Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3227

Search results for: magnetic measurements

3227 Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements of Urban Areas in Denizli City and Showing the Distributions of Heavy Metal Pollution

Authors: Ali Aydin


Three hundred and fifty soil samples were collected around the urban and residential area, for the purpose of a magnetic susceptibility study on pollution in Denizli City, Turkiye. Measurements of volume-specific magnetic susceptibility (к) and mass-specific magnetic susceptibility (χ) show a significant variation range from place to place collected soil samples. In this study, we did a primary magnetic study near the high heavy traffic pollution in a part of Denizli city, Turkiye which was said the most polluted city in Aegean Region of Turkey. The magnetic susceptibility measurements increased from the garden area to residential area and reached the high levels near the industrial areas of the city. Magnetic particle concentration and grain size sourced exhaust gasses, and other pollution sources increase with the increasing distance from a residential area, indicating the high traffic road area.

Keywords: magnetic susceptibility, pollution, magnetic particle, Denizli

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3226 Correlation Results Based on Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements by in-situ and Ex-Situ Measurements as Indicators of Environmental Changes Due to the Fertilizer Industry

Authors: Nurin Amalina Widityani, Adinda Syifa Azhari, Twin Aji Kusumagiani, Eleonora Agustine


Fertilizer industry activities contribute to environmental changes. Changes to the environment became one of a few problems in this era of globalization. Parameters that can be seen as criteria to identify changes in the environment can be seen from the aspects of physics, chemistry, and biology. One aspect that can be assessed quickly and efficiently to describe environmental change is the aspect of physics, one of which is the value of magnetic susceptibility (χ). The rock magnetism method can be used as a proxy indicator of environmental changes, seen from the value of magnetic susceptibility. The rock magnetism method is based on magnetic susceptibility studies to measure and classify the degree of pollutant elements that cause changes in the environment. This research was conducted in the area around the fertilizer plant, with five coring points on each track, each coring point a depth of 15 cm. Magnetic susceptibility measurements were performed by in-situ and ex-situ. In-situ measurements were carried out directly by using the SM30 tool by putting the tools on the soil surface at each measurement point and by that obtaining the value of the magnetic susceptibility. Meanwhile, ex-situ measurements are performed in the laboratory by using the Bartington MS2B tool’s susceptibility, which is done on a coring sample which is taken every 5 cm. In-situ measurement shows results that the value of magnetic susceptibility at the surface varies, with the lowest score on the second and fifth points with the -0.81 value and the highest value at the third point, with the score of 0,345. Ex-situ measurements can find out the variations of magnetic susceptibility values at each depth point of coring. At a depth of 0-5 cm, the value of the highest XLF = 494.8 (x10-8m³/kg) is at the third point, while the value of the lowest XLF = 187.1 (x10-8m³/kg) at first. At a depth of 6-10 cm, the highest value of the XLF was at the second point, which was 832.7 (x10-8m³/kg) while the lowest XLF is at the first point, at 211 (x10-8m³/kg). At a depth of 11-15 cm, the XLF’s highest value = 857.7 (x10-8m³/kg) is at the second point, whereas the value of the lowest XLF = 83.3 (x10-8m³/kg) is at the fifth point. Based on the in situ and exsit measurements, it can be seen that the highest magnetic susceptibility values from the surface samples are at the third point.

Keywords: magnetic susceptibility, fertilizer plant, Bartington MS2B, SM30

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3225 Structural, Magnetic and Magnetocaloric Properties of Iron-Doped Nd₀.₆Sr₀.₄MnO₃ Perovskite

Authors: Ismail Al-Yahmadi, Abbasher Gismelseed, Fatma Al-Mammari, Ahmed Al-Rawas, Ali Yousif, Imaddin Al-Omari, Hisham Widatallah, Mohamed Elzain


The influence of Fe-doping on the structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of Nd₀.₆Sr₀.₄FeₓMn₁₋ₓO₃ (0≤ x ≤0.5) were investigated. The samples were synthesized by auto-combustion Sol-Gel method. The phase purity, crystallinity, and the structural properties for all prepared samples were examined by X-ray diffraction. XRD refinement indicates that the samples are crystallized in the orthorhombic single-phase with Pnma space group. Temperature dependence of magnetization measurements under a magnetic applied field of 0.02 T reveals that the samples with (x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) exhibit a paramagnetic (PM) to ferromagnetic (FM) transition with decreasing temperature. The Curie temperature decreased with increasing Fe content from 256 K for x =0.0 to 80 K for x =0.3 due to increasing of antiferromagnetic superexchange (SE) interaction coupling. Moreover, the magnetization as a function of applied magnetic field (M-H) curves was measured at 2 K, and 300 K. the results of such measurements confirm the temperature dependence of magnetization measurements. The magnetic entropy change|∆SM | was evaluated using Maxwell's relation. The maximum values of the magnetic entropy change |-∆SMax |for x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 are found to be 15.35, 5.13, 3.36, 1.08 J/kg.K for an applied magnetic field of 9 T. Our result on magnetocaloric properties suggests that the parent sample Nd₀.₆Sr₀.₄MnO₃ could be a good refrigerant for low-temperature magnetic refrigeration.

