Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: lignite

19 Pyrolysis of Dursunbey Lignite and Pyrolysis Kinetics

Authors: H. Sütçü, C. Efe

Abstract:

In this study, pyrolysis characteristics of Dursunbey-Balıkesir lignite and its pyrolysis kinetics are examined. The pyrolysis experiments carried out at three different heating rates are performed by using thermogravimetric method. Kinetic parameters are calculated by Coats & Redfern kinetic model and the degree of pyrolysis process is determined for each of the heating rate.

Keywords: lignite, thermogravimetric analysis, pyrolysis, kinetics

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18 Investigation of the Composition and Structure of Tar by Lignite Pyrolysis Using Thermogravimetry, Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrum Coupled Instrument System

Authors: Li Feng, Cheng Zhang, Chuanzhou Yuang

Abstract:

Understanding the macromolecular structure of low-rank coal is very important for its gasification and liquefaction. The pyrolysis is one of the methods of analyzing the macromolecular structure of coal. The gaseous products decomposed directly by the raw lignite at 500 °C and indirectly by tar products from raw lignite pyrolysis at 500 °C were investigated and compared by thermogravimetry, gas chromatography and mass spectrum coupled instrument system (TG/GC/MS) in this paper. The results show that 52 kinds of products were found from the raw lignite and 70 kinds of products from the tar. The pyrolysis products directly from the lignite appear more monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and less substituent groups or branch chain, compared with the products from the tar. There is less linear chain and double bonds structure in the tar, which can be speculated that linear chain and double bonds structure took part in the generation of condensed rings and other reactions. There are more kinds of phenol and furan in the tar, which indicate that these products may be generated from the secondary reaction. The formation process of phenol, phenol naphthalene, naphthene and furan are discussed.

Keywords: composition and structure, lignite, pyrolysis of coal, tar, TG/GC/MS

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17 Evaluation of the Environmental Risk from the Co-Deposition of Waste Rock Material and Fly Ash

Authors: A. Mavrikos, N. Petsas, E. Kaltsi, D. Kaliampakos

Abstract:

The lignite-fired power plants in the Western Macedonia Lignite Center produce more than 8 106 t of fly ash per year. Approximately 90% of this quantity is used for restoration-reclamation of exhausted open-cast lignite mines and slope stabilization of the overburden. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the environmental behavior of the mixture of waste rock and fly ash that is being used in the external deposition site of the South Field lignite mine. For this reason, a borehole was made within the site and 86 samples were taken and subjected to chemical analyses and leaching tests. The results showed very limited leaching of trace elements and heavy metals from this mixture. Moreover, when compared to the limit values set for waste acceptable in inert waste landfills, only few excesses were observed, indicating only minor risk for groundwater pollution. However, due to the complexity of both the leaching process and the contaminant pathway, more boreholes and analyses should be made in nearby locations and a systematic groundwater monitoring program should be implemented both downstream and within the external deposition site.

Keywords: co-deposition, fly ash, leaching tests, lignite, waste rock

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16 Plasma Treatment of a Lignite Using Water-Stabilized Plasma Torch at Atmospheric Pressure

Authors: Anton Serov, Alan Maslani, Michal Hlina, Vladimir Kopecky, Milan Hrabovsky

Abstract:

Recycling of organic waste is an increasingly hot topic in recent years. This issue becomes even more interesting if the raw material for the fuel production can be obtained as the result of that recycling. A process of high-temperature decomposition of a lignite (a non-hydrolysable complex organic compound) was studied on the plasma gasification reactor PLASGAS, where water-stabilized plasma torch was used as a source of high enthalpy plasma. The plasma torch power was 120 kW and allowed heating of the reactor to more than 1000 °C. The material feeding rate in the gasification reactor was selected 30 and 60 kg per hour that could be compared with small industrial production. An efficiency estimation of the thermal decomposition process was done. A balance of the torch energy distribution was studied as well as an influence of the lignite particle size and an addition of methane (CH4) in a reaction volume on the syngas composition (H2+CO). It was found that the ratio H2:CO had values in the range of 1,5 to 2,5 depending on the experimental conditions. The recycling process occurred at atmospheric pressure that was one of the important benefits because of the lack of expensive vacuum pump systems. The work was supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic under the project GA15-19444S.

