Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4420

Search results for: oxygen evolution reaction

4420 Composite Electrodes Containing Ni-Fe-Cr as an Activatable Oxygen Evolution Catalyst

Authors: Olga A. Krysiak, Grzegorz Cichowicz, Wojciech Hyk, Michal Cyranski, Jan Augustynski


Metal oxides are known electrocatalyst in water oxidation reaction. Due to the fact that it is desirable for efficient oxygen evolution catalyst to contain numerous redox-active metal ions to guard four electron water oxidation reaction, mixed metal oxides exhibit enhanced catalytic activity towards oxygen evolution reaction compared to single metal oxide systems. On the surface of fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass slide (FTO) deposited (doctor blade technique) mixed metal oxide layer composed of nickel, iron, and chromium. Oxide coating was acquired by heat treatment of the aqueous precursors' solutions of the corresponding salts. As-prepared electrodes were photosensitive and acted as an efficient oxygen evolution catalyst. Our results showed that obtained by this method electrodes can be activated which leads to achieving of higher current densities. The recorded current and photocurrent associated with oxygen evolution process were at least two orders of magnitude higher in the presence of oxide layer compared to bare FTO electrode. The overpotential of the process is low (ca. 0,2 V). We have also checked the activity of the catalyst at different known photoanodes used in sun-driven water splitting. Herein, we demonstrate that we were able to achieve efficient oxygen evolution catalysts using relatively cheap precursor consisting of earth abundant metals and simple method of preparation.

Keywords: chromium, electrocatalysis, iron, metal oxides, nickel, oxygen evolution

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4419 Highly Active, Non-Platinum Metal Catalyst Material as Bi-Functional Air Cathode in Zinc Air Battery

Authors: Thirupathi Thippani, Kothandaraman Ramanujam


Current research on energy storage has been paid to metal-air batteries, because of attractive alternate energy source for the future. Metal – air batteries have the probability to significantly increase the power density, decrease the cost of energy storage and also used for a long time due to its high energy density, low-level pollution, light weight. The performance of these batteries mostly restricted by the slow kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) on cathode during battery discharge and charge. The ORR and OER are conventionally carried out with precious metals (such as Pt) and metal oxides (such as RuO₂ and IrO₂) as catalysts separately. However, these metal-based catalysts are regularly undergoing some difficulties, including high cost, low selectivity, poor stability and unfavorable to environmental effects. So, in order to develop the active, stable, corrosion resistance and inexpensive bi-functional catalyst material is mandatory for the commercialization of zinc-air rechargeable battery technology. We have attempted and synthesized non-precious metal (NPM) catalysts comprising cobalt and N-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (N-MWCNTs-Co) were synthesized by the solid-state pyrolysis (SSP) of melamine with Co₃O₄. N-MWCNTs-Co acts as an excellent electrocatalyst for both the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), and hence can be used in secondary metal-air batteries and in unitized regenerative fuel cells. It is important to study the OER and ORR at high concentrations of KOH as most of the metal-air batteries employ KOH concentrations > 4M. In the first 16 cycles of the zinc-air battery while using N-MWCNTs-Co, 20 wt.% Pt/C or 20 wt.% IrO₂/C as air electrodes. In the ORR regime (the discharge profile of the zinc-air battery), the cell voltage exhibited by N-MWCNTs-Co was 44 and 83 mV higher (based on 5th cycle) in comparison to of 20 wt.% Pt/C and 20 wt.% IrO₂/C respectively. To demonstrate this promise, a zinc-air battery was assembled and tested at a current density of 0.5 Ag⁻¹ for charge-discharge 100 cycles.

Keywords: oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), oxygen evolution reaction(OER), non-platinum, zinc air battery

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4418 Conformal Noble Metal High-Entropy Alloy Nanofilms by Atomic Layer Deposition for Enhanced Hydrogen Evolution Reaction/Oxygen Evolution Reaction Electrocatalysis Applications

Authors: Jing Lin, Zou Yiming, Goei Ronn, Li Yun, Amanda Ong Jiamin, Alfred Tok Iing Yoong


High-entropy alloy (HEA) coatings comprise multiple (five or more) principal elements that give superior mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. However, the current synthesis methods of HEA coating still face huge challenges in facile and controllable preparation, as well as conformal integration, which seriously restricts their potential applications. Herein, we report a controllable synthesis of conformal quinary HEA coating consisting of noble metals (Rh, Ru, Ir, Pt, and Pd) by using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) with a post-annealing approach. This approach realizes low temperature (below 200 °C), precise control (nanoscale), and conformal synthesis (over complex substrates) of HEA coating. Furthermore, the resulting quinary HEA coating shows promising potential as a platform for catalysis, exhibiting substantially enhanced electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performances as compared to other noble metal-based structures such as single metal coating or multi-layered metal composites.

Keywords: high-entropy alloy, thin-film, catalysis, water splitting, atomic layer deposition

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4417 Structural Alteration of MoS₂ by Incorporating Fe, Co Composite for an Enhanced Oxygen Evolution Reaction

Authors: Krishnamoorthy Sathiyan, Shanti Gopal Patra, Ronen Bar-Ziv, Tomer Zidki


Developing efficient non-noble metal catalysts that are cheap and durable for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a great challenge. Moreover, altering the electronic structure of the catalyst and structural engineering of the materials provide a new direction for enhancing the OER. Herein, we have successfully synthesized Fe and Co incorporated MoS₂ catalysts, which show improved catalytic activity for OER when compared with MoS₂, Fe-MoS₂, and Co-MoS₂. It was found that at an optimal ratio of Fe and Co, the electronic and structural modification of MoS₂ occurs, which leads to change in orientation and thereby enhances the active catalytic sites on the edges, which are more exposed for OER. The nanocomposites have been well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Elemental Mapping, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) analysis. Among all, a particular ratio of FeCo-MoS₂ exhibits a much smaller onset with better catalytic current density. The remarkable catalytic activity is mainly attributed to the synergistic effect from the Fe and Co. Most importantly, our work provides an essential insight in altering the electronic structure of MoS₂ based materials by incorporating promoters such as Co and Fe in an optimal amount, which enhances OER activity.