Keywords: manganite perovskite, magnetocaloric effect, X-ray diffraction, relative cooling power

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3224 Determination of Thermophysical Properties of Water Based Magnetic Nanofluids

Authors: Eyüphan Manay, Bayram Sahin, Emre Mandev, Ibrahim Ates, Tuba Yetim


In this study, it was aimed to determine the thermophysical properties of two different magnetic nanofluids (NiFe2O4-water and CoFe2O4-water). Magnetic nanoparticles were dispersed into the pure water at different volume fractions from 0 vol.% to 4 vol.%. The measurements were performed in the temperature range of 15 oC-55 oC. In order to get better idea on the temperature dependent thermophysical properties of magnetic nanofluids (MNFs), viscosity and thermal conductivity measurements were made. SEM images of both NiFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were used in order to confirm the average dimensions. The measurements showed that the thermal conductivity of MNFs increased with an increase in the volume fraction as well as viscosity. Increase in the temperature of both MNFs resulted in an increase in the thermal conductivity and a decrease in the viscosity. Based on the measured data, the correlations for both the viscosity and the thermal conductivity were presented with respect to solid volume ratio and temperature. Effective thermal conductivity of the prepared MNFs was also calculated. The results indicated that water based NiFe2O4 nanofluid had higher thermal conductivity than that of the CoFe2O4. Once the viscosity values of both MNFs were compared, almost no difference was observed.

Keywords: magnetic nanofluids, thermal conductivity, viscosity, nife2o4-water, cofe2o4-water

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3223 Mass Transfer in Reactor with Magnetic Field Generator

Authors: Tomasz Borowski, Dawid Sołoducha, Rafał Rakoczy, Marian Kordas


The growing interest in magnetic fields applications is visible due to the increased number of articles on this topic published in the last few years. In this study, the influence of various magnetic fields (MF) on the mass transfer process was examined. To carry out the prototype set-up equipped with an MF generator that is able to generate a pulsed magnetic field (PMF), oscillating magnetic field (OMF), rotating magnetic field (RMF) and static magnetic field (SMF) was used. To demonstrate the effect of MF’s on mass transfer, the calcium carbonate precipitation process was selected. To the vessel with attached conductometric probes and placed inside the generator, specific doses of calcium chloride and sodium carbonate were added. Electrical conductivity changes of the mixture inside the vessel were measured over time until equilibrium was established. Measurements were conducted for various MF strengths and concentrations of added chemical compounds. Obtained results were analyzed, which allowed to creation of mathematical correlation models showing the influence of MF’s on the studied process.

Keywords: mass transfer, oscillating magnetic field, rotating magnetic field, static magnetic field

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3222 Magnetic End Leakage Flux in a Spoke Type Rotor Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

Authors: Petter Eklund, Jonathan Sjölund, Sandra Eriksson, Mats Leijon


The spoke type rotor can be used to obtain magnetic flux concentration in permanent magnet machines. This allows the air gap magnetic flux density to exceed the remanent flux density of the permanent magnets but gives problems with leakage fluxes in the magnetic circuit. The end leakage flux of one spoke type permanent magnet rotor design is studied through measurements and finite element simulations. The measurements are performed in the end regions of a 12 kW prototype generator for a vertical axis wind turbine. The simulations are made using three dimensional finite elements to calculate the magnetic field distribution in the end regions of the machine. Also two dimensional finite element simulations are performed and the impact of the two dimensional approximation is studied. It is found that the magnetic leakage flux in the end regions of the machine is equal to about 20% of the flux in the permanent magnets. The overestimation of the performance by the two dimensional approximation is quantified and a curve-fitted expression for its behavior is suggested.