Keywords: atmospheric pressure, lignite, plasma treatment, water-stabilized plasma torch

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15 Technology Identification, Evaluation and Selection Methodology for Industrial Process Water and Waste Water Treatment Plant of 3x150 MWe Tufanbeyli Lignite-Fired Power Plant

Authors: Cigdem Safak Saglam

Abstract:

Most thermal power plants use steam as working fluid in their power cycle. Therefore, in addition to fuel, water is the other main input for thermal plants. Water and steam must be highly pure in order to protect the systems from corrosion, scaling and biofouling. Pure process water is produced in water treatment plants having many several treatment methods. Treatment plant design is selected depending on raw water source and required water quality. Although working principle of fossil-fuel fired thermal power plants are same, there is no standard design and equipment arrangement valid for all thermal power plant utility systems. Besides that, there are many other technology evaluation and selection criteria for designing the most optimal water systems meeting the requirements such as local conditions, environmental restrictions, electricity and other consumables availability and transport, process water sources and scarcity, land use constraints etc. Aim of this study is explaining the adopted methodology for technology selection for process water preparation and industrial waste water treatment plant in a thermal power plant project located in Tufanbeyli, Adana Province in Turkey. Thermal power plant is fired with indigenous lignite coal extracted from adjacent lignite reserves. This paper addresses all above-mentioned factors affecting the thermal power plant water treatment facilities (demineralization + waste water treatment) design and describes the ultimate design of Tufanbeyli Thermal Power Plant Water Treatment Plant.

Keywords: thermal power plant, lignite coal, pretreatment, demineralization, electrodialysis, recycling, ash dampening

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14 Effect of Pulp Density on Biodesulfurization of Mongolian Lignite Coal

Authors: Ashish Pathak, Dong-Jin Kim, Byoung-Gon Kim

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Biological processes based on oxidation of sulfur compounds by chemolithotrophic microorganisms are emerging as an efficient and eco-friendly technique for removal of sulfur from the coal. In the present article, study was carried out to investigate the potential of biodesulfurization process in removing the sulfur from lignite coal sample collected from a Mongolian coal mine. The batch biodesulfurization experiments were conducted in 2.5 L borosilicate baffle type reactors at 35 ºC using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The effect of pulp density on efficiency of biodesulfurization was investigated at different solids concentration (1-10%) of coal. The results of the present study suggested that the rate of desulfurization was retarded at higher coal pulp density. The optimum pulp density found 5% at which about 48% of the total sulfur was removed from the coal.

Keywords: biodesulfurization, bioreactor, coal, pyrite

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13 Reactivities of Turkish Lignites during Oxygen Enriched Combustion

Authors: Ozlem Uguz, Ali Demirci, Hanzade Haykiri-Acma, Serdar Yaman

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Lignitic coal holds its position as Turkey’s most important indigenous energy source to generate energy in thermal power plants. Hence, efficient and environmental-friendly use of lignite in electricity generation is of great importance. Thus, clean coal technologies have been planned to mitigate emissions and provide more efficient burning in power plants. In this context, oxygen enriched combustion (oxy-combustion) is regarded as one of the clean coal technologies, which based on burning with oxygen concentrations higher than that in air. As it is known that the most of the Turkish coals are low rank with high mineral matter content, unburnt carbon trapped in ash is, unfortunately, high, and it leads significant losses in the overall efficiencies of the thermal plants. Besides, the necessity of burning huge amounts of these low calorific value lignites to get the desired amount of energy also results in the formation of large amounts of ash that is rich in unburnt carbon. Oxygen enriched combustion technology enables to increase the burning efficiency through the complete burning of almost all of the carbon content of the fuel. This also contributes to the protection of air quality and emission levels drop reasonably. The aim of this study is to investigate the unburnt carbon content and the burning reactivities of several different lignite samples under oxygen enriched conditions. For this reason, the combined effects of temperature and oxygen/nitrogen ratios in the burning atmosphere were investigated and interpreted. To do this, Turkish lignite samples from Adıyaman-Gölbaşı and Kütahya-Tunçbilek regions were characterized first by proximate and ultimate analyses and the burning profiles were derived using DTA (Differential Thermal Analysis) curves. Then, these lignites were subjected to slow burning process in a horizontal tube furnace at different temperatures (200ºC, 400ºC, 600ºC for Adıyaman-Gölbaşı lignite and 200ºC, 450ºC, 800ºC for Kütahya-Tunçbilek lignite) under atmospheres having O₂+N₂ proportions of 21%O₂+79%N₂, 30%O₂+70%N₂, 40%O₂+60%N₂, and 50%O₂+50%N₂. These burning temperatures were specified based on the burning profiles derived from the DTA curves. The residues obtained from these burning tests were also analyzed by proximate and ultimate analyses to detect the unburnt carbon content along with the unused energy potential. Reactivity of these lignites was calculated using several methodologies. Burning yield under air condition (21%O₂+79%N₂) was used a benchmark value to compare the effectiveness of oxygen enriched conditions. It was concluded that oxygen enriched combustion method enhanced the combustion efficiency and lowered the unburnt carbon content of ash. Combustion of low-rank coals under oxygen enriched conditions was found to be a promising way to improve the efficiency of the lignite-firing energy systems. However, cost-benefit analysis should be considered for a better justification of this method since the use of more oxygen brings an unignorable additional cost.