Keywords: electrocatalysts, molybdenum disulfide, oxygen evolution reaction, transition metals

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4416 Efficient Oxygen Evolution and Gas Bubble Release by a Low-Bubble-Adhesion Iron-Nickel Vanadate Electrocatalyst

Authors: Kamran Dastafkan, Chuan Zhao


Improving surface chemistry is a promising approach in addition to the rational alteration in the catalyst composition to advance water electrolysis. Here, we demonstrate an evident enhancement of oxygen evolution on an iron-nickel vanadate catalyst synthesized by a facile successive ionic adsorption and reaction method. The vanadate-modified catalyst demonstrates a highly efficient oxygen evolution in 1 M KOH by requiring low overpotentials of 274 and 310 mV for delivering large current densities of 100 and 400 mA cm⁻², respectively where vigorous gas bubble evolution occurs. Vanadate modification augments the OER activity from three aspects. (i) Both the electrochemical surface area (47.1 cm²) and intrinsic activity (318 mV to deliver 10 mA cm⁻² per unit ECSA) of the catalytic sites are improved. (ii) The amorphous and roughened nanoparticle-comprised catalyst film exhibits a high surface wettability and a low-gas bubble-adhesion, which is beneficial for the accelerated mass transport and gas bubble dissipation at large current densities. The gas bubble dissipation behavior is studied by operando dynamic specific resistance measurements where a significant change in the variation of the interfacial resistance during the OER is detected for the vanadate-modified catalyst. (iii) The introduced vanadate poly-oxo-anions with high charge density have electronic interplay with Fe and Ni catalytic centers. Raman study reveals the structural evolution of β-NiOOH and γ-FeOOH phases during the OER through the vanadate-active site synergistic interactions. Achievement of a high catalytic turnover of 0.12 s⁻¹ put the developed FeNi vanadate among the best recent catalysts for water oxidation.

Keywords: gas bubble dissipation, iron-nickel vanadate, low-gas bubble-adhesion catalyst, oxygen evolution reaction

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4415 Co₂Fe LDH on Aromatic Acid Functionalized N Doped Graphene: Hybrid Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Evolution Reaction

Authors: Biswaranjan D. Mohapatra, Ipsha Hota, Swarna P. Mantry, Nibedita Behera, Kumar S. K. Varadwaj


Designing highly active and low-cost oxygen evolution (2H₂O → 4H⁺ + 4e⁻ + O₂) electrocatalyst is one of the most active areas of advanced energy research. Some precious metal-based electrocatalysts, such as IrO₂ and RuO₂, have shown excellent performance for oxygen evolution reaction (OER); however, they suffer from high-cost and low abundance which limits their applications. Recently, layered double hydroxides (LDHs), composed of layers of divalent and trivalent transition metal cations coordinated to hydroxide anions, have gathered attention as an alternative OER catalyst. However, LDHs are insulators and coupled with carbon materials for the electrocatalytic applications. Graphene covalently doped with nitrogen has been demonstrated to be an excellent electrocatalyst for energy conversion technologies such as; oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), oxygen evolution reaction (OER) & hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, they operate at high overpotentials, significantly above the thermodynamic standard potentials. Recently, we reported remarkably enhanced catalytic activity of benzoate or 1-pyrenebutyrate functionalized N-doped graphene towards the ORR in alkaline medium. The molecular and heteroatom co-doping on graphene is expected to tune the electronic structure of graphene. Therefore, an innovative catalyst architecture, in which LDHs are anchored on aromatic acid functionalized ‘N’ doped graphene may presumably boost the OER activity to a new benchmark. Herein, we report fabrication of Co₂Fe-LDH on aromatic acid (AA) functionalized ‘N’ doped reduced graphene oxide (NG) and studied their OER activities in alkaline medium. In the first step, a novel polyol method is applied for synthesis of AA functionalized NG, which is well dispersed in aqueous medium. In the second step, Co₂Fe LDH were grown on AA functionalized NG by co-precipitation method. The hybrid samples are abbreviated as Co₂Fe LDH/AA-NG, where AA is either Benzoic acid or 1, 3-Benzene dicarboxylic acid (BDA) or 1, 3, 5 Benzene tricarboxylic acid (BTA). The crystal structure and morphology of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). These studies confirmed the growth of layered single phase LDH. The electrocatalytic OER activity of these hybrid materials was investigated by rotating disc electrode (RDE) technique on a glassy carbon electrode. The linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) on these catalyst samples were taken at 1600rpm. We observed significant OER performance enhancement in terms of onset potential and current density on Co₂Fe LDH/BTA-NG hybrid, indicating the synergic effect. This exploration of molecular functionalization effect in doped graphene and LDH system may provide an excellent platform for innovative design of OER catalysts.

