Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 145

Search results for: hydration

145 Investigation on Hydration Mechanism of Eco-Friendly Concrete

Authors: Aliakbar Sayadi, Thomas Neitzert, Charles Clifton


The hydration process of a green concrete with differences on fly ash and the poly-lactic acid ratio was investigated using electrical resistivity measurement. The results show that the hydration process of proposed concrete was significantly different with concrete containing petroleum aggregate. Moreover, a microstructure analysis corresponding to each hydration stage is conducted with scanning microscope for ploy-lactic acid and expanded polystyrene concrete. In addition, specific equations using the variables of this study were developed to understand and predict the relationship between setting time and resistivity development of proposed concrete containing eco-friendly aggregate.

Keywords: green concrete, SEM, hydration mechanism, eco-friendly aggregate

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
144 A Density Functional Theory Study of Metal-Porphyrin Graphene for CO2 Hydration

Authors: Manju Verma, Parag A. Deshpande


Electronic structure calculations of hydrogen terminated metal-porphyrin graphene were carried out to explore the catalytic activity for CO2 hydration reaction. A ruthenium atom was substituted in place of carbon atom of graphene and ruthenium chelated carbon atoms were replaced by four nitrogen atoms in metal-porphyrin graphene system. Ruthenium atom created the active site for CO2 hydration reaction. Ruthenium-porphyrin graphene followed the mechanism of carbonic anhydrase enzyme for CO2 conversion to HCO3- ion. CO2 hydration reaction over ruthenium-porphyrin graphene proceeded via the elementary steps: OH- formation from H2O dissociation, CO2 bending in presence of nucleophilic attack of OH- ion, HCO3- ion formation from proton migration, HCO3- ion desorption by H2O addition. Proton transfer to yield HCO3- ion was observed as a rate limiting step from free energy landscape.

Keywords: ruthenium-porphyrin graphene, CO2 hydration, carbonic anhydrase, heterogeneous catalyst, density functional theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
143 Feasibility of Ground Alkali-Active Sandstone Powder for Use in Concrete as Mineral Admixture

Authors: Xia Chen, Hua-Quan Yang, Shi-Hua Zhou


Alkali-active sandstone aggregate was ground by vertical and ball mill into particles with residue over 45 μm less than 12%, and investigations have been launched on particles distribution and characterization of ground sandstone powder, fluidity, heat of hydration, strength as well as hydration products morphology of pastes with incorporation of ground sandstone powder. Results indicated that ground alkali-active sandstone powder with residue over 45 μm less than 8% was easily obtainable, and specific surface area was more sensitive to characterize its fineness with extension of grinding length. Incorporation of sandstone powder resulted in higher water demand and lower strength, advanced hydration of C3A and C2S within 3days and refined pore structure. Based on its manufacturing, characteristics and influence on properties of pastes, it was concluded that sandstone powder was a good selection for use in concrete as mineral admixture.

Keywords: concrete, mineral admixture, hydration, structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
142 High Resolution Solid State NMR Structural Study of a Ternary Hydraulic Mixture

Authors: Rym Sassi, Franck Fayon, Mohend Chaouche, Emmanuel Veron, Valerie Montouillout


The chemical phenomena occurring during cement hydration are complex and interdependent, and even after almost two centuries of studies, they are still difficult to solve for complex mixtures combining different hydraulic binders. Powder-XRD has been widely used for characterizing the crystalline phases in both anhydrous and hydrated cement, but only limited information is obtained in the case of strongly disordered and amorphous phases. In contrast, local spectroscopies like solid-state NMR can provide a quantitative description of noncrystalline phases. In this work, the structural modifications occurring during hydration of a fast-setting ternary binder based on white Portland cement, white calcium aluminate cement, and calcium sulfate were investigated using advanced solid-state NMR methods. We particularly focused on the early stage of the hydration up to 28 days, working with samples whose hydration was controlled and stopped. ²⁷Al MQ-MAS as well as {¹H}-²⁷Al and {¹H}-²⁹Si Cross- Polarization MAS NMR techniques were combined to distinguish all of the aluminum and silicon species formed during the hydration. The NMR quantification of the different phases was conducted in parallel with the XRD analyses. The consumption of initial products, as well as the precipitation of hydraulic phases (ettringite, monosulfate, strätlingite, CSH, and CASH), were unambiguously quantified. Finally, the drawing of the consumption and formation of phases was correlated with mechanical strength measurements.

Keywords: cement, hydration, hydrates structure, mechanical strength, NMR

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
141 To Optimise the Mechanical Properties of Structural Concrete by Partial Replacement of Natural Aggregates by Glass Aggregates

Authors: Gavin Gengan, Hsein Kew


Glass from varying recycling processes is considered a material that can be used as aggregate. Waste glass is available from different sources and has been used in the construction industry over the last decades. This current study aims to use recycled glass as a partial replacement for conventional aggregate materials. The experimental programme was designed to optimise the mechanical properties of structural concrete made with recycled glass aggregates (GA). NA (natural aggregates) was partially substituted by GA in a mix design of concrete of 30N/mm2 in proportions of 10%, 20%, and 25% 30%, 40%, and 50%. It was found that with an increasing proportion of GA, there is a decline in compressive strength. The optimum percentage replacement of NA by GA is 25%. The heat of hydration was also investigated with thermocouples placed in the concrete. This revealed an early acceleration of hydration heat in glass concrete, resulting from the thermal properties of glass. The gain in the heat of hydration and the better bonding of glass aggregates together with the pozzolanic activity of the finest glass particles caused the concrete to develop early age and long-term strength higher than that of control concrete

Keywords: concrete, compressive strength, glass aggregates, heat of hydration, pozzolanic

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
140 Influence of Silica Fume on the Hydration of Cement Pastes Studied by Simultaneous TG-DSC Analysis