Keywords: end effects, end leakage flux, permanent magnet machine, spoke type rotor

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3221 Investigation of Nd-Al-Fe Added Nd-Fe-B Alloy Produced by Arc Melting

Authors: Gülten Sadullahoğlu, Baki Altuncevahir


The scope of this study, to investigate the magnetic properties and microstructure of Nd₂Fe₁₄B₁ by alloying with Nd₃₃.₄Fe₆₂.₆Al₄, and heat treating it at different temperatures. The stoichiometric Nd₂Fe₁₄B hard magnetic alloy and Nd₃₃.₄Fe₆₂.₆Al₄ composition was produced by arc melting under argon atmosphere. The Nd₃₃.₄Fe₆₂.₆Al₄ alloy has added to the 2:14:1 hard magnetic alloy with 48% by weight, and melted again by arc melting. Then, it was heat treated at 600, 700 and 800˚C for 3h under vacuum. In AC magnetic susceptibility measurements, for the as-cast sample, the signals decreased sharply at 101 ˚C and 313 ˚C corresponding to the Curie temperatures of the two ferromagnetic phases in addition to Fe phase. For the sample annealed at 600 ˚C, two Curie points were observed at about 257˚C and at 313˚C. However, the phase corresponding to the Curie temperature of 101 ˚C was disappeared. According to the magnetization measurements, the saturation magnetization has the highest value of 99.8 emu/g for the sample annealed at 600 ˚C, and decreased to 57.66 and 28.6 emu/g for the samples annealed at 700˚ and 800 ˚C respectively. Heat treatment resulted in an evolution of the new phase that caused changes in magnetic properties of the alloys. In order to have a clear picture, the identification of these phases are being under the investigation by XRD and SEM–EDX analysis.

Keywords: NdFeB hard magnets, bulk magnetic materials, arc melting, Curie temperature, heat treatment

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3220 Separating Permanent and Induced Magnetic Signature: A Simple Approach

Authors: O. J. G. Somsen, G. P. M. Wagemakers


Magnetic signature detection provides sensitive detection of metal objects, especially in the natural environment. Our group is developing a tabletop setup for magnetic signatures of various small and model objects. A particular issue is the separation of permanent and induced magnetization. While the latter depends only on the composition and shape of the object, the former also depends on the magnetization history. With common deperming techniques, a significant permanent signature may still remain, which confuses measurements of the induced component. We investigate a basic technique of separating the two. Measurements were done by moving the object along an aluminum rail while the three field components are recorded by a detector attached near the center. This is done first with the rail parallel to the Earth magnetic field and then with anti-parallel orientation. The reversal changes the sign of the induced- but not the permanent magnetization so that the two can be separated. Our preliminary results on a small iron block show excellent reproducibility. A considerable permanent magnetization was indeed present, resulting in a complex asymmetric signature. After separation, a much more symmetric induced signature was obtained that can be studied in detail and compared with theoretical calculations.

Keywords: magnetic signature, data analysis, magnetization, deperming techniques

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3219 Structural and Magnetic Properties of Undoped and Ni Doped CdZnS

Authors: Sabit Horoz, Ahmet Ekicibil, Omer Sahin, M. Akyol


In this study, CdZnS and Ni-doped CdZnS quantum dots(QDs) were prepared by the wet-chemical method at room temperature using mercaptoethanol as a capping agent. The structural and magnetic properties of the CdZnS and CdZnS doped with different concentrations of Ni QDs were examined by XRD and magnetic susceptibility measurements, respectively. The average particles size of cubic QDs obtained by full-width half maxima (FWHM) analysis, increases with increasing doping concentrations. The investigation of the magnetic properties showed that the Ni-doped samples exhibit signs of ferromagnetism, on the other hand, un-doped CdZnS is diamagnetic.

Keywords: un-doped and Ni doped CdZnS Quantum Dots (QDs), co-precipitation method, structural and optical properties of QDs, diluted magnetic semiconductor materials (DMSMs)

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3218 Double Magnetic Phase Transition in the Intermetallic Compound Gd₂AgSi₃

Authors: Redrisse Djoumessi Fobasso, Baidyanath Sahu, Andre M. Strydom


The R₂TX₃ (R = rare-earth, T = transition, and X = s and p block element) series of compounds are interesting owing to their fascinating structural and magnetic properties. In this present work, we have studied the magnetic and physical properties of the new Gd₂AgSi₃ polycrystalline compound. The sample was synthesized by the arc-melting method and confirmed to crystallize in the tetragonal α-ThSi₂-type crystal structure with space group I4/amd. Dc– and ac–magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, electrical resistivity, and magnetoresistance measurements were performed on the new compound. The structure provides a unique position in the unit cell for the magnetic trivalent Gd ion. Two magnetic phase transitions were consistently found in dc- and ac-magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, and electrical resistivity at temperatures Tₙ₁ = 11 K and Tₙ₂ = 20 K, which is an indication of the complex magnetic behavior in this compound. The compound is found to be metamagnetic over a range of temperatures below and above Tₙ₁. From field-dependent electrical resistivity, it is confirmed that the compound shows unusual negative magnetoresistance in the antiferromagnetically ordered region. These results contribute to a better understanding of this class of materials.