Keywords: coal, energy, oxygen enriched combustion, reactivity

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12 Studies on Optimizing the Level of Liquid Biofertilizers in Peanut and Maize and Their Economic Analysis

Authors: Chandragouda R. Patil, K. S. Jagadeesh, S. D. Kalolgi

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Biofertilizers containing live microbial cells can mobilize one or more nutrients to plants when applied to either seed or rhizosphere. They form an integral part of nutrient management strategies for sustainable production of agricultural crops. Annually, about 22 tons of lignite-based biofertilizers are being produced and supplied to farmers at the Institute of Organic Farming, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka state India. Although carrier based biofertilizers are common, they have shorter shelf life, poor quality, high contamination, unpredictable field performance and high cost of solid carriers. Hence, liquid formulations are being developed to increase their efficacy and broaden field applicability. An attempt was made to develop liquid formulation of strains of Rhizobium NC-92 (Groundnut), Azospirillum ACD15 both nitrogen-fixing biofertilizers and Pseudomonas striata an efficient P-solubilizing bacteria (PSB). Different concentration of amendments such as additives (glycerol and polyethylene glycol), adjuvants (carboxyl methyl cellulose), gum arabica (GA), surfactant (polysorbate) and trehalose specifically for Azospirillum were found essential. Combinations of formulations of Rhizobium and PSB for groundnut and Azospirillum and PSB for maize were evaluated under field conditions to determine the optimum level of inoculum required. Each biofertilizer strain was inoculated at the rate of 2, 4, 8 ml per kg of seeds and the efficacy of each formulation both individually and in combinations was evaluated against the lignite-based formulation at the rate of 20 g each per kg seeds and a un-inoculated set was included to compare the inoculation effect. The field experiment had 17 treatments in three replicates and the best level of inoculum was decided based on net returns and cost: benefit ratio. In peanut, the combination of 4 ml of Rhizobium and 2 ml of PSB resulted in the highest net returns and higher cost to benefit ratio of 1:2.98 followed by treatment with a combination of 2 ml per kg each of Rhizobium and PSB with a B;C ratio of 1:2.84. The benefits in terms of net returns were to the extent of 16 percent due to inoculation with lignite based formulations while it was up to 48 percent due to the best combination of liquid biofertilizers. In maize combination of liquid formulations consisting of 4 ml of Azospirillum and 2 ml of PSB resulted in the highest net returns; about 53 percent higher than the un-inoculated control and 20 percent higher than the treatment with lignite based formulation. In both the crops inoculation with lignite based formulations significantly increased the net returns over un-inoculated control while levels higher or lesser than 4 ml of Rhizobium and Azospirillum and higher or lesser than 2 ml of PSB were not economical and hence not optimal for these two crops.