Authors: Anton Trník, Lenka Scheinherrová, Robert Černý


Silica fume is a by-product of the ferro-silicon and silicon metal industries. It is mainly in the form of amorphous silica. Silica fume belongs to pozzolanic active materials which can be used in concrete to improve its final properties. In this paper, the influence of silica fume on hydration of cement pastes is studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG) at various curing times (2, 7, 28, and 90 days) in the temperature range from 25 to 1000 °C in an argon atmosphere. Samples are prepared from Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R which is partially replaced with the silica fume of 4, 8, and 12 wt.%. The water/binder ratio is chosen as 0.5. It is identified and described the liberation of physically bound water, calcium–silicate–hydrates dehydration, portlandite and calcite decomposition in studied samples. Also, it is found out that an exothermic peak at 950 °C is observed without a significant mass change for samples with 12 wt.% of silica fume after two days of hydration. This peak is probably caused by the pozzolanic reaction between silica fume and Portland cement. Its size corresponds to the degree of crystallization between Ca and Si. The portlandite content is lower for the samples with a higher amount of silica fume.

Keywords: differential scanning calorimetry, hydration, silica fume, thermogravimetry

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
139 The Use of Electrical Resistivity Measurement, Cracking Test and Ansys Simulation to Predict Concrete Hydration Behavior and Crack Tendency

Authors: Samaila Bawa Muazu


Hydration process, crack potential and setting time of concrete grade C30, C40 and C50 were separately monitored using non-contact electrical resistivity apparatus, a novel plastic ring mould and penetration resistance method respectively. The results show highest resistivity of C30 at the beginning until reaching the acceleration point when C50 accelerated and overtaken the others, and this period corresponds to its final setting time range, from resistivity derivative curve, hydration process can be divided into dissolution, induction, acceleration and deceleration periods, restrained shrinkage crack and setting time tests demonstrated the earliest cracking and setting time of C50, therefore, this method conveniently and rapidly determines the concrete’s crack potential. The highest inflection time (ti), the final setting time (tf) were obtained and used with crack time in coming up with mathematical models for the prediction of concrete’s cracking age for the range being considered. Finally, ANSYS numerical simulations supports the experimental findings in terms of the earliest crack age of C50 and the crack location that, highest stress concentration is always beneath the artificially introduced expansion joint of C50.

Keywords: concrete hydration, electrical resistivity, restrained shrinkage crack, setting time, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
138 Prediction of Concrete Hydration Behavior and Cracking Tendency Based on Electrical Resistivity Measurement, Cracking Test and ANSYS Simulation

Authors: Samaila Muazu Bawa


Hydration process, crack potential and setting time of concrete grade C30, C40 and C50 were separately monitored using non-contact electrical resistivity apparatus, a plastic ring mould and penetration resistance method respectively. The results show highest resistivity of C30 at the beginning until reaching the acceleration point when C50 accelerated and overtaken the others, and this period corresponds to its final setting time range, from resistivity derivative curve, hydration process can be divided into dissolution, induction, acceleration and deceleration periods, restrained shrinkage crack and setting time tests demonstrated the earliest cracking and setting time of C50, therefore, this method conveniently and rapidly determines the concrete’s crack potential. The highest inflection time (ti), the final setting time (tf) were obtained and used with crack time in coming up with mathematical models for the prediction of concrete’s cracking age for the range being considered. Finally, ANSYS numerical simulations supports the experimental findings in terms of the earliest crack age of C50 and the crack location that, highest stress concentration is always beneath the artificially introduced expansion joint of C50.

Keywords: concrete hydration, electrical resistivity, restrained shrinkage crack, ANSYS simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
137 Carbonation of Wollastonite (001) competing Hydration: Microscopic Insights from Ion Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory

Authors: Peter Thissen


In this work, we report about the influence of the chemical potential of water on the carbonation reaction of wollastonite (CaSiO3) as model surface of cement and concrete. Total energy calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) combined with kinetic barrier predictions based on nudge elastic band (NEB) method show that the exposure of the water-free wollastonite surface to CO2 results in a barrier-less carbonation. CO2 reacts with the surface oxygen and forms carbonate (CO32-) complexes together with a major reconstruction of the surface. The reaction comes to a standstill after one carbonate monolayer has been formed. In case one water monolayer is covering the wollastonite surface, the carbonation is no more barrier-less, yet ending in a localized monolayer. Covered with multilayers of water, the thermodynamic ground state of the wollastonite completely changes due to a metal-proton exchange reaction (MPER, also called early stage hydration) and Ca2+ ions are partially removed from solid phase into the H2O/wollastonite interface. Mobile Ca2+ react again with CO2 and form carbonate complexes, ending in a delocalized layer. By means of high resolution time-of-flight secondary-ion mass-spectroscopy images (ToF-SIMS), we confirm that hydration can lead to a partially delocalization of Ca2+ ions on wollastonite surfaces. Finally, we evaluate the impact of our model surface results by means of Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) spectroscopy combined with careful discussion about the competing reactions of carbonation vs. hydration.

Keywords: Calcium-silicate, carbonation, hydration, metal-proton exchange reaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
136 Evaluation of Heat of Hydration and Strength Development in Natural Pozzolan-Incorporated Cement from the Gulf Region

Authors: S. Al-Fadala, J. Chakkamalayath, S. Al-Bahar, A. Al-Aibani, S. Ahmed


Globally, the use of pozzolan in blended cement is gaining great interest due to the desirable effect of pozzolan from the environmental and energy conservation standpoint and the technical benefits they provide to the performance of cement. The deterioration of concrete structures in the marine environment and extreme climates demand the use of pozzolana cement in concrete construction in the Gulf region. Also, natural sources of cement clinker materials are limited in the Gulf region, and cement industry imports the raw materials for the production of Portland cement, resulting in an increase in the greenhouse gas effect due to the CO₂ emissions generated from transportation. Even though the Gulf region has vast deposits of natural pozzolana, it is not explored properly for the production of high performance concrete. Hence, an optimum use of regionally available natural pozzolana for the production of blended cement can result in sustainable construction. This paper investigates the effect of incorporating natural pozzolan sourced from the Gulf region on the performance of blended cement in terms of heat evolution and strength development. For this purpose, a locally produced Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and pozzolan-incorporated blended cements containing different amounts of natural pozzolan (volcanic ash) were prepared on laboratory scale. The strength development and heat evolution were measured and quantified. Promising results of strength development were obtained for blends with the percentages of Volcanic Ash (VA) replacement varying from 10 to 30%. Results showed that the heat of hydration decreased with increase in percentage of replacement of OPC with VA, indicating increased retardation in hydration due to the addition of VA. This property could be used in mass concreting in which a reduction in heat of hydration is required to reduce cracking in concrete, especially in hot weather concreting.