Keywords: complex magnetic behavior, metamagnetic, negative magnetoresistance, two magnetic phase transitions

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3217 Surface and Bulk Magnetization Behavior of Isolated Ferromagnetic NiFe Nanowires

Authors: Musaab Salman Sultan


The surface and bulk magnetization behavior of template released isolated ferromagnetic Ni60Fe40 nanowires of relatively thick diameters (~200 nm), deposited from a dilute suspension onto pre-patterned insulating chips have been investigated experimentally, using a highly sensitive Magneto-Optical Ker Effect (MOKE) magnetometry and Magneto-Resistance (MR) measurements, respectively. The MR data were consistent with the theoretical predictions of the anisotropic magneto-resistance (AMR) effect. The MR measurements, in all the angles of investigations, showed large features and a series of nonmonotonic "continuous small features" in the resistance profiles. The extracted switching fields from these features and from MOKE loops were compared with each other and with the switching fields reported in the literature that adopted the same analytical techniques on the similar compositions and dimensions of nanowires. A large difference between MOKE and MR measurments was noticed. The disparate between MOKE and MR results is attributed to the variance in the micro-magnetic structure of the surface and the bulk of such ferromagnetic nanowires. This result was ascertained using micro-magnetic simulations on an individual: cylindrical and rectangular cross sections NiFe nanowires, with the same diameter/thickness of the experimental wires, using the Object Oriented Micro-magnetic Framework (OOMMF) package where the simulated loops showed different switching events, indicating that such wires have different magnetic states in the reversal process and the micro-magnetic spin structures during switching behavior was complicated. These results further supported the difference between surface and bulk magnetization behavior in these nanowires. This work suggests that a combination of MOKE and MR measurements is required to fully understand the magnetization behavior of such relatively thick isolated cylindrical ferromagnetic nanowires.

Keywords: MOKE magnetometry, MR measurements, OOMMF package, micromagnetic simulations, ferromagnetic nanowires, surface magnetic properties

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3216 Magnetic Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Sachinkumar Patil, Sonali Patil, Shitalkumar Patil


Nanoparticles played important role in the biomedicine. New advanced methods having great potential apllication in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Now a day’s magnetic nanoparticles used in cancer therapy. Cancer is the major disease causes death. Magnetic nanoparticles show response to the magnetic field on the basis of this property they are used in cancer therapy. Cancer treated with hyperthermia by using magnetic nanoparticles it is unconventional but more safe and effective method. Magnetic nanoparticles prepared by using different innovative techniques that makes particles in uniform size and desired effect. Magnetic nanoparticles already used as contrast media in magnetic resonance imaging. A magnetic nanoparticle has been great potential application in cancer diagnosis and treatment as well as in gene therapy. In this review we will discuss the progress in cancer therapy based on magnetic nanoparticles, mainly including magnetic hyperthermia, synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles, mechanism of magnetic nanoparticles and application of magnetic nanoparticles.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, synthesis, characterization, cancer therapy, hyperthermia, application

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3215 Effect of Sr-Doping on Multiferroic Properties of Ca₁₋ₓSrₓMn₇O₁₂

Authors: Parul Jain, Jitendra Saha, L. C. Gupta, Satyabrata Patnaik, Ashok K. Ganguli, Ratnamala Chatterjee


This study shows how sensitively and drastically multiferroic properties of CaMn₇O₁₂ get modified by isovalent Sr-doping, namely, in Ca₁₋ₓSrₓMn₇O₁₂ for x as small as 0.01 and 0.02. CaMn₇O₁₂ is a type-II multiferroic, wherein polarization is caused by magnetic spin ordering. In this report magnetic and ferroelectric properties of Ca₁₋ₓSrₓMn₇O₁₂ (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) are investigated. Samples were prepared by wet sol gel technique using their respective nitrates; powders thus obtained were calcined and sintered in optimized conditions. The X-ray diffraction patterns of all samples doped with Sr concentrations in the range (0 ≤ x ≤ 10%) were found to be free from secondary phases. Magnetization versus temperature and magnetization versus field measurements were carried out using Quantum Design SQUID magnetometer. Pyroelectric current measurements were done for finding the polarization in the samples. Findings of the measurements are: (i) increase of Sr-doping in CaMn₇O₁₂ lattice i.e. for x ≤ 0.02, increases the polarization, whereas decreases the magnetization and the coercivity of the samples; (ii) the material with x = 0.02 exhibits ferroelectric polarization Ps which is more than double the Ps in the un-doped material and the magnetization M is reduced to less than half of that of the pure material; remarkably (iii) the modifications in Ps and M are reversed as x increases beyond x = 0.02 and for x = 0.10, Ps is reduced even below that for the pure sample; (iv) there is no visible change of the two magnetic transitions TN1 (90 K) and TN2 (48 K) of the pure material as a function of x. The strong simultaneous variations of Ps and M for x = 0.02 strongly suggest that either a basic modification of the magnetic structure of the material or a significant change of the coupling of P and M or possibly both.