Keywords: π-π functionalization, layered double hydroxide, oxygen evolution reaction, reduced graphene oxide

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4414 Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of RuO2-TiO2 Electrodes with Improved Chlorine and Oxygen Evolutions

Authors: Tran Le Luu, Jeyong Yoon


RuO2-TiO2 electrode now becomes popular in the chlor-alkali industry because of high electrocatalytic and stability with chlorine and oxygen evolutions. Using alternative green method for preparation RuO2-TiO2 electrode is necessary to reduce the cost, time. In addition, it is needed to increase the electrocatalyst performance, stability, and environmental compatibility. In this study, the Ti/RuO2-TiO2 electrodes were synthesized using sol-gel method under microwave irradiation and investigated for the anodic chlorine and oxygen evolutions. This method produced small size and uniform distribution of RuO2-TiO2 nanoparticles with mean diameter of 8-10 nm on the big crack size surface which contributes for the increasing of the outer active surface area. The chlorine, oxygen evolution efficiency and stability comparisons show considerably higher for microwave-assisted coated electrodes than for those obtained by the conventional heating method. The microwave-assisted sol-gel route has been identified as a novel and powerful method for quick synthesis of RuO2–TiO2 electrodes with excellent chlorine and oxygen evolution performances.

Keywords: RuO2, electro-catalyst, sol-gel, microwave, chlorine, oxygen evolution

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4413 NiSe-Ni₃Se₂/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes as Efficient Electrocatalysts for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Alkaline Media

Authors: Oluwaseun A. Oyetade, Roelof J. Kriek


The development of effective catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is of great importance to combat energy-related concerns in the environment. Herein, we report a one-step solvothermal method employed for the fabrication of nickel selenide hybrids (NiSe-Ni₃Se₂) and a series of nickel selenide hybrid/multiwalled carbon nanotube composites (NiSe-Ni₃Se₂/MWCNT) as electrocatalysts for OER in alkaline media. The catalytic activities of these catalysts were investigated via several electrochemical characterization techniques, such as linear sweep voltammetry, chronoamperometric studies at constant potential, electrochemical surface area determination, and Tafel slope calculation, under alkaline conditions. Morphological observations demonstrated the agglomeration of non-uniform NiSe-Ni₃Se₂ microspheres around carbon nanotubes (CNTs), demonstrating the successful synthesis of NiSe-Ni₃Se₂/MWCNT nanocomposites. Among the tested electrocatalysts, the 20% NiSe-Ni₃Se₂/MWCNT nanocomposite demonstrated the highest activity, exhibiting an overpotential of 325 mV to achieve a current density of 10⁻² in 0.1⁻³ KOH solution. The NiSe-Ni₃Se₂/MWCNT nanocomposites showed improved activity toward OER compared to bare NiSe-Ni₃Se₂ hybrids and MWCNTs, exhibiting an overpotential of 528, 392 and 434 mV for 10%, 30% and 50% NiSe-Ni₃Se₂/MWCNT nanocomposites, respectively. These results compare favourably to the overpotential of noble catalysts, such as RuO₂ and IrO₂. Our results imply that the addition of MWCNTs increased the activity of NiSe-Ni₃Se₂ hybrids due to an increased number of catalytic sites, dispersion of NiSe-Ni₃Se₂ hybrid nanoparticles, and electronic conductivity of the nanocomposites. These nanocomposites also demonstrated better long-term stability compared to NiSe-Ni₃Se₂ hybrids and MWCNTs. Hence, NiSe-Ni₃Se₂/MWCNT nanocomposites possess the potential as effective electrocatalysts for OER in alkaline media.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, electrocatalysts, nanocomposites, nickel selenide hybrids, oxygen evolution reaction

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4412 Competitive Coordination Strategy Towards Reversible Hybrid Hetero-Homogeneous Oxygen-Evolving Catalyst

Authors: Peikun Zhang, Chunhua Cui


Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting provides a promising pathway to convert solar energy into renewable fuels. However, the main and seemingly insurmountable obstacle is that the sluggish kinetics of oxygen evolution reaction (OER) severely jeopardizes the overall efficiency, thus exploring highly active, stable, and appreciable catalysts is urgently requested. Herein a competitive coordination strategy was demonstrated to form a reversible hybrid homo-heterogeneous catalyst for efficient OER in alkaline media. The dynamic process involves an in-situ anchoring of soluble nickel–bipyridine pre-catalyst to a conductive substrate under OER and a re-dissolution course under open circuit potential, induced by the competitive coordination between nickel–bipyridine and nickel-hydroxyls. This catalyst allows to elaborately self-modulate a charge-transfer layer thickness upon the catalytic on-off operation, which affords substantially increased active sites, yet remains light transparency, and sustains the stability of over 200 hours of continuous operation. The integration of this catalyst with exemplified state-of-the-art Ni-sputtered Si photoanode can facilitate a ~250 mV cathodic shift at a current density of 20 mA cm-2. This finding helps the understanding of catalyst from a “dynamic” perspective, which represents a viable alternative to address remaining hurdles toward solar-driven water oxidation.

Keywords: molecular catalyst, oxygen evolution reaction, solar energy, transition metal complex, water splitting

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4411 Ni-W alloy Coatings: A Promising Electrode Material

Authors: Mr. Liju Elias, A. Chitharanjan Hegde


Ni-W alloy coatings have been developed galvanostatically on copper substrate from tri-sodium citrate bath, using glycerol as the additive. The deposition conditions for production of Ni-W coatings have been optimized for peak performance of their electrocatalytic activity, namely hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The corrosion behavior of the coatings were tested under working conditions of electrocatalysis (1M KOH). Electrocatalytic behaviours were tested by cyclic voltammetry and chrono-potentiometry techniques. Experimental results demonstrated that Ni-W coatings at low and high current densities (c. d.) showing superior performance for OER and HER respectively. The increased electrocatalytic activity for HER with increase of deposition c. d. was attributed to the phase structure, surface morphology and chemical composition of the coatings, confirmed by XRD, SEM and EDX analysis, respectively. The dependency of hardness and thickness of the coatings on HER and OER were examined, and results were discussed.