Keywords: blended cement, hot weather, hydration, volcanic ash

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
135 The Effects of Topically-Applied Skin Moisturizer on Striae Gravidarum in East Indian Women

Authors: Dipanshu Sur, Ratnabali Chakravorty


Background: Striae result from rapid expansion of the underlying tissue, e.g. during puberty, pregnancy or rapid weight gain. Prior data indicate that the incidence of stretch marks in Indian women is 77%.The hormonal and genetic factors are associated with their appearance. Recently that has been found skin extensibility, elasticity and rupture were strongly influenced by the water content of dermis and epidermis cells. Objective: The objectives were to assess the effects of topical treatments applied during pregnancy on the later development of stretch marks. Materials and methods: An open, prospective, randomized study was done on 120 pregnant women in whom skin elasticity and hydration as well as striae presence or apparition were measured at baseline and periodically until delivery. Patients were randomly assigned to application in wet skin cream, or in dry skin conditions. Results: The average basal hydration was 42 ±13 IU and the final was 46 ± 6 IU (P = 0.0325; 95% CI: -7.66 to -0.34), which difference was statistically significant. By measuring the moisture in the control region (forearm) a basal reading of 40 ± 9 IU and end of study of 38 ± 6; (p = 0.1547; 95% CI: -0.77 to 4.77) and this difference was considered to be not statistically significant. It was observed that at the end of the study, 55% women without ridges; mild ridges 5%; 36% moderate, and 4%, severe ridges. The proportion of women without grooves was 54% when the cream was applied studied wet skin and 45% when the cream was applied on dry skin. Conclusion: It was shown that cream under study increased hydration and elasticity of abdominal skin consequently in all subjects. This effect is more significant (54%) when the cream is applied to damp skin.

Keywords: striae gravidarum, skin moisturizer, skin hydration, skin elasticity

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
134 Development of Green Cement, Based on Partial Replacement of Clinker with Limestone Powder

Authors: Yaniv Knop, Alva Peled


Over the past few years there has been a growing interest in the development of Portland Composite Cement, by partial replacement of the clinker with mineral additives. The motivations to reduce the clinker content are threefold: (1) Ecological - due to lower emission of CO2 to the atmosphere; (2) Economical - due to cost reduction; and (3) Scientific\Technology – improvement of performances. Among the mineral additives being used and investigated, limestone is one of the most attractive, as it is considered natural, available, and with low cost. The goal of the research is to develop green cement, by partial replacement of the clinker with limestone powder while improving the performances of the cement paste. This work studied blended cements with three limestone powder particle diameters: smaller than, larger than, and similarly sized to the clinker particle. Blended cement with limestone consisting of one particle size distribution and limestone consisting of a combination of several particle sizes were studied and compared in terms of hydration rate, hydration degree, and water demand to achieve normal consistency. The performances of these systems were also compared with that of the original cement (without added limestone). It was found that the ability to replace an active material with an inert additive, while achieving improved performances, can be obtained by increasing the packing density of the cement-based particles. This may be achieved by replacing the clinker with limestone powders having a combination of several different particle size distributions. Mathematical and physical models were developed to simulate the setting history from initial to final setting time and to predict the packing density of blended cement with limestone having different sizes and various contents. Besides the effect of limestone, as inert additive, on the packing density of the blended cement, the influence of the limestone particle size on three different chemical reactions were studied; hydration of the cement, carbonation of the calcium hydroxide and the reactivity of the limestone with the hydration reaction products. The main results and developments will be presented.

Keywords: packing density, hydration degree, limestone, blended cement

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
133 Effect of Temperature on the Properties of Cement Paste Modified with Nanoparticles

Authors: Karine Pimenta Teixeira, Jessica Flores, Isadora PerdigãO Rocha, Leticia De Sá Carneiro, Mahsa Kamali, Ali Ghahremaninezhad


The advent of nanotechnology has enabled innovative solutions towards improving the behavior of infrastructure materials. Nanomaterials have the potential to revolutionize the construction industry by improving the performance and durability of construction materials, as well as imparting new functionalities to these materials. Due to variability in the environmental temperature during mixing and curing of cementitious materials in practice, it is important to understand how curing temperature influences the behavior of cementitious materials. In addition, high temperature curing is relevant in applications such as oil well cement and precast industry. Knowledge of the influence of temperature on the performance of cementitious materials modified with nanoparticles is important in the nanoengineering of cementitious materials in applications such as oil well cement and precast industry. This presentation aims to investigate the influence of temperature on the hydration, mechanical properties and durability of cementitious materials modified with TiO2 nanoparticles. It was found that temperature improved the early hydration. The cement pastes cured at high temperatures showed an increase in the compressive strength at early age but the strength gain decreased at late ages. The electrical resistivity of the cement pastes cured at high temperatures was shown to decrease more noticeably at late ages compared to that of the room temperature cured cement paste. SEM examination indicated that hydration product was more uniformly distributed in the microstructure of the cement paste cured at room temperature compared to the cement pastes cured at high temperature.