Keywords: ferroelectric, isovalent, multiferroic, polarization, pyroelectric

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3214 Design of Wireless and Traceable Sensors for Internally Illuminated Photoreactors

Authors: Alexander Sutor, David Demetz


We present methods for developing wireless and traceable sensors for photobioreactors or photoreactors in general. The main focus of application are reactors which are wirelessly powered. Due to the promising properties of the propagation of magnetic fields under water we implemented an inductive link with an on/off switched hartley-oscillator as transmitter and an LC-tank as receiver. For this inductive link we used a carrier frequency of 298 kHz. With this system we performed measurements to demonstrate the independence of the magnetic field from water or salty water. In contrast we showed the strongly reduced range of RF-transmitter-receiver systems at higher frequencies (433 MHz and 2.4 GHz) in water and in salty water. For implementing the traceability of the sensors, we performed measurements to show the well defined orientation of the magnetic field of a coil. This information will be used in future work for implementing an inductive link based traceability system for our sensors.

Keywords: wireless sensors, photoreactor, internal illumination, wireless power

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3213 Measurement Technologies for Advanced Characterization of Magnetic Materials Used in Electric Drives and Automotive Applications

Authors: Lukasz Mierczak, Patrick Denke, Piotr Klimczyk, Stefan Siebert


Due to the high complexity of the magnetization in electrical machines and influence of the manufacturing processes on the magnetic properties of their components, the assessment and prediction of hysteresis and eddy current losses has remained a challenge. In the design process of electric motors and generators, the power losses of stators and rotors are calculated based on the material supplier’s data from standard magnetic measurements. This type of data does not include the additional loss from non-sinusoidal multi-harmonic motor excitation nor the detrimental effects of residual stress remaining in the motor laminations after manufacturing processes, such as punching, housing shrink fitting and winding. Moreover, in production, considerable attention is given to the measurements of mechanical dimensions of stator and rotor cores, whereas verification of their magnetic properties is typically neglected, which can lead to inconsistent efficiency of assembled motors. Therefore, to enable a comprehensive characterization of motor materials and components, Brockhaus Measurements developed a range of in-line and offline measurement technologies for testing their magnetic properties under actual motor operating conditions. Multiple sets of experimental data were obtained to evaluate the influence of various factors, such as elevated temperature, applied and residual stress, and arbitrary magnetization on the magnetic properties of different grades of non-oriented steel. Measured power loss for tested samples and stator cores varied significantly, by more than 100%, comparing to standard measurement conditions. Quantitative effects of each of the applied measurement were analyzed. This research and applied Brockhaus measurement methodologies emphasized the requirement for advanced characterization of magnetic materials used in electric drives and automotive applications.

Keywords: magnetic materials, measurement technologies, permanent magnets, stator and rotor cores

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3212 Microwave Transmission through Metamaterial Based on Permalloy Flakes under Magnetic Resonance and Antiresonance Conditions

Authors: Anatoly B. Rinkevich, Eugeny A. Kuznetsov, Yuri I. Ryabkov


Transmission of electromagnetic waves through a plate of metamaterial based on permalloy flakes and reflection from the plate is investigated. The metamaterial is prepared of permalloy flakes sized from few to 50μ placed into epoxy-amine matrix. Two series of metamaterial samples are under study with the volume portion of permalloy particles 15% and 30%. There is no direct electrical contact between permalloy particles. Microwave measurements have been carried out at frequencies of 12 to 30 GHz in magnetic fields up to 12 kOe. Sharp decrease of transmitted wave is observed under ferromagnetic resonance condition caused by absorption. Under magnetic antiresonance condition, in opposite, maximum of reflection coefficient is observed at frequencies exceeding 30 GHz. For example, for metamaterial sample with the volume portion of permalloy of 30%, the variation of reflection coefficient in magnetic field reaches 300%. These high variations are of interest to develop magnetic field driven microwave devices. Magnetic field variations of refractive index are also estimated.