Keywords: electrocatalytic behavior, HER, Ni-W alloy, OER

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4410 Oxidation and Reduction Kinetics of Ni-Based Oxygen Carrier for Chemical Looping Combustion

Authors: J. H. Park, R. H. Hwang, K. B. Yi


Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is one of the important technology to reduce the CO₂ emission from large stationary sources such as a power plant. Among the carbon technologies for power plants, chemical looping combustion (CLC) has attracted much attention due to a higher thermal efficiency and a lower cost of electricity. A CLC process is consists of a fuel reactor and an air reactor which are interconnected fluidized bed reactor. In the fuel reactor, an oxygen carrier (OC) is reduced by fuel gas such as CH₄, H₂, CO. And the OC is send to air reactor and oxidized by air or O₂ gas. The oxidation and reduction reaction of OC occurs between the two reactors repeatedly. In the CLC system, high concentration of CO₂ can be easily obtained by steam condensation only from the fuel reactor. It is very important to understand the oxidation and reduction characteristics of oxygen carrier in the CLC system to determine the solids circulation rate between the air and fuel reactors, and the amount of solid bed materials. In this study, we have conducted the experiment and interpreted oxidation and reduction reaction characteristics via observing weight change of Ni-based oxygen carrier using the TGA with varying as concentration and temperature. Characterizations of the oxygen carrier were carried out with BET, SEM. The reaction rate increased with increasing the temperature and increasing the inlet gas concentration. We also compared experimental results and adapted basic reaction kinetic model (JMA model). JAM model is one of the nucleation and nuclei growth models, and this model can explain the delay time at the early part of reaction. As a result, the model data and experimental data agree over the arranged conversion and time with overall variance (R²) greater than 98%. Also, we calculated activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and reaction order through the Arrhenius plot and compared with previous Ni-based oxygen carriers.

Keywords: chemical looping combustion, kinetic, nickel-based, oxygen carrier, spray drying method

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4409 Porous Carbon Nanoparticels Co-Doped with Nitrogen and Iron as an Efficient Catalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

Authors: Bita Bayatsarmadi, Shi-Zhang Qiao


Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performance of iron and nitrogen co-doped porous carbon nanoparticles (Fe-NPC) with various physical and (electro) chemical properties have been investigated. Fe-NPC nanoparticles are synthesized via a facile soft-templating procedure by using Iron (III) chloride hexa-hydrate as iron precursor and aminophenol-formaldehyde resin as both carbon and nitrogen precursor. Fe-NPC nanoparticles shows high surface area (443.83 m2g-1), high pore volume (0.52 m3g-1), narrow mesopore size distribution (ca. 3.8 nm), high conductivity (IG/ID=1.04), high kinetic limiting current (11.71 mAcm-2) and more positive onset potential (-0.106 V) compared to metal-free NPC nanoparticles (-0.295V) which make it high efficient ORR metal-free catalysts in alkaline solution. This study may pave the way of feasibly designing iron and nitrogen containing carbon materials (Fe-N-C) for highly efficient oxygen reduction electro-catalysis.

Keywords: electro-catalyst, mesopore structure, oxygen reduction reaction, soft-template

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4408 Controlling the Fluid Flow in Hydrogen Fuel Cells through Material Porosity Designs

Authors: Jamal Hussain Al-Smail


Hydrogen fuel cells (HFCs) are environmentally friendly, energy converter devices that convert the chemical energy of the reactants (oxygen and hydrogen) to electricity through electrochemical reactions. The level of the electricity production of HFCs mainly increases depending on the oxygen distribution in the HFC’s cathode gas diffusion layer (GDL). With a constant porosity of the GDL, the electrochemical reaction can have a great variation that reduces the cell’s productivity and stability. Our findings bring a methodology in finding porosity designs of the diffusion layer to improve the oxygen distribution such that it results in a stable oxygen-hydrogen reaction. We first introduce a mathematical model involving the mass and momentum transport equations, in which a porosity function of the GDL is incorporated as a control for the fluid flow. We then derive numerical methods for solving the mathematical model. In conclusion, we present our numerical results to show how to design the GDL porosity to result in a uniform oxygen distribution.

Keywords: fuel cells, material porosity design, mathematical modeling, porous media

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4407 Effect of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration on Iron Dissolution by Liquid Sodium

Authors: Sami Meddeb, M. L Giorgi, J. L. Courouau


This work presents the progress of studies aiming to guarantee the lifetime of 316L(N) steel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor by determining the elementary corrosion mechanism, which is akin to an accelerated dissolution by dissolved oxygen. The mechanism involving iron, the main element of steel, is particularly studied in detail, from the viewpoint of the data available in the literature, the modeling of the various mechanisms hypothesized. Experiments performed in the CORRONa facility at controlled temperature and dissolved oxygen content are used to test both literature data and hypotheses. Current tests, performed at various temperatures and oxygen content, focus on specifying the chemical reaction at play, determining its free enthalpy, as well as kinetics rate constants. Specific test configuration allows measuring the reaction kinetics and the chemical equilibrium state in the same test. In the current state of progress of these tests, the dissolution of iron accelerated by dissolved oxygen appears as directly related to a chemical complexation reaction of mixed iron-sodium oxide (Na-Fe-O), a compound that is soluble in the liquid sodium solution. Results obtained demonstrate the presence in the solution of this corrosion product, whose kinetics is the limiting step under the conditions of the test. This compound, the object of hypotheses dating back more than 50 years, is predominant in solution compared to atomic iron, presumably even for the low oxygen concentration, and cannot be neglected for the long-term corrosion modeling of any heat transfer system.