Keywords: cement paste, nanoparticles, temperature, hydration

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
132 Early Stage Hydration of Wollastonite: Kinetic Aspects of the Metal-Proton Exchange Reaction

Authors: Nicolas Giraudo, Peter Thissen


In this paper we bring up new aspects of the metal proton exchange reaction (MPER, also called early stage hydration): (1) its dependence of the number of protons consumed by the preferential exchanged cations on the pH value applied at the water/wollastonite interface and (2) strong anisotropic characteristics detected in atomic force microscopy (AFM) and low energy ion scattering spectroscopy measurements (LEIS). First we apply density functional theory (DFT) calculations to compare the kinetics of the reaction on different wollastonite surfaces, and combine it with ab initio thermodynamics to set up a model describing (1) the release of Ca in exchange with H coming from the water/wollastonite interface, (2) the dependence of the MPER on the chemical potential of protons. In the second part of the paper we carried out in-situ AFM and inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) measurements in order to evaluate the predicted values. While a good agreement is found in the basic and neutral regime (pH values from 14-4), an increasing mismatch appears in the acidic regime (pH value lower 4). This is finally explained by non-equilibrium etching, dominating over the MPER in the very acidic regime.

Keywords: anisotropy, calcium silicate, cement, density functional theory, hydration

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
131 Early Age Microstructural Analysis of Cement-Polymer Composite Paste Cured at High Temperature

Authors: Bertilia L. Bartley, Ledjane S. Barreto


As a preliminary investigation on the control of microcracking in composite cement pastes, this study explores and compares the compatibility of Tetraethyl Orthosilicate (TEOS), Ethylene Glycol (EG) and Silicone Resin (SIL) in cement pastes cured at high temperature. Pastes were prepared by incorporating ordinary Portland cement (OPC) into an additive solution, using a solution/cement ratio of 0.45. Specimens were molded for 24h at 21 ± 2°C, then cured in deionized water for another 24h at 74 ± 1°C. TEOS and EG influence on fresh paste properties were similar to the reference OPC paste yet disintegration was observed in EG and SIL specimens after the first 12h of curing. X-Ray Diffraction analysis (XRD) coupled with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG) verified that SIL addition impedes portlandite formation significantly. Backscatter Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were therefore performed on selected areas of each sample to investigate the morphology of the hydration products detected. Various morphologies of portlandite crystals were observed in pastes with EG and TEOS addition, as well as dense morphologies of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel and fibers, and ettringite needles. However, the formation of portlandite aggregate and clusters of C-S-H was highly favored by TEOS addition. Furthermore, the microstructural details of composite pastes were clearly visible at low magnifications i.e. 500x, as compared to the OPC paste. The results demonstrate accelerated hydration within composite pastes, a uniform distribution of hydration products, as well as an adhesive interaction with the products and polymer additive. Overall, TEOS demonstrated the most favorable influence, which indicates the potential of TEOS as a compatible polymer additive within the cement system at high temperature.

Keywords: accelerated curing, cement/polymer composite, hydration, microstructural properties, morphology, portlandite, scanning electron microscopy (sem)

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
130 Reduction Shrinkage of Concrete without Use Reinforcement

Authors: Martin Tazky, Rudolf Hela, Lucia Osuska, Petr Novosad


Concrete’s volumetric changes are natural process caused by silicate minerals’ hydration. These changes can lead to cracking and subsequent destruction of cementitious material’s matrix. In most cases, cracks can be assessed as a negative effect of hydration, and in all cases, they lead to an acceleration of degradation processes. Preventing the formation of these cracks is, therefore, the main effort. Once of the possibility how to eliminate this natural concrete shrinkage process is by using different types of dispersed reinforcement. For this application of concrete shrinking, steel and polymer reinforcement are preferably used. Despite ordinarily used reinforcement in concrete to eliminate shrinkage it is possible to look at this specific problematic from the beginning by itself concrete mix composition. There are many secondary raw materials, which are helpful in reduction of hydration heat and also with shrinkage of concrete during curing. The new science shows the possibilities of shrinkage reduction also by the controlled formation of hydration products, which could act by itself morphology as a traditionally used dispersed reinforcement. This contribution deals with the possibility of controlled formation of mono- and tri-sulfate which are considered like degradation minerals. Mono- and tri- sulfate's controlled formation in a cementitious composite can be classified as a self-healing ability. Its crystal’s growth acts directly against the shrinking tension – this reduces the risk of cracks development. Controlled formation means that these crystals start to grow in the fresh state of the material (e.g. concrete) but stop right before it could cause any damage to the hardened material. Waste materials with the suitable chemical composition are very attractive precursors because of their added value in the form of landscape pollution’s reduction and, of course, low cost. In this experiment, the possibilities of using the fly ash from fluidized bed combustion as a mono- and tri-sulphate formation additive were investigated. The experiment itself was conducted on cement paste and concrete and specimens were subjected to a thorough analysis of physicomechanical properties as well as microstructure from the moment of mixing up to 180 days. In cement composites, were monitored the process of hydration and shrinkage. In a mixture with the used admixture of fluidized bed combustion fly ash, possible failures were specified by electronic microscopy and dynamic modulus of elasticity. The results of experiments show the possibility of shrinkage concrete reduction without using traditionally dispersed reinforcement.

Keywords: shrinkage, monosulphates, trisulphates, self-healing, fluidized fly ash

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
129 Developing a High Performance Cement Based Material: The Influence of Silica Fume and Organosilane

Authors: Andrea Cretu, Calin Cadar, Maria Miclaus, Lucian Barbu-Tudoran, Siegfried Stapf, Ioan Ardelean