Keywords: ferromagnetic resonance, magnetic antiresonance, microwave metamaterials, permalloy flakes, transmission and reflection coefficients

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3211 Microstructural and Magnetic Properties of Ni50Mn39Sn11 and Ni50Mn36Sn14 Heusler Alloys

Authors: Mst Nazmunnahar, Juan del Val, Alena Vimmrova, Blanca Hernando, Julian González


We report the microstructural and magnetic properties of Ni50Mn39Sn11 and Ni50Mn36Sn14 ribbon Heusler alloys. Experimental results were obtained by differential scanning calorymetry, X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry techniques. The Ni-Mn-Sn system undergoes a martensitic structural transformation in a wide temperature range. For example, for Ni50Mn39Sn11 the start and finish temperatures of the martensitic and austenite phase transformation for ribbon alloy were Ms = 336K , Mf = 328K, As = 335K and Af = 343K whereas no structural transformation is observed for Ni50Mn36Sn14 alloys. Magnetic measurements show the typical ferromagnetic behavior with Curie temperature 207K at low applied field of 50 Oe. The complex behavior exhibited by these Heusler alloys should be ascribed to the strong coupling between magnetism and structure, being their magnetic behavior determined by the distance between Mn atoms.

Keywords: as-cast ribbon, Heusler alloys, magnetic properties, structural transformation

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3210 Investigation of Self-Assembling of Maghemite Nanoparticles into Chain–Like Structures Using Birefringence Measurements

Authors: C. R. Stein; K. Skeff Neto, K. L. C. Miranda, P. P. C. Sartoratto, M. E. Xavier, Z. G. M. Lacava, S. M. De Freita, P. C. Morais


In this study, static magnetic birefringence (SMB) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate the self-assembling of maghemite nanoparticles suspended as biocompatible magnetic fluid (BMF) while incubated or not with the Black Eyed–Pea Trypsin Chymotripsin Inhibitor–BTCI protein. The stock samples herein studied are dextran coated maghemite nanoparticles (average core diameter of 7.1 nm, diameter dispersion of 0.26, and containing 4.6×1016 particle/mL) and the dextran coated maghemite nanoparticles associated with the BTCI protein. Several samples were prepared by diluting the stock samples with deionized water while following their colloidal stability. The diluted samples were investigated using SMB measurements to assess the average sizes of the self-assembled and suspended mesoscopic structures whereas the TEM micrographs provide the morphology of the as-suspended units. The SMB data were analyzed using a model that includes the particle-particle interaction within the mean field model picture.

Keywords: biocompatible magnetic fluid, maghemite nanoparticles, self-assembling

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3209 The Influence of Reaction Parameters on Magnetic Properties of Synthesized Strontium Ferrite

Authors: M. Bahgat, F. M. Awan, H. A. Hanafy


The conventional ceramic route was utilized to prepare a hard magnetic powder (M-type strontium ferrite, SrFe12O19). The stoichiometric mixture of iron oxide and strontium carbonate were calcined at 1000°C and then fired at various temperatures. The influence of various reaction parameters such as mixing ratio, calcination temperature, firing temperature and firing time on the magnetic behaviors of the synthesized magnetic powder were investigated.The magnetic properties including Coercivity (Hc), Magnetic saturation (Ms), and Magnetic remnance (Mr) were measured by vibrating sample magnetometer. Morphologically the produced magnetic powder has a dense hexagonal grain shape structure.

Keywords: hard magnetic materials, ceramic route, strontium ferrite, magnetic properties

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3208 Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of Six-Lines Ferrihydrite Nanoparticles

Authors: Chandni Rani, S. D. Tiwari


Ferrihydrite is one of the distinct minerals in the family of oxides, hydroxides and oxyhydroxides of iron. It is a nanocrystalline material. It occurs naturally in different sediments, soil systems and also found in the core of ferritin, an iron storage protien. This material can also be synthesized by suitable chemical methods in laboratories. This is known as less crystalline Iron (III) Oxyhydroxide. Due to its poor crystallinity, there are very broad peaks in x-ray diffraction. Depending on the number of peaks in x-ray diffraction pattern, it is classified as two lines and six lines ferrihydrite. The average crystallite size for these two forms is found to be about 2nm to 5nm. The exact crystal structure of this system is still under debate. Out of these two forms, the six lines ferrihydrite is more ordered in comparison to two lines ferrihydrite. The magnetic behavior of two lines ferrihydrite nanoparticles is somewhat well studied. But the magnetic behavior of six lines ferrihydrite nanoparticles could not attract the attention of researchers much. This motivated us to work on the magnetic properties of six lines ferrihydrite nanoparticles. In this work, we present synthesis, structural characterization and magnetic behavior of 5 nm six lines ferrihydrite nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope are used for structural characterization of this system. Magnetization measurements are performed to fit the data at different temperatures. Then the effect of magnetic moment distribution is also found. All these observations are discussed in detail.

