14.6 % at 1120°C to 2.2% at 1180°C to 1.6% at 1200°C. Breaking load after firing changes from 400 to 590 kg/cm². At 1200°C (MK), clay reaches perfect vitrification. After firing, the color of the clay changes from orange-hazel to red-brown at 1180°C. Technological results confirmed the suitability of the studied clays to produce floor and wall ceramic tiles. Using one of the two types of clay into the ceramic body or both types together gave satisfactory industrial results.

Keywords: ceramic, clay, industry , Palmyra

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744 Zeolite Origin within the Pliocene Sedimentary-Pyroclastic Deposits in the Southwestern Part of Syria

Authors: Abdulsalam Turkmani, Mohammed Khaled Yezbek, Farouk Al Imadi


Geological surveys in the southwestern part of Syria showed the presence of sedimentary-pyroclastic deposits, volcanic tuff, to the age of the Upper Pliocene and contain the following minerals according petrographical study and XRD, SEM, XRF analysis and surface properties. X-Ray diffraction results indicate the presence of analcime, phillipsite and chabazite in in all the studied localities. There are also amorphous materials and clay minerals such as illite and montmorillonite. The non-zeolite constituents include olivine, clinopyroxene orthopyroxene and spinel, and less of magnetite and feldspar. Some major oxides were determined through XRF geochemical analyses which include SiO₂, Al₂O₃, K₂O, Fe₂O₃, and CaO for volcanic tuff and zeolite. The formation of these depositions can be summarized in the following stages during the Pliocene: Volcanic activity at the edges of Al Rutba uplift and Jabal Al Arab depression was a rich by tuff bearing ultra basic and basic xenoliths plus second phase by scoria, during the early Pliocene. Volcanic calm with the activity of erosion and form lakes in which deposition of a set of wastes, including olivine resulting from the disintegration of xenoliths during the middle Pliocene. Zeolites minerals form later, which make up about 15-20% and increase and decrease in reverse relation with the olivine sand. Zeolite is formed from volcanic glass, and the results of SEM show that the zeolites minerals very well crystallized.

Keywords: minerals, origin, pyroclastic, zeolite

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743 Effect of Acid Activation of Vermiculite on Its Carbon Dioxide Adsorption Behaviors

Authors: Katarzyna Wal, Wojciech Stawiński, Piotr Rutkowski


The scientific community is paying more and more attention to the problem of air pollution. Carbon dioxide is classified as one of the most harmful gases. Its emissions are generated during fossil fuel burning, waste management, combustion and are responsible for global warming. Clay minerals constitute a group of promising materials to the role of adsorbents. They are composed of two types of phyllosilicate sheets: tetrahedral and octahedral, which formed 1:1 or 2:1 structures. Vermiculite isone of their best-known representative, which can be used as an adsorbent from water and gaseous phase. The aim of the presented work was carbon dioxide adsorption on vermiculite. Acid activated samples (W_NO3_x) were prepared by acid treatment with different concentrations of nitric acid (1, 2, 3, 4 mol L⁻¹). Vermiculite was subjected to modification in order to increase its porosity and adsorption properties. The prepared adsorbents were characterized using the BET specific surface area analysis, thermogravimetry (TG), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction(XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Applied modifications significantly increase the specific surface area from 78,21 m2 g⁻¹ for unmodified sample (W_REF) to 536 m2 g⁻¹ for W_NO3_4. Obtained results showed that acid treatment tunes the material’s functional properties by increasing the contact surface and generating more active sites in its structure. The adsorption performance in terms carbon dioxide adsorption capacities follows the order of W_REF (25.91 mg g⁻¹) < W_NO3⁻¹ (38.54 mg g⁻¹) < W_NO3_2 (44.03 mg g⁻¹) W_NO3_4 (67.51 mg g⁻¹) < W_NO3_3 (70.48 mg g⁻¹). Acid activation significantly improved carbon dioxide adsorption properties of modified samples compared to raw material. These results demonstrate that vermiculite-based samples have the potential for being used as effective CO₂ adsorbents. Furthermore, acid treatment is a promising technique for improving the adsorption properties of clay minerals.