Additives and mineral admixtures have become an integral part of cement-based materials. It is common practice to add silica fume to cement based mixes in order to produce high-performance concrete. There is still a lack of scientific understanding regarding the effects that silica fume has on the microstructure of hydrated cement paste. The aim of the current study is to develop high-performance materials with low permeability and high resistance to flexural stress using silica fume and an organosilane. Organosilane bonds with cement grains and silica fume, influencing both the workability and the final properties of the mix, especially the pore size distributions and pore connectivity. Silica fume is a known pozzolanic agent which reacts with the calcium hydroxide in hydrated cement paste, producing more C-S-H and improving the mechanical properties of the mix. It is believed that particles of silica fume act as capillary pore fillers and nucleation centers for C-S-H and other hydration products. In order to be able to design cement-based materials with added silica fume and organosilane, it is necessary first to understand the formation of the porous network during hydration and to observe the distribution of pores and their connectivity. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods in low-fields are non-destructive and allow the study of cement-based materials from the standpoint of their porous structure. Other methods, such as XRD and SEM-EDS, help create a comprehensive picture of the samples, along with the classic mechanical tests (compressive and flexural strength measurements). The transverse relaxation time (T₂) was measured during the hydration of 16 samples prepared with two water/cement ratios (0.3 and 0.4) and different concentrations or organosilane (APTES, up to 2% by mass of cement) and silica fume (up to 6%). After their hydration, the pore size distribution was assessed using the same NMR approach on the samples filled with cyclohexane. The SEM-EDS and XRD measurements were applied on pieces and powders prepared from the samples that were used in mechanical testing, which were kept under water for 28 days. Adding silica fume does not influence the hydration dynamics of cement paste, while the addition of organosilane extends the dormancy stage up to 10 hours. The size distribution of the capillary pores is not influenced by the addition of silica fume or organosilane, while the connectivity of capillary pores is decreased only when there is organosilane in the mix. No filling effect is observed even at the highest concentration of silica fume. There is an apparent increase in flexural strength of samples prepared only with silica fume and a decrease for those prepared with organosilane, with a few exceptions. XRD reveals that the pozzolanic reactivity of silica fume can only be observed when there is no organosilane present and the SEM-EDS method reveals the pore distribution, as well as hydration products and the presence or absence of calcium hydroxide. The current work was funded by the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, CNCS – UEFISCDI, through project PN-III-P2-2.1-PED-2016-0719.

Keywords: cement hydration, concrete admixtures, NMR, organosilane, porosity, silica fume

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
128 Single Ion Transport with a Single-Layer Graphene Nanopore

Authors: Vishal V. R. Nandigana, Mohammad Heiranian, Narayana R. Aluru


Graphene material has found tremendous applications in water desalination, DNA sequencing and energy storage. Multiple nanopores are etched to create opening for water desalination and energy storage applications. The nanopores created are of the order of 3-5 nm allowing multiple ions to transport through the pore. In this paper, we present for the first time, molecular dynamics study of single ion transport, where only one ion passes through the graphene nanopore. The diameter of the graphene nanopore is of the same order as the hydration layers formed around each ion. Analogous to single electron transport resulting from ionic transport is observed for the first time. The current-voltage characteristics of such a device are similar to single electron transport in quantum dots. The current is blocked until a critical voltage, as the ions are trapped inside a hydration shell. The trapped ions have a high energy barrier compared to the applied input electrical voltage, preventing the ion to break free from the hydration shell. This region is called “Coulomb blockade region”. In this region, we observe zero transport of ions inside the nanopore. However, when the electrical voltage is beyond the critical voltage, the ion has sufficient energy to break free from the energy barrier created by the hydration shell to enter into the pore. Thus, the input voltage can control the transport of the ion inside the nanopore. The device therefore acts as a binary storage unit, storing 0 when no ion passes through the pore and storing 1 when a single ion passes through the pore. We therefore postulate that the device can be used for fluidic computing applications in chemistry and biology, mimicking a computer. Furthermore, the trapped ion stores a finite charge in the Coulomb blockade region; hence the device also acts a super capacitor.

Keywords: graphene nanomembrane, single ion transport, Coulomb blockade, nanofluidics

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
127 Great Food, No Atmosphere: A Review of Performance Nutrition for Application to Extravehicular Activities in Spaceflight

Authors: Lauren E. Church


Background: Extravehicular activities (EVAs) are a critical aspect of missions aboard the International Space Station (ISS). It has long been noted that the spaceflight environment and the physical demands of EVA cause physiological and metabolic changes in humans; this review aims to combine these findings with nutritional studies in analogues of the spaceflight and EVA environments to make nutritional recommendations for astronauts scheduled for and immediately returning from EVAs. Results: Energy demands increase during orbital spaceflight and see further increases during EVA. Another critical element of EVA nutrition is adequate hydration. Orbital EVA appears to provide adequate hydration under current protocol, but during lunar surface EVA (LEVA) and in a 10km lunar walk-back test astronauts have stated that up to 20% more water was needed. Previous attempts for in-suit edible sustenance have not been adequately taken up by astronauts to be economically viable. In elite endurance athletes, a mixture of glucose and fructose is used in gels, improving performance. Discussion: A combination of non-caffeinated energy drink and simple water should be available for astronauts during EVA, allowing more autonomy. There should also be provision of gels or a similar product containing appropriate sodium levels to maintain hydration, but not so much as to hyperhydrate through renal water reabsorption. It is also suggested that short breaks be built into the schedule of EVAs for these gels to be consumed, as it is speculated that reason for low uptake of in-suit sustenance is the lack of time available in which to consume it.

Keywords: astronaut, nutrition, space, sport

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126 Allopurinol Prophylactic Therapy in the Prevention of Contrast Induced Nephropathy in High Risk Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Seyed Fakhreddin Hejazi, Leili Iranirad, Mohammad Sadeghi, Mohsen Talebizadeh


Background: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) remains to be a potentially serious complication of radiographic procedures. We performed this clinical trial to assess the preventive effect of allopurinol against CIN in high-risk patients undergoing coronary angiography. Methods: In this prospective randomized controlled trial, 140 patients with at least two risk factors for CIN undergoing coronary angiography were randomly assigned to either the allopurinol group or the control group. Patients in the allopurinol group received 300 mg allopurinol 24 hours before a procedure and intravenous hydration for 12 hours before and after coronary angiography, whereas patients in the control group received intravenous hydration. Serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and uric acid were measured before contrast exposure and at 48 hours. CIN was defined as an increase of 25% in serum creatinine (SCr) or >0.5 mg/dl 48 hours after contrast administration. Results: CIN occurred in 11 out of 70 (7.9%) patients in the control group and in 8 out of 70 (5.7%) patients in the allopurinol group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of CIN between the two groups at 48 hours after administering the radiocontrast agent (p = 0.459). However, there were significant differences between the two groups in SCr, BUN, uric acid, and eGFR 48 hours after radiocontrast administration (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings revealed that allopurinol had no substantial efficacy over hydration protocol in high-risk patients for the development of CIN.