Keywords: Rhizobium, Azospirillum, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, liquid formulation, benefit-cost ratio

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11 Groundwater Treatment of Thailand's Mae Moh Lignite Mine

Authors: A. Laksanayothin, W. Ariyawong

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Mae Moh Lignite Mine is the largest open-pit mine in Thailand. The mine serves coal to the power plant about 16 million tons per year. This amount of coal can produce electricity accounting for about 10% of Nation’s electric power generation. The mining area of Mae Moh Mine is about 28 km2. At present, the deepest area of the pit is about 280 m from ground level (+40 m. MSL) and in the future the depth of the pit can reach 520 m from ground level (-200 m.MSL). As the size of the pit is quite large, the stability of the pit is seriously important. Furthermore, the preliminary drilling and extended drilling in year 1989-1996 had found high pressure aquifer under the pit. As a result, the pressure of the underground water has to be released in order to control mine pit stability. The study by the consulting experts later found that 3-5 million m3 per year of the underground water is needed to be de-watered for the safety of mining. However, the quality of this discharged water should meet the standard. Therefore, the ground water treatment facility has been implemented, aiming to reduce the amount of naturally contaminated Arsenic (As) in discharged water lower than the standard limit of 10 ppb. The treatment system consists of coagulation and filtration process. The main components include rapid mixing tanks, slow mixing tanks, sedimentation tank, thickener tank and sludge drying bed. The treatment process uses 40% FeCl3 as a coagulant. The FeCl3 will adsorb with As(V), forming floc particles and separating from the water as precipitate. After that, the sludge is dried in the sand bed and then be disposed in the secured land fill. Since 2011, the treatment plant of 12,000 m3/day has been efficiently operated. The average removal efficiency of the process is about 95%.

Keywords: arsenic, coagulant, ferric chloride, groundwater, lignite, coal mine

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10 High Efficiency Solar Thermal Collectors Utilization in Process Heat: A Case Study of Textile Finishing Industry

Authors: Gökçen A. Çiftçioğlu, M. A. Neşet Kadırgan, Figen Kadırgan

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Solar energy, since it is available every day, is seen as one of the most valuable renewable energy resources. Thus, the energy of sun should be efficiently used in various applications. The most known applications that use solar energy are heating water and spaces. High efficiency solar collectors need appropriate selective surfaces to absorb the heat. Selective surfaces (Selektif-Sera) used in this study are applied to flat collectors, which are produced by a roll to roll cost effective coating of nano nickel layers, developed in Selektif Teknoloji Co. Inc. Efficiency of flat collectors using Selektif-Sera absorbers are calculated in collaboration with Institute for Solar Technik Rapperswil, Switzerland. The main cause of high energy consumption in industry is mostly caused from low temperature level processes. There is considerable effort in research to minimize the energy use by renewable energy sources such as solar energy. A feasibility study will be presented to obtain the potential of solar thermal energy utilization in the textile industry using these solar collectors. For the feasibility calculations presented in this study, textile dyeing and finishing factory located at Kahramanmaras is selected since the geographic location was an important factor. Kahramanmaras is located in the south east part of Turkey thus has a great potential to have solar illumination much longer. It was observed that, the collector area is limited by the available area in the factory, thus a hybrid heating generating system (lignite/solar thermal) was preferred in the calculations of this study to be more realistic. During the feasibility work, the calculations took into account the preheating process, where well waters heated from 15 °C to 30-40 °C by using the hot waters in heat exchangers. Then the preheated water was heated again by high efficiency solar collectors. Economic comparison between the lignite use and solar thermal collector use was provided to determine the optimal system that can be used efficiently. The optimum design of solar thermal systems was studied depending on the optimum collector area. It was found that the solar thermal system is more economic and efficient than the merely lignite use. Return on investment time is calculated as 5.15 years.

Keywords: energy, renewable energy, selective surface, solar collector

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9 Influence of Torrefied Biomass on Co-Combustion Behaviors of Biomass/Lignite Blends