Keywords: adsorption, adsorbent, clay minerals, air pollution, environment

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742 Comparative Studies of Modified Clay/Polyaniline Nanocomposites

Authors: Fatima Zohra Zeggai, Benjamin Carbonnier, Aïcha Hachemaoui, Ahmed Yahiaoui, Samia Mahouche-Chergui, Zakaria Salmi


A series of polyaniline (PANI)/modified Montmorillonite (MMT) Clay nanocomposite materials have been successfully prepared by In-Situ polymerization in the presence of modified MMT-Clay or Diazonium-MMT-Clay. The obtained nanocomposites were characterized and compared by various physicochemical techniques. The presence of physicochemical interaction, probably hydrogen bonding, between clay and polyaniline, which was confirmed by FTIR, UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The electrical conductivity of neat PANI and a series of the obtained nanocomposites were also studied by cyclic voltammograms.

Keywords: polyaniline, clay, nanocomposites, in-situ polymerization, polymers conductors, diazonium salt

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741 Diagenesis of the Permian Ecca Sandstones and Mudstones, in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: Implications for the Shale Gas Potential of the Karoo Basin

Authors: Temitope L. Baiyegunhi, Christopher Baiyegunhi, Kuiwu Liu, Oswald Gwavava


Diagenesis is the most important factor that affects or impact the reservoir property. Despite the fact that published data gives a vast amount of information on the geology, sedimentology and lithostratigraphy of the Ecca Group in the Karoo Basin of South Africa, little is known of the diagenesis of the potentially feasible shales and sandstones of the Ecca Group. The study aims to provide a general account of the diagenesis of sandstones and mudstone of the Ecca Group. Twenty-five diagenetic textures and structures are identified and grouped into three regimes or stages that include eogenesis, mesogenesis and telogenesis. Clay minerals are the most common cementing materials in the Ecca sandstones and mudstones. Smectite, kaolinite and illite are the major clay minerals that act as pore lining rims and pore-filling cement. Most of the clay minerals and detrital grains were seriously attacked and replaced by calcite. Calcite precipitates locally in pore spaces and partly or completely replaced feldspar and quartz grains, mostly at their margins. Precipitation of cements and formation of pyrite and authigenic minerals as well as little lithification occurred during the eogenesis. This regime was followed by mesogenesis which brought about an increase in tightness of grain packing, loss of pore spaces and thinning of beds due to weight of overlying sediments and selective dissolution of framework grains. Compaction, mineral overgrowths, mineral replacement, clay-mineral authigenesis, deformation and pressure solution structures occurred during mesogenesis. During rocks were uplifted, weathered and unroofed by erosion, this resulted in additional grain fracturing, decementation and oxidation of iron-rich volcanic fragments and ferromagnesian minerals. The rocks of Ecca Group were subjected to moderate-intense mechanical and chemical compaction during its progressive burial. Intergranular pores, matrix micro pores, secondary intragranular, dissolution and fractured pores are the observed pores. The presence of fractured and dissolution pores tend to enhance reservoir quality. However, the isolated nature of the pores makes them unfavourable producers of hydrocarbons, which at best would require stimulation. The understanding of the space and time distribution of diagenetic processes in these rocks will allow the development of predictive models of their quality, which may contribute to the reduction of risks involved in their exploration.

Keywords: diagenesis, reservoir quality, Ecca Group, Karoo Supergroup

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740 Surprising Behaviour of Kaolinitic Soils under Alkaline Environment

Authors: P. Hari Prasad Reddy, Shimna Paulose, V. Sai Kumar, C. H. Rama Vara Prasad


Soil environment gets contaminated due to rapid industrialisation, agricultural-chemical application and improper disposal of waste generated by the society. Unexpected volume changes can occur in soil in the presence of certain contaminants usually after the long duration of interaction. Alkali is one of the major soil contaminant that has a considerable effect on behaviour of soils and capable of inducing swelling potential in soil. Chemical heaving of clayey soils occurs when they are wetted by aqueous solutions of alkalis. Mineralogical composition of the soil is one of the main factors influencing soil- alkali interaction. In the present work, studies are carried out to understand the swell potential of soils due to soil-alkali interaction with different concentrations of NaOH solution. Locally available soil, namely, red earth containing kaolinite which is of non-swelling nature is selected for the study. In addition to this, two commercially available clayey soils, namely ball clay and china clay containing mainly of kaolinite are selected to understand the effect of alkali interaction in various kaolinitic soils. Non-swelling red earth shows maximum swell at lower concentrations of alkali solution (0.1N) and a slightly decreasing trend of swelling with further increase in concentration (1N, 4N, and 8N). Marginal decrease in swell potential with increase in concentration indicates that the increased concentration of alkali solution exists as free solution in case of red earth. China clay and ball clay both falling under kaolinite group of clay minerals, show swelling with alkaline solution. At lower concentrations of alkali solution both the soils shows similar swell behaviour, but at higher concentration of alkali solution ball clay shows high swell potential compared to china clay which may be due to lack of well ordered crystallinity in ball clay compared to china clay. The variations in the results obtained were corroborated by carrying XRD and SEM studies.