Keywords: contrast-induced nephropathy, allopurinol, coronary angiography, contrast agent

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
125 Efficiency of Different Types of Addition onto the Hydration Kinetics of Portland Cement

Authors: Marine Regnier, Pascal Bost, Matthieu Horgnies


Some of the problems to be solved for the concrete industry are linked to the use of low-reactivity cement, the hardening of concrete under cold-weather and the manufacture of pre-casted concrete without costly heating step. The development of these applications needs to accelerate the hydration kinetics, in order to decrease the setting time and to obtain significant compressive strengths as soon as possible. The mechanisms enhancing the hydration kinetics of alite or Portland cement (e.g. the creation of nucleation sites) were already studied in literature (e.g. by using distinct additions such as titanium dioxide nanoparticles, calcium carbonate fillers, water-soluble polymers, C-S-H, etc.). However, the goal of this study was to establish a clear ranking of the efficiency of several types of additions by using a robust and reproducible methodology based on isothermal calorimetry (performed at 20°C). The cement was a CEM I 52.5N PM-ES (Blaine fineness of 455 m²/kg). To ensure the reproducibility of the experiments and avoid any decrease of the reactivity before use, the cement was stored in waterproof and sealed bags to avoid any contact with moisture and carbon dioxide. The experiments were performed on Portland cement pastes by using a water-to-cement ratio of 0.45, and incorporating different compounds (industrially available or laboratory-synthesized) that were selected according to their main composition and their specific surface area (SSA, calculated using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) model and nitrogen adsorption isotherms performed at 77K). The intrinsic effects of (i) dry powders (e.g. fumed silica, activated charcoal, nano-precipitates of calcium carbonate, afwillite germs, nanoparticles of iron and iron oxides , etc.), and (ii) aqueous solutions (e.g. containing calcium chloride, hydrated Portland cement or Master X-SEED 100, etc.) were investigated. The influence of the amount of addition, calculated relatively to the dry extract of each addition compared to cement (and by conserving the same water-to-cement ratio) was also studied. The results demonstrated that the X-SEED®, the hydrated calcium nitrate, the calcium chloride (and, at a minor level, a solution of hydrated Portland cement) were able to accelerate the hydration kinetics of Portland cement, even at low concentration (e.g. 1%wt. of dry extract compared to cement). By using higher rates of additions, the fumed silica, the precipitated calcium carbonate and the titanium dioxide can also accelerate the hydration. In the case of the nano-precipitates of calcium carbonate, a correlation was established between the SSA and the accelerating effect. On the contrary, the nanoparticles of iron or iron oxides, the activated charcoal and the dried crystallised hydrates did not show any accelerating effect. Future experiments will be scheduled to establish the ranking of these additions, in terms of accelerating effect, by using low-reactivity cements and other water to cement ratios.

Keywords: acceleration, hydration kinetics, isothermal calorimetry, Portland cement

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124 The Optimisation of Salt Impregnated Matrices as Potential Thermochemical Storage Materials

Authors: Robert J. Sutton, Jon Elvins, Sean Casey, Eifion Jewell, Justin R. Searle


Thermochemical storage utilises chemical salts which store and release energy a fully reversible endo/exothermic chemical reaction. Highly porous vermiculite impregnated with CaCl2, LiNO3 and MgSO4 (SIMs – Salt In Matrices) are proposed as potential materials for long-term thermochemical storage. The behavior of these materials during typical hydration and dehydration cycles is investigated. A simple moisture experiment represents the hydration, whilst thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) represents the dehydration. Further experiments to approximate the energy density and to determine the peak output temperatures of the SIMs are conducted. The CaCl2 SIM is deemed the best performing SIM across most experiments, whilst the results of MgSO4 SIM indicate difficulty associated with energy recovery.

Keywords: hydrated states, inter-seasonal heat storage, moisture sorption, salt in matrix

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123 Hydration of Three-Piece K Peptide Fragments Studied by Means of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Marcin Stasiulewicz, Sebastian Filipkowski, Aneta Panuszko


Background: The hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, is an aggregation of the abnormal forms of peptides and proteins. Water is essential to functioning biomolecules, and it is one of the key factors influencing protein folding and misfolding. However, the hydration studies of proteins are complicated due to the complexity of protein systems. The use of model compounds can facilitate the interpretation of results involving larger systems. Objectives: The goal of the research was to characterize the properties of the hydration water surrounding the two three-residue K peptide fragments INS (Isoleucine - Asparagine - Serine) and NSR (Asparagine - Serine - Arginine). Methods: Fourier-transform infrared spectra of aqueous solutions of the tripeptides were recorded on Nicolet 8700 spectrometer (Thermo Electron Co.) Measurements were carried out at 25°C for varying molality of solute. To remove oscillation couplings from water spectra and, consequently, obtain narrow O-D semi-heavy water bands (HDO), the isotopic dilution method of HDO in H₂O was used. The difference spectra method allowed us to isolate the tripeptide-affected HDO spectrum. Results: The structural and energetic properties of water affected by the tripeptides were compared to the properties of pure water. The shift of the values of the gravity center of bands (related to the mean energy of water hydrogen bonds) towards lower values with respect to the ones corresponding to pure water suggests that the energy of hydrogen bonds between water molecules surrounding tripeptides is higher than in pure water. A comparison of the values of the mean oxygen-oxygen distances in water affected by tripeptides and pure water indicates that water-water hydrogen bonds are shorter in the presence of these tripeptides. The analysis of differences in oxygen-oxygen distance distributions between the tripeptide-affected water and pure water indicates that around the tripeptides, the contribution of water molecules with the mean energy of hydrogen bonds decreases, and simultaneously the contribution of strong hydrogen bonds increases. Conclusions: It was found that hydrogen bonds between water molecules in the hydration sphere of tripeptides are shorter and stronger than in pure water. It means that in the presence of the tested tripeptides, the structure of water is strengthened compared to pure water. Moreover, it has been shown that in the vicinity of the Asparagine - Serine - Arginine, water forms stronger and shorter hydrogen bonds. Acknowledgments: This work was funded by the National Science Centre, Poland (grant 2017/26/D/NZ1/00497).