Keywords: corrosion, sodium fast reactors, iron, oxygen

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4406 Enhanced Oxygen Reduction Reaction by N-Doped Mesoporous Carbon Nanospheres

Authors: Bita Bayatsarmadi, Shi-Zhang Qiao


The development of ordered mesoporous carbon materials with controllable structures and improved physicochemical properties by doping heteroatoms such as nitrogen into the carbon framework has attracted a lot of attention, especially in relation to energy storage and conversion. Herein, a series of Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon spheres (NMC) was synthesized via a facile dual soft-templating procedure by tuning the nitrogen content and carbonization temperature. Various physical and (electro) chemical properties of the NMCs have been comprehensively investigated to pave the way for feasible design of nitrogen-containing porous carbon materials. The optimized sample showed a favorable electrocatalytic activity as evidenced by high kinetic current and positive onset potential for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) due to its large surface area, high pore volume, good conductivity and high nitrogen content, which make it as a highly efficient ORR metal-free catalyst in alkaline solutions.

Keywords: porous carbon, N-doping, oxygen reduction reaction, soft-template

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4405 One-Pot Facile Synthesis of N-Doped Graphene Synthesized from Paraphenylenediamine as Metal-Free Catalysts for the Oxygen Reduction Used for Alkaline Fuel Cells

Authors: Leila Samiee, Amir Yadegari, Saeedeh Tasharrofi


In the work presented here, nitrogen-doped graphene materials were synthesized and used as metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) under alkaline conditions. Paraphenylenediamine was used as N precursor. The N-doped graphene was synthesized under hydrothermal treatment at 200°C. All the materials have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, for electrochemical evaluation of samples, Rotating Disk electrode (RDE) and Cyclic Voltammetry techniques (CV) were employed. The resulting material exhibits an outstanding catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as well as excellent resistance towards methanol crossover effects, indicating their promising potential as ORR electrocatalysts for alkaline fuel cells.

Keywords: alkaline fuel cell, graphene, metal-free catalyst, paraphenylen diamine

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4404 Effect of Gas-Diffusion Oxynitriding on Microstructure and Hardness of Ti-6Al-4V Alloys

Authors: Dong Bok Lee, Min Jung Kim


The commercially available titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, was oxynitrided in the deoxygenated nitrogen gas at high temperatures followed by cooling in oxygen-containing nitrogen in order to analyze the influence of oxynitriding parameters on the phase modification, hardness, and the microstructural evolution of the oxynitrided coating. The surface microhardness of the oxynitrided alloy increased due to the strengthening effect of the formed titanium oxynitrides, TiNxOy. The maximum microhardness was obtained, when TiNxOy had near equiatomic composition of nitrogen and oxygen. It could be attained under the optimum oxygen partial pressure and temperature-time condition.

Keywords: titanium alloy, oxynitriding, gas diffusion, surface treatment

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4403 CFD Analysis of Multi-Phase Reacting Transport Phenomena in Discharge Process of Non-Aqueous Lithium-Air Battery

Authors: Jinliang Yuan, Jong-Sung Yu, Bengt Sundén


A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed for rechargeable non-aqueous electrolyte lithium-air batteries with a partial opening for oxygen supply to the cathode. Multi-phase transport phenomena occurred in the battery are considered, including dissolved lithium ions and oxygen gas in the liquid electrolyte, solid-phase electron transfer in the porous functional materials and liquid-phase charge transport in the electrolyte. These transport processes are coupled with the electrochemical reactions at the active surfaces, and effects of discharge reaction-generated solid Li2O2 on the transport properties and the electrochemical reaction rate are evaluated and implemented in the model. The predicted results are discussed and analyzed in terms of the spatial and transient distribution of various parameters, such as local oxygen concentration, reaction rate, variable solid Li2O2 volume fraction and porosity, as well as the effective diffusion coefficients. It is found that the effect of the solid Li2O2 product deposited at the solid active surfaces is significant on the transport phenomena and the overall battery performance.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), modeling, multi-phase, transport phenomena, lithium-air battery

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4402 Theoretical Study of Acetylation of P-Methylaniline Catalyzed by Cu²⁺ Ions

Authors: Silvana Caglieri


Theoretical study of acetylation of p-methylaniline catalyzed by Cu2+ ions from the analysis of intermediate of the reaction was carried out. The study of acetylation of amines is of great interest by the utility of its products of reaction and is one of the most frequently used transformations in organic synthesis as it provides an efficient and inexpensive means for protecting amino groups in a multistep synthetic process. Acetylation of amine is a nucleophilic substitution reaction. This reaction can be catalyzed by Lewis acid, metallic ion. In reaction mechanism, the metallic ion formed a complex with the oxygen of the acetic anhydride carbonyl, facilitating the polarization of the same and the successive addition of amine at the position to form a tetrahedral intermediate, determining step of the rate of the reaction. Experimental work agreed that this reaction takes place with the formation of a tetrahedral intermediate. In the present theoretical work were investigated the structure and energy of the tetrahedral intermediate of the reaction catalyzed by Cu2+ ions. Geometries of all species involved in the acetylation were made and identified. All of the geometry optimizations were performed by the method at the DFT/B3LYP level of theory and the method MP2. Were adopted the 6-31+G* basis sets. Energies were calculated using the Mechanics-UFF method. Following the same procedure it was identified the geometric parameters and energy of reaction intermediate. The calculations show 61.35 kcal/mol of energy for the tetrahedral intermediate and the energy of activation for the reaction was 15.55 kcal/mol.