Keywords: alkali, kaolinite, swell potential, XRD, SEM

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739 Competitive Adsorption of Heavy Metals onto Natural and Activated Clay: Equilibrium, Kinetics and Modeling

Authors: L. Khalfa, M. Bagane, M. L. Cervera, S. Najjar


The aim of this work is to present a low cost adsorbent for removing toxic heavy metals from aqueous solutions. Therefore, we are interested to investigate the efficiency of natural clay minerals collected from south Tunisia and their modified form using sulfuric acid in the removal of toxic metal ions: Zn(II) and Pb(II) from synthetic waste water solutions. The obtained results indicate that metal uptake is pH-dependent and maximum removal was detected to occur at pH 6. Adsorption equilibrium is very rapid and it was achieved after 90 min for both metal ions studied. The kinetics results show that the pseudo-second-order model describes the adsorption and the intraparticle diffusion models are the limiting step. The treatment of natural clay with sulfuric acid creates more active sites and increases the surface area, so it showed an increase of the adsorbed quantities of lead and zinc in single and binary systems. The competitive adsorption study showed that the uptake of lead was inhibited in the presence of 10 mg/L of zinc. An antagonistic binary adsorption mechanism was observed. These results revealed that clay is an effective natural material for removing lead and zinc in single and binary systems from aqueous solution.

Keywords: heavy metal, activated clay, kinetic study, competitive adsorption, modeling

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738 The High Efficiency of Cationic Azo Dye Removal Using Raw, Purified and Pillared Clay from Algerian Clay

Authors: Amina Ramdani, Abdelkader Kadeche, Zoubida Taleb, Safia Taleb


The aim of this present study is to evaluate the adsorption capacity of a dye, Malachite green, on a local Algerian montmorillonite clay mineral (raw, purified and Cr-pillared). Various parameters influencing the dye adsorption process ie contact time, adsorbent dose, initial concentration of dye, pH of the solution and temperature. Cr pillared clay has been obtained with a better surface character than purified and natural clay. An increase in basal spacing from 12.45 Å (Mont-Na) to 22.88 Å (Mont-PLCr), surface area from 67 m2 /g (Mont-Na) to 102 m2 /g (Mont-PLCr). The experimental results show that the dye adsorption kinetic were fast: 5 min for Cr-pillared clay mineral, and 30 min for raw and purified clay mineral (RC and Mont-Na). The removal efficiency on Mont-PLCr (98.64%) is greater than that of Mont-Na (86.20%) and RC (82.09%). The acidity and basicity of the medium considerably affect the adsorption of the dye. It attained its maximum at pH 4.8. The equilibrium and kinetic data were found to fit well the Langmuir model and the pseudo-second-order model.

Keywords: Dye removal, pillared clay, isotherm, kinetic

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737 Identification of Clay Mineral for Determining Reservoir Maturity Levels Based on Petrographic Analysis, X-Ray Diffraction and Porosity Test on Penosogan Formation Karangsambung Sub-District Kebumen Regency Central Java

Authors: Ayu Dwi Hardiyanti, Bernardus Anggit Winahyu, I. Gusti Agung Ayu Sugita Sari, Lestari Sutra Simamora, I. Wayan Warmada


The Penosogan Formation sandstone, that has Middle Miosen age, has been deemed as a reservoir potential based on sample data from sandstone outcrop in Kebakalan and Kedawung villages, Karangsambung sub-district, Kebumen Regency, Central Java. This research employs the following analytical methods; petrography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and porosity test. Based on the presence of micritic sandstone, muddy micrite, and muddy sandstone, the Penosogan Formation sandstone has a fine-coarse granular size and middle-to-fine sorting. The composition of the sandstone is mostly made up of plagioclase, skeletal grain, and traces of micrite. The percentage of clay minerals based on petrographic analysis is 10% and appears to envelop grain, resulting enveloping grain which reduces the porosity of rocks. The porosity types as follows: interparticle, vuggy, channel, and shelter, with an equant form of cement. Moreover, the diagenesis process involves compaction, cementation, authigenic mineral growth, and dissolving due to feldspar alteration. The maturity of the reservoir can be seen through the X-ray diffraction analysis results, using ethylene glycol solution for clay minerals fraction transformed from smectite–illite. Porosity test analysis showed that the Penosogan Formation sandstones has a porosity value of 22% based on the Koeseomadinata classification, 1980. That shows high maturity is very influential for the quality of reservoirs sandstone of the Penosogan Formation.