Keywords: amyloids, K-peptide, hydration, FTIR spectroscopy

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122 Durability Enhancement of CaSO4 in Repetitive Operation of Chemical Heat Pump

Authors: Y. Shiren, M. Masuzawa, H. Ohkura, T. Yamagata, Y. Aman, N. Kobayashi


An important problem for the CaSO4/CaSO4・1/2H2O Chemical heat pump (CHP) is that the material is deactivated through repetitive reaction between hydration and dehydration in which the crystal phase of the material is transformed from III-CaSO4 to II-CaSO4. We investigated suppression on the phase change by adding a sulfated compound. The most effective material was MgSO4. MgSO4 doping increased the durability of CaSO4 in the actual CHP repetitive cycle of hydration/dehydration to 3.6 times that of undoped CaSO4. The MgSO4-doped CaSO4 showed a higher phase transition temperature and activation energy for crystal transformation from III-CaSO4 to II-CaSO4. MgSO4 doping decreased the crystal lattice size of CaSO4・1/2H2O and II-CaSO4 to smaller than that of undoped CaSO4. Modification of the crystal structure is considered to be related to the durability change in CaSO4 resulting from MgSO4 doping.

Keywords: CaSO4, chemical heat pump, durability of chemical heat storage material, heat storage

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121 Air-Purifying Properties of Cement Mortars Intermixed with TiO₂-SiO₂ Composites

Authors: A.M. Kaja, Q. Yu, H.J.H Brouwers


An increased functionality of concrete towards higher eco-efficiency is nowadays of great importance due to the decreasing air quality in urban areas. Surface modifications of concrete walls and roads, as a coating or an intermixing of the surface layer with TiO₂, provide an opportunity to improve the air quality by reducing NOx via photocatalytic phenomena. Nevertheless, there are still concerns regarding the cost-efficiency as well as the toxicity of intermediate products which can be produced during the photocatalysis, limiting a widespread adoption of these materials. This study addresses the problem of the selectivity of cement mortars towards nitrate in terms of microstructural characteristics and hydration products. The ability of cement mortars matrix intermixed with commercial TiO₂ and TiO₂-SiO₂ composite to abate NO₂ is investigated. The influence of hydration products formed under the carbonation facilitating conditions is discussed and solutions how to optimize the mix design are proposed. The incorporation of the TiO₂-SiO₂ composite into cement mortar is found to increase the nitrate selectivity index.

Keywords: cement matrix, NO₂ abatement, photocatalysis, TiO₂-SiO₂ composite

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120 Study of Nucleation and Growth Processes of Ettringite in Supersaturated Diluted Solutions

Authors: E. Poupelloz, S. Gauffinet


Ettringite Ca₆Al₂(SO₄)₃(OH)₁₂26H₂O is one of the major hydrates formed during cement hydration. Ettringite forms in Portland cement from the reaction between tricalcium aluminate Ca₃Al₂O₆ and calcium sulfate. Ettringite is also present in calcium sulfoaluminate cement in which it is the major hydrate, formed by the reaction between yeelimite Ca₄(AlO₂)₆SO₄ and calcium sulfate. About the formation of ettringite, numerous results are available in the literature even if some issues are still under discussion. However, almost all published work about ettringite was done on cementitious systems. Yet in cement, hydration reactions are very complex, the result of dissolution-precipitation processes and are submitted to various interactions. Understanding the formation process of a phase alone, here ettringite, is the first step to later understand the much more complex reactions happening in cement. This study is crucial for the comprehension of early cement hydration and physical behavior. Indeed formation of hydrates, in particular, ettringite, will have an influence on the rheological properties of the cement paste and on the need for admixtures. To make progress toward the understanding of existing phenomena, a specific study of nucleation and growth processes of ettringite was conducted. First ettringite nucleation was studied in ionic aqueous solutions, with controlled but different experimental conditions, as different supersaturation degrees (β), different pH or presence of exogenous ions. Through induction time measurements, interfacial ettringite crystals solution energies (γ) were determined. Growth of ettringite in supersaturated solutions was also studied through chain crystallization reactions. Specific BET surface area measurements and Scanning Electron Microscopy observations seemed to prove that growth process is favored over the nucleation process when ettringite crystals are initially present in a solution with a low supersaturation degree. The influence of stirring on ettringite formation was also investigated. Observation was made that intensity and nature of stirring have a high influence on the size of ettringite needles formed. Needle sizes vary from less than 10µm long depending on the stirring to almost 100µm long without any stirring. During all previously mentioned experiments, initially present ions are consumed to form ettringite in such a way that the supersaturation degree with regard to ettringite is decreasing over time. To avoid this phenomenon a device compensating the drop of ion concentrations by adding some more solutions, and therefore always have constant ionic concentrations, was used. This constant β recreates the conditions of the beginning of cement paste hydration, when the dissolution of solid reagents compensates the consumption of ions to form hydrates. This device allowed the determination of the ettringite precipitation rate as a function of the supersaturation degree β. Taking samples at different time during ettringite precipitation and doing BET measurements allowed the determination of the interfacial growth rate of ettringite in m²/s. This work will lead to a better understanding and control of ettringite formation alone and thus during cements hydration. This study will also ultimately define the impact of ettringite formation process on the rheology of cement pastes at early age, which is a crucial parameter from a practical point of view.