Keywords: amides, amines, DFT, MP2

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4401 In-situ Oxygen Enrichment for UCG

Authors: Adesola O. Orimoloye, Edward Gobina


Membrane separation technology is still considered as an emerging technology in the mining sector and does not yet have the widespread acceptance that it has in other industrial sectors. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG), wherein coal is converted to gas in-situ, is a safer alternative to mining method that retains all pollutants underground making the process environmentally friendly. In-situ combustion of coal for power generation allows access to more of the physical global coal resource than would be included in current economically recoverable reserve estimates. Where mining is no longer taking place, for economic or geological reasons, controlled gasification permits exploitation of the deposit (again a reaction of coal to form a synthesis gas) of coal seams in situ. The oxygen supply stage is one of the most expensive parts of any gasification project but the use of membranes is a potentially attractive approach for producing oxygen-enriched air. In this study, a variety of cost-effective membrane materials that gives an optimal amount of oxygen concentrations in the range of interest was designed and tested at diverse operating conditions. Oxygen-enriched atmosphere improves the combustion temperature but a decline is observed if oxygen concentration exceeds optimum. Experimental result also reveals the preparatory method, apparatus and performance of the fabricated membrane.

Keywords: membranes, oxygen-enrichment, gasification, coal

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4400 Improved Performance of Mn Substituted Ceria Nanospheres for Water Gas Shift Reaction: Influence of Preparation Conditions

Authors: Bhairi Lakshminarayana, Surajit Sarker, Ch. Subrahmanyam


The present study reports the development of noble metal free nano catalysts for low-temperature CO oxidation and water gas shift reaction. Mn-substituted CeO2 solid solution catalysts were synthesized by co-precipitation, combustion and hydrothermal methods. The formation of solid solution was confirmed by XRD with Rietveld refinement and the percentage of carbon and nitrogen doping was ensured by CHNS analyzer. Raman spectroscopic confirmed the oxygen vacancies. The surface area, pore volume and pore size distribution confirmed by N2 physisorption analysis, whereas, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and XPS data confirmed the oxidation state of the Mn ion. The particle size and morphology (spherical shape) of the material was confirmed using FESEM and HRTEM analysis. Ce0.8Mn0.2O2-δ was calcined at 400 °C, 600 °C and 800 °C. Raman spectroscopy confirmed that the catalyst calcined at 400 °C has the best redox properties. The activity of the designed catalysts for CO oxidation (0.2 vol%), carried out with GHSV of 21,000 h-1 and it has been observed that co-precipitation favored the best active catalyst towards CO oxidation and water gas shift reaction, due to the high surface area, improved reducibility, oxygen mobility and highest quantity of surface oxygen species. The activation energy of low temperature CO oxidation on Ce0.8Mn0.2O2- δ (combustion) was 5.5 kcal.K-1.mole-1. The designed catalysts were tested for water gas shift reaction. The present study demonstrates that Mn ion substituted ceria at 400 °C calcination temperature prepared by co-precipitation method promise to revive a green sustainable energy production approach.

Keywords: Ce0.8Mn0.2O2-ð, CO oxidation, physicochemical characterization, water gas shift reaction (WGS)

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4399 In-situ Oxygen Enrichment for Underground Coal Gasification

Authors: Adesola O. Orimoloye, Edward Gobina


Membrane separation technology is still considered as an emerging technology in the mining sector and does not yet have the widespread acceptance that it has in other industrial sectors. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG), wherein coal is converted to gas in-situ, is a safer alternative to mining method that retains all pollutants underground making the process environmentally friendly. In-situ combustion of coal for power generation allows access to more of the physical global coal resource than would be included in current economically recoverable reserve estimates. Where mining is no longer taking place, for economic or geological reasons, controlled gasification permits exploitation of the deposit (again a reaction of coal to form a synthesis gas) of coal seams in situ. The oxygen supply stage is one of the most expensive parts of any gasification project but the use of membranes is a potentially attractive approach for producing oxygen-enriched air. In this study, a variety of cost-effective membrane materials that gives an optimal amount of oxygen concentrations in the range of interest was designed and tested at diverse operating conditions. Oxygen-enriched atmosphere improves the combustion temperature but a decline is observed if oxygen concentration exceeds optimum. Experimental result also reveals the preparatory method, apparatus and performance of the fabricated membrane.

Keywords: membranes, oxygen-enrichment, gasification, coal

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4398 MnO₂-Carbon Nanotubes Catalyst for Enhanced Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell

Authors: Abidullah, Basharat Hussain, Jong Seok Kim


Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is an electrochemical cell, which undergoes an oxygen reduction reaction to produce electrical energy. Platinum (Pt) metal has been used as a catalyst since its inception, but expensiveness is the major obstacle in the commercialization of fuel cells. Herein a non-precious group metal (NPGM) is employed instead of Pt to reduce the cost of PEMFCs. Manganese dioxide impregnated carbon nanotubes (MnO₂-CNTs composite) is a catalyst having excellent electrochemical properties and offers a better alternative to the Platinum-based PEMFC. The catalyst is synthesized by impregnating the transition metal on large surface carbonaceous CNTs by hydrothermal synthesis techniques. To enhance the catalytic activity and increase the volumetric current density, the sample was pyrolyzed at 800ᵒC under a nitrogen atmosphere. During pyrolysis, the nitrogen was doped in the framework of CNTs. Then the material was treated with acid for removing the unreacted metals and adding oxygen functional group to the CNT framework. This process ameliorates the catalytic activity of the manganese-based catalyst. The catalyst has been characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the catalyst activity has been examined by rotating disc electrode (RDE) experiment. The catalyst was strong enough to withstand an austere alkaline environment in experimental conditions and had a high electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV) depicts an excellent current density of -4.0 mA/cm² and an overpotential of -0.3V vs. standard calomel electrode (SCE) in 0.1M KOH electrolyte. Rotating disk electrode (RDE) was conducted at 400, 800, 1200, and 1600 rpm. The catalyst exhibited a higher methanol tolerance and long term durability with respect to commercial Pt/C. The results for MnO₂-CNT show that the low-cost catalyst will supplant the expensive Pt/C catalyst in the fuel cell.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, methanol fuel cell, oxygen reduction reaction, MnO₂-CNTs

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4397 Modeling of Processes Running in Radical Clusters Formed by Ionizing Radiation with the Help of Continuous Petri Nets and Oxygen Effect

Authors: J. Barilla, M. Lokajíček, H. Pisaková, P. Simr


The final biological effect of ionizing particles may be influenced strongly by some chemical substances present in cells mainly in the case of low-LET radiation. The influence of oxygen may be particularly important because oxygen is always present in living cells. The corresponding processes are then running mainly in the chemical stage of radio biological mechanism. The radical clusters formed by densely ionizing ends of primary or secondary charged particles are mainly responsible for final biological effect. The damage effect depends then on radical concentration at a time when the cluster meets a DNA molecule. It may be strongly influenced by oxygen present in a cell as oxygen may act in different directions: at small concentration of it the interaction with hydrogen radicals prevails while at higher concentrations additional efficient oxygen radicals may be formed. The basic radical concentration in individual clusters diminishes, which is influenced by two parallel processes: chemical reactions and diffusion of corresponding clusters. The given simultaneous evolution may be modeled and analyzed well with the help of Continuous Petri nets. The influence of other substances present in cells during irradiation may be studied, too. Some results concerning the impact of oxygen content will be presented.

Keywords: radiobiological mechanism, chemical phase, DSB formation, Petri nets

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4396 Theoretical Study of the Mechanism of the Oxidation of Linoleic Acid by 1O2

Authors: Rayenne Djemil


The mechanism of oxidation reaction of linoleic acid C18: 2 (9 cis12) by singlet oxygen 1O2 were theoretically investigated via using quantum chemical methods. We explored the four reaction pathways at PM3, Hartree-Fock HF and, B3LYP functional associated with the base 6-31G (d) level. The results are in favor of the first and the last reaction ways. The transition states were found by QST3 method. Thus the pathways between the transition state structures and their corresponding minima have been identified by the IRC calculations. The thermodynamic study showed that the four ways of oxidation of linoleic acid are spontaneous, exothermic and, the enthalpy values confirm that conjugate hydroperoxydes are the most favorable products.

Keywords: echanism, quantum mechanics, oxidation, linoleic acid H

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4395 One Step Synthesis of Molybdenum Carbide Nanoparticles for Efficient Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

Authors: Sanjay Upadhyay, Om Prakash Pandey


Hydrogen has been promoted as an alternative source of energy, which is renewable, cost-effective, and nature-friendly. Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) can be used for mass production of hydrogen at a very low cost through electrochemical water splitting. An active and efficient electrocatalyst is required to perform this reaction. Till date, platinum (Pt) is a stable and efficient electrocatalyst towards HER. But its high cost and low abundance hiders its large scale uses. Molybdenum carbide having a similar electronic structure to platinum can be a great alternative to costly platinum. In this study, pure phase molybdenum carbide (Mo₂C) has been synthesized in a single step. Synthesis temperature and holding time have been optimized to obtain pure phases of Mo₂C. The surface, structural and morphological properties of as-synthesized compounds have been studied. The HER activity of as-synthesized compounds has been explored in detail.

Keywords: capacitance, hydrogen fuel, molybdenum carbide, nanoparticles

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4394 Role of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Management of Diabetic Foot

Authors: Magdy Al Shourbagi


Diabetes mellitus is the commonest cause of neuropathy. The common pattern is a distal symmetrical sensory polyneuropathy, associated with autonomic disturbances. Less often, Diabetes mellitus is responsible for a focal or multifocal neuropathy. Common causes for non-healing of diabetic foot are the infection and ischemia. Diabetes mellitus is associated with a defective cellular and humoral immunity. Particularly, decreased phagocytosis, decreased chemotaxis, impaired bacterial killing and abnormal lymphocytic function resulting in a reduced inflammatory reaction and defective wound healing. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is defined by the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society as a treatment in which a patient intermittently breathes 100% oxygen and the treatment chamber is pressurized to a pressure greater than sea level (1 atmosphere absolute). The pressure increase may be applied in mono-place (single person) or multi-place chambers. Multi-place chambers are pressurized with air, with oxygen given via face mask or endotracheal tube; while mono-place chambers are pressurized with oxygen. Oxygen gas plays an important role in the physiology of wound healing. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy can raise tissue oxygen tensions to levels where wound healing can be expected. HBOT increases the killing ability of leucocytes also it is lethal for certain anaerobic bacteria and inhibits toxin formation in many other anaerobes. Multiple anecdotal reports and studies in HBO therapy in diabetic patients report that HBO can be an effective adjunct therapy in the management of diabetic foot wounds and is associated with better functional outcomes.