Authors: Aysen Caliskan, Hanzade Haykiri-Acma, Serdar Yaman

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Co-firing of coal and biomass blends is an effective method to reduce carbon dioxide emissions released by burning coals, thanks to the carbon-neutral nature of biomass. Besides, usage of biomass that is renewable and sustainable energy resource mitigates the dependency on fossil fuels for power generation. However, most of the biomass species has negative aspects such as low calorific value, high moisture and volatile matter contents compared to coal. Torrefaction is a promising technique in order to upgrade the fuel properties of biomass through thermal treatment. That is, this technique improves the calorific value of biomass along with serious reductions in the moisture and volatile matter contents. In this context, several woody biomass materials including Rhododendron, hybrid poplar, and ash-tree were subjected to torrefaction process in a horizontal tube furnace at 200°C under nitrogen flow. In this way, the solid residue obtained from torrefaction that is also called as 'biochar' was obtained and analyzed to monitor the variations taking place in biomass properties. On the other hand, some Turkish lignites from Elbistan, Adıyaman-Gölbaşı and Çorum-Dodurga deposits were chosen as coal samples since these lignites are of great importance in lignite-fired power stations in Turkey. These lignites were blended with the obtained biochars for which the blending ratio of biochars was kept at 10 wt% and the lignites were the dominant constituents in the fuel blends. Burning tests of the lignites, biomasses, biochars, and blends were performed using a thermogravimetric analyzer up to 900°C with a heating rate of 40°C/min under dry air atmosphere. Based on these burning tests, properties relevant to burning characteristics such as the burning reactivity and burnout yields etc. could be compared to justify the effects of torrefaction and blending. Besides, some characterization techniques including X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were also conducted for the untreated biomass and torrefied biomass (biochar) samples, lignites and their blends to examine the co-combustion characteristics elaborately. Results of this study revealed the fact that blending of lignite with 10 wt% biochar created synergistic behaviors during co-combustion in comparison to the individual burning of the ingredient fuels in the blends. Burnout and ignition performances of each blend were compared by taking into account the lignite and biomass structures and characteristics. The blend that has the best co-combustion profile and ignition properties was selected. Even though final burnouts of the lignites were decreased due to the addition of biomass, co-combustion process acts as a reasonable and sustainable solution due to its environmentally friendly benefits such as reductions in net carbon dioxide (CO2), SOx and hazardous organic chemicals derived from volatiles.

Keywords: burnout performance, co-combustion, thermal analysis, torrefaction pretreatment

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8 Analysis of the Probable Maximum Flood in Hydrologic Design Using Different Functions of Rainfall-Runoff Transformation

Authors: Evangelos Baltas, Elissavet Feloni, Dimitrios Karpouzos

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A crucial issue in hydrologic design is the sizing of structures and flood-control works in areas with limited data. This research work highlights the significant variation in probable maximum flood (PMF) for a design hyetograph, using different theoretical functions of rainfall-runoff transformation. The analysis focuses on seven subbasins with different characteristics in the municipality of Florina, northern Greece. This area is a semi-agricultural one which hosts important activities, such as the operation of one of the greatest fields of lignite for power generation in Greece. Results illustrate the notable variation in estimations among the methodologies used for the examined subbasins.

Keywords: rainfall, runoff, hydrologic design, PMF

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7 The Effect of Fly Ash in Dewatering of Marble Processing Wastewaters

Authors: H. A. Taner, V. Önen

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In the thermal power plants established to meet the energy need, lignite with low calorie and high ash content is used. Burning of these coals results in wastes such as fly ash, slag and flue gas. This constitutes a significant economic and environmental problems. However, fly ash can find evaluation opportunities in various sectors. In this study, the effectiveness of fly ash on suspended solid removal from marble processing wastewater containing high concentration of suspended solids was examined. Experiments were carried out for two different suspensions, marble and travertine. In the experiments, FeCl3, Al2(SO4)3 and anionic polymer A130 were used also to compare with fly ash. Coagulant/flocculant type/dosage, mixing time/speed and pH were the experimental parameters. The performances in the experimental studies were assessed with the change in the interface height during sedimentation resultant and turbidity values of treated water. The highest sedimentation efficiency was achieved with anionic flocculant. However, it was determined that fly ash can be used instead of FeCl3 and Al2(SO4)3 in the travertine plant as a coagulant.

Keywords: dewatering, flocculant, fly ash, marble plant wastewater

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6 Investigation of the Properties of Biochar Obtained by Dry and Wet Torrefaction in a Fixed and in a Fluidized Bed

Authors: Natalia Muratova, Dmitry Klimov, Rafail Isemin, Sergey Kuzmin, Aleksandr Mikhalev, Oleg Milovanov