Keywords: cement hydration, ettringite, morphology of crystals, nucleation-growth process

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119 Material Chemistry Level Deformation and Failure in Cementitious Materials

Authors: Ram V. Mohan, John Rivas-Murillo, Ahmed Mohamed, Wayne D. Hodo


Cementitious materials, an excellent example of highly complex, heterogeneous material systems, are cement-based systems that include cement paste, mortar, and concrete that are heavily used in civil infrastructure; though commonly used are one of the most complex in terms of the material morphology and structure than most materials, for example, crystalline metals. Processes and features occurring at the nanometer sized morphological structures affect the performance, deformation/failure behavior at larger length scales. In addition, cementitious materials undergo chemical and morphological changes gaining strength during the transient hydration process. Hydration in cement is a very complex process creating complex microstructures and the associated molecular structures that vary with hydration. A fundamental understanding can be gained through multi-scale level modeling for the behavior and properties of cementitious materials starting from the material chemistry level atomistic scale to further explore their role and the manifested effects at larger length and engineering scales. This predictive modeling enables the understanding, and studying the influence of material chemistry level changes and nanomaterial additives on the expected resultant material characteristics and deformation behavior. Atomistic-molecular dynamic level modeling is required to couple material science to engineering mechanics. Starting at the molecular level a comprehensive description of the material’s chemistry is required to understand the fundamental properties that govern behavior occurring across each relevant length scale. Material chemistry level models and molecular dynamics modeling and simulations are employed in our work to describe the molecular-level chemistry features of calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH), one of the key hydrated constituents of cement paste, their associated deformation and failure. The molecular level atomic structure for CSH can be represented by Jennite mineral structure. Jennite has been widely accepted by researchers and is typically used to represent the molecular structure of the CSH gel formed during the hydration of cement clinkers. This paper will focus on our recent work on the shear and compressive deformation and failure behavior of CSH represented by Jennite mineral structure that has been widely accepted by researchers and is typically used to represent the molecular structure of CSH formed during the hydration of cement clinkers. The deformation and failure behavior under shear and compression loading deformation in traditional hydrated CSH; effect of material chemistry changes on the predicted stress-strain behavior, transition from linear to non-linear behavior and identify the on-set of failure based on material chemistry structures of CSH Jennite and changes in its chemistry structure will be discussed.

Keywords: cementitious materials, deformation, failure, material chemistry modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
118 Comparison of the Hydration Products of Commercial and Experimental Calcium Silicate Cement: The Preliminary Observational Study

Authors: Seok Woo Chang


Aim: The objective of this study was to compare and evaluate the hydration products of commercial and experimental calcium silicate cement. Materials and Methods: The commercial calcium silicate cement (ProRoot MTA, Dentsply) and experimental calcium silicate cement (n=10) were mixed with distilled water (water/powder ratio = 20 w/w) and stirred at room temperature for 10 hours. These mixtures were dispersed on wafer and dried for 12 hours at room temperature. Thereafter, the dried specimens were examined with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Electron Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) was also carried out. Results: The commercial calcium silicate cement (ProRoot MTA) and experimental calcium silicate cement both showed precipitation of rod-like and globule-like crystals. Based on EDS analysis, these precipitates were supposed to be calcium hydroxide or calcium silicate hydrates. The degree of formation of these precipitates was higher in commercial MTA. Conclusions: Based on the results, both commercial and experimental calcium silicate cement had ability to produce calcium hydroxide or calcium silicate hydrate precipitates.

Keywords: calcium silicate cement, ProRoot MTA, precipitation, calcium hydroxide, calcium silicate hydrate

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117 Characterization of Cement Mortar Based on Fine Quartz

Authors: K. Arroudj, M. Lanez, M. N. Oudjit


The introduction of siliceous mineral additions in cement production allows, in addition to the ecological and economic gain, improvement of concrete performance. This improvement is mainly due to the fixing of Portlandite, released during the hydration of cement, by fine siliceous, forming denser calcium silicate hydrates and therefore a more compact cementitious matrix. This research is part of the valuation of the Dune Sand (DS) in the cement industry in Algeria. The high silica content of DS motivated us to study its effect, at ground state, on the properties of mortars in fresh and hardened state. For this purpose, cement pastes and mortars based on ground dune sand (fine quartz) has been analyzed with a replacement to cement of 15%, 20% and 25%. This substitution has reduced the amount of heat of hydration and avoids any risk of initial cracking. In addition, the grinding of the dune sand provides amorphous thin populations adsorbed at the surface of the crystal particles of quartz. Which gives to ground quartz pozzolanic character. This character results an improvement of mechanical strength of mortar (66 MPa in the presence of 25% of ground quartz).

Keywords: mineralogical structure, pozzolanic reactivity, Quartz, mechanical strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
116 Combination of Standard Secondary Raw Materials and New Production Waste Materials in Green Concrete Technology

Authors: M. Tazky, R. Hela, P. Novosad, L. Osuska


This paper deals with the possibility of safe incorporation fluidised bed combustion fly ash (waste material) into cement matrix together with next commonly used secondary raw material, which is high-temperature fly ash. Both of these materials have a very high pozzolanic ability, and the right combination could bring important improvements in both the physico-mechanical properties and the better durability of a cement composite. This paper tries to determine the correct methodology for designing green concrete by using modern methods measuring rheology of fresh concrete and following hydration processes. The use of fluidised bed combustion fly ash in cement composite production as an admixture is not currently common, but there are some real possibilities for its potential. The most striking negative aspect is its chemical composition which supports the development of new product formation, influencing the durability of the composite. Another disadvantage is the morphology of grains, which have a negative effect on consistency. This raises the question of how this waste can be used in concrete production to emphasize its positive properties and eliminate negatives. The focal point of the experiment carried out on cement pastes was particularly on the progress of hydration processes, aiming for the possible acceleration of pozzolanic reactions of both types of fly ash.

Keywords: high temperature fly ash, fluidized bed combustion fly ash, pozzolan, CaO (calcium oxide), rheology

Procedia PDF Downloads 137