Keywords: hyperbari oxygen therapy, diabetic foot, neuropathy, multiplace chambers

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4393 Synthesis and Functionalization of Gold Nanostars for ROS Production

Authors: H. D. Duong, J. I. Rhee


In this work, gold nanoparticles in star shape (called gold nanostars, GNS) were synthesized and coated by N-(3-aminopropyl) methacrylamide hydrochloride (PA) and mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) for functionalizing their surface by amine and carboxyl groups and then investigated for ROS production. The GNS with big size and multi-tips seem to be superior in singlet oxygen production as compared with that of small GNS and less tips. However, the functioned GNS in small size could also enhance efficiency of singlet oxygen production about double as compared with that of the intact GNS. In combination with methylene blue (MB+), the functioned GNS could enhance the singlet oxygen production of MB+ after 1h of LED750 irradiation and no difference between small size and big size in this reaction was observed. In combination with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), only GNS coated PA could enhance the singlet oxygen production of ALA and the small size of GNS coated PA was a little higher effect than that of the bigger size. However, GNS coated MPA with small size had strong effect on hydroxyl radical production of ALA.

Keywords: 5-aminolevulinic acid, gold nanostars, methylene blue, ROS production

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4392 Insight into the Electrocatalytic Activities of Nitrogen-Doped Graphyne and Graphdiyne Families: A First-Principles Study

Authors: Bikram K. Das, Kalyan K. Chattopadhyay


The advent of 2-D materials in the last decade has induced a fresh spur of growth in fuel cell technology as these materials have some highly promising traits that can be exploited to felicitate Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) in an efficient way. Among the various 2-D carbon materials, graphyne (Gy) and graphdiyne (Gdy)1 with their intrinsic non-uniform charge distribution holds promises in this purpose and it is expected2 that substitutional Nitrogen (N) doping could further enhance their efficiency. In this regard, dispersive force corrected density functional theory is used to map the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) kinetics of five different kinds of N doped graphyne and graphdiyne systems (namely αGy, βGy, γGy, RGy and 6,6,12Gy and Gdy) in alkaline medium. The best doping site for each of the Gy/ Gdy system is determined comparing the formation energies of the possible doping configurations. Similarly, the best di-oxygen (O₂) adsorption sites for the doped systems are identified by comparing the adsorption energies. O₂ adsorption on all N doped Gy/ Gdy systems is found to be energetically favorable. ORR on a catalyst surface may occur either via the Eley-Rideal (ER) or the Langmuir–Hinschelwood (LH) pathway. Systematic studies performed on the considered systems reveal that all of them favor the ER pathway. Further, depending on the nature of di-oxygen adsorption ORR can follow either associative or dissociative mechanism; the possibility of occurrence of both the mechanisms is tested thoroughly for each N doped Gy/ Gdy. For the ORR process, all the Gy/Gdy systems are observed to prefer the efficient four-electron pathway but the expected monotonically exothermic reaction pathway is found only for N doped 6,6,12Gy and RGy following the associative pathway and for N doped βGy, γGy and Gdy following the dissociative pathway. Further computation performed for these systems reveals that for N doped 6,6,12Gy, RGy, βGy, γGy and Gdy the overpotentials are 1.08 V, 0.94 V, 1.17 V, 1.21 V and 1.04 V respectively depicting N doped RGy is the most promising material, to carry out ORR in alkaline medium, among the considered ones. The stability of the ORR intermediate states with the variation of pH and electrode potentials is further explored with Pourbiax diagrams and the activities of these systems in the alkaline medium are compared with the prior reported B/N doped identical systems for ORR in an acidic medium in terms of a common descriptor.

Keywords: graphdiyne, graphyne, nitrogen-doped, ORR

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4391 Visible-Light-Driven OVs-BiOCl Nanoplates with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity toward NO Oxidation

Authors: Jiazhen Liao, Xiaolan Zeng


A series of BiOCl nanoplates with different oxygen vacancies (OVs) concentrations were successfully synthesized via a facile solvothermal method. The concentration of OVs of BiOCl can be tuned by the ratios of water/ethylene glycol. Such nanoplates containing oxygen vacancies served as an efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst for NO oxidation. Compared with pure BiOCl, the enhanced photocatalytic performance was mainly attributed to the introduction of OVs, which greatly enhanced light absorption, promoted electron transfer, activated oxygen molecules. The present work could provide insights into the understanding of the role of OVs in photocatalysts for reference. Combined with characterization analysis, such as XRD(X-ray diffraction), XPS(X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), TEM(Transmission Electron Microscopy), PL(Fluorescence Spectroscopy), and DFT (Density Functional Theory) calculations, the effect of vacancies on photoelectrochemical properties of BiOCl photocatalysts are shown. Furthermore, the possible reaction mechanisms of photocatalytic NO oxidation were also revealed. According to the results of in situ DRIFTS ( Diffused Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy), various intermediates were produced during different time intervals of NO photodegradation. The possible pathways are summarized below. First, visible light irradiation induces electron-hole pairs on the surface of OV-BOC (BiOCl with oxygen vacancies). Second, photogenerated electrons form superoxide radical with the contacted oxygen. Then, the NO molecules adsorbed on the surface of OV-BOC are attacked by superoxide radical and form nitrate instead of NO₂ (by-products). Oxygen vacancies greatly improve the photocatalytic oxidation activity of NO and effectively inhibit the production of harmful by-products during the oxidation of NO.

Keywords: OVs-BiOCl nanoplate, oxygen vacancies, NO oxidation, photocatalysis

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