Keywords: nanoparticles, magnetism, superparamagnetism, magnetic anisotropy

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3207 Flux-Gate vs. Anisotropic Magneto Resistance Magnetic Sensors Characteristics in Closed-Loop Operation

Authors: Neoclis Hadjigeorgiou, Spyridon Angelopoulos, Evangelos V. Hristoforou, Paul P. Sotiriadis


The increasing demand for accurate and reliable magnetic measurements over the past decades has paved the way for the development of different types of magnetic sensing systems as well as of more advanced measurement techniques. Anisotropic Magneto Resistance (AMR) sensors have emerged as a promising solution for applications requiring high resolution, providing an ideal balance between performance and cost. However, certain issues of AMR sensors such as non-linear response and measurement noise are rarely discussed in the relevant literature. In this work, an analog closed loop compensation system is proposed, developed and tested as a means to eliminate the non-linearity of AMR response, reduce the 1/f noise and enhance the sensitivity of magnetic sensor. Additional performance aspects, such as cross-axis and hysteresis effects are also examined. This system was analyzed using an analytical model and a P-Spice model, considering both the sensor itself as well as the accompanying electronic circuitry. In addition, a commercial closed loop architecture Flux-Gate sensor (calibrated and certified), has been used for comparison purposes. Three different experimental setups have been constructed for the purposes of this work, each one utilized for DC magnetic field measurements, AC magnetic field measurements and Noise density measurements respectively. The DC magnetic field measurements have been conducted in laboratory environment employing a cubic Helmholtz coil setup in order to calibrate and characterize the system under consideration. A high-accuracy DC power supply has been used for providing the operating current to the Helmholtz coils. The results were recorded by a multichannel voltmeter The AC magnetic field measurements have been conducted in laboratory environment employing a cubic Helmholtz coil setup in order to examine the effective bandwidth not only of the proposed system but also for the Flux-Gate sensor. A voltage controlled current source driven by a function generator has been utilized for the Helmholtz coil excitation. The result was observed by the oscilloscope. The third experimental apparatus incorporated an AC magnetic shielding construction composed of several layers of electric steel that had been demagnetized prior to the experimental process. Each sensor was placed alone and the response was captured by the oscilloscope. The preliminary experimental results indicate that closed loop AMR response presented a maximum deviation of 0.36% with respect to the ideal linear response, while the corresponding values for the open loop AMR system and the Fluxgate sensor reached 2% and 0.01% respectively. Moreover, the noise density of the proposed close loop AMR sensor system remained almost as low as the noise density of the AMR sensor itself, yet considerably higher than that of the Flux-Gate sensor. All relevant numerical data are presented in the paper.

Keywords: AMR sensor, chopper, closed loop, electronic noise, magnetic noise, memory effects, flux-gate sensor, linearity improvement, sensitivity improvement

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3206 In situ Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Study of Permalloy Thin Film Growth on Nanorippled Si

Authors: Sarathlal Koyiloth Vayalil, Stephan V. Roth, Gonzalo Santoro, Peng Zhang, Matthias Schwartzkopf, Bjoern Beyersdorff


Nanostructured magnetic thin films have gained significant relevance due to its applications in magnetic storage and recording media. Self-organized arrays of nanoparticles and nanowires can be produced by depositing metal thin films on nano-rippled substrates. The substrate topography strongly affects the film growth giving rise to anisotropic properties (optical, magnetic, electronic transport). Ion-beam erosion (IBE) method can provide large-area patterned substrates with the valuable possibility to widely modify pattern length scale by simply acting on ion beam parameters (i.e. energy, ions, geometry, etc.). In this work, investigation of the growth mechanism of Permalloy thin films on such nano-rippled Si (100) substrates using in situ grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering measurements (GISAXS) have been done. In situ GISAXS measurements during the deposition of thin films have been carried out at the P03/MiNaXS beam line of PETRA III storage ring of DESY, Hamburg. Nanorippled Si substrates prepared by low energy ion beam sputtering with an average wavelength of 33 nm and 1 nm have been used as templates. It has been found that the film replicates the morphology up to larger thickness regimes and also the growth is highly anisotropic along and normal to the ripple wave vectors. Various growth regimes have been observed. Further, magnetic measurements have been done using magneto-optical Kerr effect by rotating the sample in the azimuthal direction. Strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy with its easy axis in a direction normal to the ripple wave vector has been observed. The strength of the magnetic anisotropy is found to be decreasing with increasing thin film thickness values. The mechanism of the observed strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and its depends on the thickness of the film has been explained by correlating it with the GISAXS results. In conclusion, we have done a detailed growth analysis of Permalloy thin films deposited on nanorippled Si templates and tried to explain the correlation between structure, morphology to the observed magnetic properties.