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We investigated the processing of poultry litter into biochar using dry torrefaction methods (DT) in a fixed and fluidized bed of quartz sand blown with nitrogen, as well as wet torrefaction (WT) in a fluidized bed in a medium of water steam at a temperature of 300 °C. Torrefaction technology affects the duration of the heat treatment process and the characteristics of the biochar: the process of separating CO₂, CO, H₂ and CH₄ from a portion of fresh poultry litter during torrefaction in a fixed bed is completed after 2400 seconds, but in a fluidized bed — after 480 seconds. During WT in a fluidized bed of quartz sand, this process ends in 840 seconds after loading a portion of fresh litter, but in a fluidized bed of litter particles previously subjected to torrefaction, the process ends in 350 - 450 seconds. In terms of the ratio between (H/C) and (O/C), the litter obtained after DT and WT treatment corresponds to lignite. WT in a fluidized bed allows one to obtain biochar, in which the specific pore area is two times larger than the specific pore area of biochar obtained after DT in a fluidized bed. Biochar, obtained as a result of the poultry litter treatment in a fluidized bed using DT or WT method, is recommended to be used not only as a biofuel but also as an adsorbent or the soil fertilizer.

Keywords: biochar, poultry litter, dry and wet torrefaction, fixed bed, fluidized bed

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5 CFD Modeling of Air Stream Pressure Drop inside Combustion Air Duct of Coal-Fired Power Plant with and without Airfoil

Authors: Pakawhat Khumkhreung, Yottana Khunatorn

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The flow pattern inside rectangular intake air duct of 300 MW lignite coal-fired power plant is investigated in order to analyze and reduce overall inlet system pressure drop. The system consists of the 45-degree inlet elbow, the flow instrument, the 90-degree mitered elbow and fans, respectively. The energy loss in each section can be determined by Bernoulli’s equation and ASHRAE standard table. Hence, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used in this study based on Navier-Stroke equation and the standard k-epsilon turbulence modeling. Input boundary condition is 175 kg/s mass flow rate inside the 11-m2 cross sectional duct. According to the inlet air flow rate, the Reynolds number of airstream is 2.7x106 (based on the hydraulic duct diameter), thus the flow behavior is turbulence. The numerical results are validated with the real operation data. It is found that the numerical result agrees well with the operating data, and dominant loss occurs at the flow rate measurement device. Normally, the air flow rate is measured by the airfoil and it gets high pressure drop inside the duct. To overcome this problem, the airfoil is planned to be replaced with the other type measuring instrument, such as the average pitot tube which generates low pressure drop of airstream. The numerical result in case of average pitot tube shows that the pressure drop inside the inlet airstream duct is decreased significantly. It should be noted that the energy consumption of inlet air system is reduced too.

Keywords: airfoil, average pitot tube, combustion air, CFD, pressure drop, rectangular duct

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4 Life Cycle Assessment of Todays and Future Electricity Grid Mixes of EU27

Authors: Johannes Gantner, Michael Held, Rafael Horn, Matthias Fischer

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At the United Nations Climate Change Conference 2015 a global agreement on the reduction of climate change was achieved stating CO₂ reduction targets for all countries. For instance, the EU targets a reduction of 40 percent in emissions by 2030 compared to 1990. In order to achieve this ambitious goal, the environmental performance of the different European electricity grid mixes is crucial. First, the electricity directly needed for everyone’s daily life (e.g. heating, plug load, mobility) and therefore a reduction of the environmental impacts of the electricity grid mix reduces the overall environmental impacts of a country. Secondly, the manufacturing of every product depends on electricity. Thereby a reduction of the environmental impacts of the electricity mix results in a further decrease of environmental impacts of every product. As a result, the implementation of the two-degree goal highly depends on the decarbonization of the European electricity mixes. Currently the production of electricity in the EU27 is based on fossil fuels and therefore bears a high GWP impact per kWh. Due to the importance of the environmental impacts of the electricity mix, not only today but also in future, within the European research projects, CommONEnergy and Senskin, time-dynamic Life Cycle Assessment models for all EU27 countries were set up. As a methodology, a combination of scenario modeling and life cycle assessment according to ISO14040 and ISO14044 was conducted. Based on EU27 trends regarding energy, transport, and buildings, the different national electricity mixes were investigated taking into account future changes such as amount of electricity generated in the country, change in electricity carriers, COP of the power plants and distribution losses, imports and exports. As results, time-dynamic environmental profiles for the electricity mixes of each country and for Europe overall were set up. Thereby for each European country, the decarbonization strategies of the electricity mix are critically investigated in order to identify decisions, that can lead to negative environmental effects, for instance on the reduction of the global warming of the electricity mix. For example, the withdrawal of the nuclear energy program in Germany and at the same time compensation of the missing energy by non-renewable energy carriers like lignite and natural gas is resulting in an increase in global warming potential of electricity grid mix. Just after two years this increase countervailed by the higher share of renewable energy carriers such as wind power and photovoltaic. Finally, as an outlook a first qualitative picture is provided, illustrating from environmental perspective, which country has the highest potential for low-carbon electricity production and therefore how investments in a connected European electricity grid could decrease the environmental impacts of the electricity mix in Europe.