Keywords: sandstone reservoir, Penosogan Formation, smectite, XRD

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736 Potential of Mineral Composition Reconstruction for Monitoring the Performance of an Iron Ore Concentration Plant

Authors: Maryam Sadeghi, Claude Bazin, Daniel Hodouin, Laura Perez Barnuevo


The performance of a separation process is usually evaluated using performance indices calculated from elemental assays readily available from the chemical analysis laboratory. However, the separation process performance is essentially related to the properties of the minerals that carry the elements and not those of the elements. Since elements or metals can be carried by valuable and gangue minerals in the ore and that each mineral responds differently to a mineral processing method, the use of only elemental assays could lead to erroneous or uncertain conclusions on the process performance. This paper discusses the advantages of using performance indices calculated from minerals content, such as minerals recovery, for process performance assessments. A method is presented that uses elemental assays to estimate the minerals content of the solids in various process streams. The method combines the stoichiometric composition of the minerals and constraints of mass conservation for the minerals through the concentration process to estimate the minerals content from elemental assays. The advantage of assessing a concentration process using mineral based performance indices is illustrated for an iron ore concentration circuit.

Keywords: data reconciliation, iron ore concentration, mineral composition, process performance assessment

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735 Model Studies on Shear Behavior of Reinforced Reconstituted Clay

Authors: B. A. Mir, A. Juneja


In this paper, shear behavior of reconstituted clay reinforced with varying diameter of sand compaction piles with area replacement-ratio (as) of 6.25, 10.24, 16, 20.25 and 64% in 100mm diameter and 200mm long clay specimens is modeled using consolidated drained and undrained triaxial tests under different confining pressures ranging from 50kPa to 575kPa. The test results show that the stress-strain behavior of the clay was highly influenced by the presence of SCP. The insertion of SCPs into soft clay has shown to have a positive effect on the load carrying capacity of the clay, resulting in a composite soil mass that has greater shear strength and improved stiffness compared to the unreinforced clay due to increased reinforcement area ratio. In addition, SCP also acts as vertical drain in the clay thus accelerating the dissipation of excess pore water pressures that are generated during loading by shortening the drainage path and activating radial drainage, thereby reducing post-construction settlement. Thus, sand compaction piles currently stand as one of the most viable and practical techniques for improving the mechanical properties of soft clays.

Keywords: reconstituted clay, SCP, shear strength, stress-strain response, triaxial tests

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734 Seal Capacity Evaluation by Using Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure Method Integrated with Petrographic Data: A Case Study in Green Dragon Oilfield Offshore Vietnam

Authors: Quoc Ngoc Phan, Hieu Van Nguyen, Minh Hong Nguyen


This study presents an integrated approach using Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure (MICP) and petrographic analysis to assess the seal quality of the inter-bedded shale formations which are considered the intra-formation top seals of hydrocarbon bearing zones in Green Dragon structure. Based on the hydrocarbon column height (HCH) at leak point derived from capillary pressure data, four seal types were identified. Furthermore, the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were interpreted to clarify the influence of clay minerals on seal capacity. The result of the study indicated that the inter-bedded shale formations are the good sealing quality with a majority of analyzed samples ranked type A and B seals in the sample set. Both seal types occurred mainly in mudstones with pore radius estimated less than 0.251 µm. Overall, type A and B seals contained a large amount of authigenic clay minerals such as illite, chlorite which showed the complexity of morphological arrangement in pore space. Conversely, the least common seal type C and D were presented in moderately compacted sandstones with more open pore radius. It is noticeable that there was a reduction of illite and chlorite in clay mineral fraction of these seal type. It is expected that the integrated analysis approach using Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure and petrographic data employed in this study can be applied to assess the sealing quality of future well sites in Green Dragon or other structures.

Keywords: seal capacity, hydrocarbon height column, seal type, SEM, XRD

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