Keywords: electricity grid mixes, EU27 countries, environmental impacts, future trends, life cycle assessment, scenario analysis

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3 The Environmental Concerns in Coal Mining, and Utilization in Pakistan

Authors: S. R. H. Baqri, T. Shahina, M. T. Hasan

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Pakistan is facing acute shortage of energy and looking for indigenous resources of the energy mix to meet the short fall. After the discovery of huge coal resources in Thar Desert of Sindh province, focus has shifted to coal power generation. The government of Pakistan has planned power generation of 20000 MW on coal by the year 2025. This target will be achieved by mining and power generation in Thar coal Field and on imported coal in different parts of Pakistan. Total indigenous coal production of around 3.0 million tons is being utilized in brick kilns, cement and sugar industry. Coal-based power generation is only limited to three units of 50 MW near Hyderabad from nearby Lakhra Coal field. The purpose of this presentation is to identify and redressal of issues of coal mining and utilization with reference to environmental hazards. Thar coal resource is estimated at 175 billion tons out of a total resource estimate of 184 billion tons in Pakistan. Coal of Pakistan is of Tertiary age (Palaeocene/Eocene) and classified from lignite to sub-bituminous category. Coal characterization has established three main pollutants such as Sulphur, Carbon dioxide and Methane besides some others associated with coal and rock types. The element Sulphur occurs in organic as well as inorganic forms associated with coals as free sulphur and as pyrite, gypsum, respectively. Carbon dioxide, methane and minerals are mostly associated with fractures, joints local faults, seatearth and roof rocks. The abandoned and working coal mines give kerosene odour due to escape of methane in the atmosphere. While the frozen methane/methane ices in organic matter rich sediments have also been reported from the Makran coastal and offshore areas. The Sulphur escapes into the atmosphere during mining and utilization of coal in industry. The natural erosional processes due to rivers, streams, lakes and coastal waves erode over lying sediments allowing pollutants to escape into air and water. Power plants emissions should be controlled through application of appropriate clean coal technology and need to be regularly monitored. Therefore, the systematic and scientific studies will be required to estimate the quantity of methane, carbon dioxide and sulphur at various sites such as abandoned and working coal mines, exploratory wells for coal, oil and gas. Pressure gauges on gas pipes connecting the coal-bearing horizons will be installed on surface to know the quantity of gas. The quality and quantity of gases will be examined according to the defined intervals of times. This will help to design and recommend the methods and procedures to stop the escape of gases into atmosphere. The element of Sulphur can be removed partially by gravity and chemical methods after grinding and before industrial utilization of coal.

Keywords: atmosphere, coal production, energy, pollutants

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2 Arc Plasma Thermochemical Preparation of Coal to Effective Combustion in Thermal Power Plants

Authors: Vladimir Messerle, Alexandr Ustimenko, Oleg Lavrichshev

Abstract:

This work presents plasma technology for solid fuel ignition and combustion. Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmentally friendly low-rank coal ignition and combustion. To realise this technology at coal fired power plants plasma-fuel systems (PFS) were developed. PFS improve efficiency of power coals combustion and decrease harmful emission. PFS is pulverized coal burner equipped with arc plasma torch. Plasma torch is the main element of the PFS. Plasma forming gas is air. It is blown through the electrodes forming plasma flame. Temperature of this flame is varied from 5000 to 6000 K. Plasma torch power is varied from 100 to 350 kW and geometrical sizes are the following: the height is 0.4-0.5 m and diameter is 0.2-0.25 m. The base of the PFS technology is plasma thermochemical preparation of coal for burning. It consists of heating of the pulverized coal and air mixture by arc plasma up to temperature of coal volatiles release and char carbon partial gasification. In the PFS coal-air mixture is deficient in oxygen and carbon is oxidised mainly to carbon monoxide. As a result, at the PFS exit a highly reactive mixture is formed of combustible gases and partially burned char particles, together with products of combustion, while the temperature of the gaseous mixture is around 1300 K. Further mixing with the air promotes intensive ignition and complete combustion of the prepared fuel. PFS have been tested for boilers start up and pulverized coal flame stabilization in different countries at power boilers of 75 to 950 t/h steam productivity. They were equipped with different types of pulverized coal burners (direct flow, muffle and swirl burners). At PFS testing power coals of all ranks (lignite, bituminous, anthracite and their mixtures) were incinerated. Volatile content of them was from 4 to 50%, ash varied from 15 to 48% and heat of combustion was from 1600 to 6000 kcal/kg. To show the advantages of the plasma technology before conventional technologies of coal combustion numerical investigation of plasma ignition, gasification and thermochemical preparation of a pulverized coal for incineration in an experimental furnace with heat capacity of 3 MW was fulfilled. Two computer-codes were used for the research. The computer simulation experiments were conducted for low-rank bituminous coal of 44% ash content. The boiler operation has been studied at the conventional mode of combustion and with arc plasma activation of coal combustion. The experiments and computer simulation showed ecological efficiency of the plasma technology. When a plasma torch operates in the regime of plasma stabilization of pulverized coal flame, NOX emission is reduced twice and amount of unburned carbon is reduced four times. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan and Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (Agreement on grant No. 14.613.21.0005, project RFMEFI61314X0005).

Keywords: coal, ignition, plasma-fuel system, plasma torch, thermal power plant

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1 Hydrogeological Appraisal of Karacahisar Coal Field (Western Turkey): Impacts of Mining on Groundwater Resources Utilized for Water Supply

Authors: Sukran Acikel, Mehmet Ekmekci, Otgonbayar Namkhai

Abstract:

Lignite coal fields in western Turkey generally occurs in tensional Neogene basins bordered by major faults. Karacahisar coal field in Mugla province of western Turkey is a large Neogene basin filled with alternation of silisic and calcerous layers. The basement of the basin is composed of mainly karstified carbonate rocks of Mesozoic and schists of Paleozoic age. The basement rocks are exposed at highlands surrounding the basin. The basin fill deposits forms shallow, low yield and local aquifers whereas karstic carbonate rock masses forms the major aquifer in the region. The karstic aquifer discharges through a spring zone issuing at intersection of two major faults. Municipal water demand in Bodrum city, a touristic attraction area is almost totally supplied by boreholes tapping the karstic aquifer. A well field has been constructed on the eastern edge of the coal basin, which forms a ridge separating two Neogene basins. A major concern was raised about the plausible impact of mining activities on groundwater system in general and on water supply well field in particular. The hydrogeological studies carried out in the area revealed that the coal seam is located below the groundwater level. Mining operations will be affected by groundwater inflow to the pits, which will require dewatering measures. Dewatering activities in mine sites have two-sided effects: a) lowers the groundwater level at and around the pit for a safe and effective mining operation, b) continuous dewatering causes expansion of cone of depression to reach a spring, stream and/or well being utilized by local people, capturing their water. Plausible effect of mining operations on the flow of the spring zone was another issue of concern. Therefore, a detailed representative hydrogeological conceptual model of the site was developed on the basis of available data and field work. According to the hydrogeological conceptual model, dewatering of Neogene layers will not hydraulically affect the water supply wells, however, the ultimate perimeter of the open pit will expand to intersect the well field. According to the conceptual model, the coal seam is separated from the bottom by a thick impervious clay layer sitting on the carbonate basement. Therefore, the hydrostratigraphy does not allow a hydraulic interaction between the mine pit and the karstic carbonate rock aquifer. However, the structural setting in the basin suggests that deep faults intersecting the basement and the Neogene sequence will most probably carry the deep groundwater up to a level above the bottom of the pit. This will require taking necessary measure to lower the piezometric level of the carbonate rock aquifer along the faults. Dewatering the carbonate rock aquifer will reduce the flow to the spring zone. All findings were put together to recommend a strategy for safe and effective mining operation.

Keywords: conceptual model, dewatering, groundwater, mining operation

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