Keywords: grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering, magnetic thin films, magnetic anisotropy, nanoripples

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3205 Analytical Model for Vacuum Cathode Arcs in an Oblique Magnetic Field

Authors: P. W. Chen, C. T. Chang, Y. Peng, J. Y. Wu, D. J. Jan, Md. Manirul Ali


In the last decade, the nature of cathode spot splitting and the current per spot depended on an oblique magnetic field was investigated. This model for cathode current splitting is developed that we have investigated with relationship the magnetic pressures produced by kinetic pressure, self-magnetic pressure, and changed with an external magnetic field. We propose a theoretical model that has been established to an external magnetic field with components normal and tangential to the cathode surface influenced on magnetic pressure strength. We mainly focus on developed to understand the current per spot influenced with the tangential magnetic field strength and normal magnetic field strength.

Keywords: cathode spot, vacuum arc discharge, oblique magnetic field, tangential magnetic field

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3204 Managing the Magnetic Protection of Workers in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Safoin Aktaou, Aya Al Masri, Kamel Guerchouche, Malorie Martin, Fouad Maaloul


Introduction: In the ‘Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)’ department, all workers involved in preparing the patient, setting it up, tunnel cleaning, etc. are likely to be exposed to ‘ElectroMagnetic fields (EMF)’ emitted by the MRI device. Exposure to EMF can cause adverse radio-biological effects to workers. The purpose of this study is to propose an organizational process to manage and control EMF risks. Materials and methods: The study was conducted at seven MRI departments using machines with 1.5 and 3 Tesla magnetic fields. We assessed the exposure of each one by measuring the two electromagnetic fields (static and dynamic) at different distances from the MRI machine both inside and around the examination room. Measurement values were compared with British and American references (those of the UK's ‘Medicines and Healthcare Regulatory Agency (MHRA)’ and the ‘American Radiology Society (ACR)’). Results: Following the results of EMF measurements and their comparison with the recommendations of learned societies, a zoning system that adapts to needs of different MRI services across the country has been proposed. In effect, three risk areas have been identified within the MRI services. This has led to the development of a good practice guide related to the magnetic protection of MRI workers. Conclusion: The guide established by our study is a standard that allows MRI workers to protect themselves against the risk of electromagnetic fields.

Keywords: comparison with international references, measurement of electromagnetic fields, magnetic protection of workers, magnetic resonance imaging

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3203 Design of a Hand-Held, Clamp-on, Leakage Current Sensor for High Voltage Direct Current Insulators

Authors: Morné Roman, Robert van Zyl, Nishanth Parus, Nishal Mahatho


Leakage current monitoring for high voltage transmission line insulators is of interest as a performance indicator. Presently, to the best of our knowledge, there is no commercially available, clamp-on type, non-intrusive device for measuring leakage current on energised high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line insulators. The South African power utility, Eskom, is investigating the development of such a hand-held sensor for two important applications; first, for continuous real-time condition monitoring of HVDC line insulators and, second, for use by live line workers to determine if it is safe to work on energised insulators. In this paper, a DC leakage current sensor based on magnetic field sensing techniques is developed. The magnetic field sensor used in the prototype can also detect alternating current up to 5 MHz. The DC leakage current prototype detects the magnetic field associated with the current flowing on the surface of the insulator. Preliminary HVDC leakage current measurements are performed on glass insulators. The results show that the prototype can accurately measure leakage current in the specified current range of 1-200 mA. The influence of external fields from the HVDC line itself on the leakage current measurements is mitigated through a differential magnetometer sensing technique. Thus, the developed sensor can perform measurements on in-service HVDC insulators. The research contributes to the body of knowledge by providing a sensor to measure leakage current on energised HVDC insulators non-intrusively. This sensor can also be used by live line workers to inform them whether or not it is safe to perform maintenance on energized insulators.

Keywords: direct current, insulator, leakage current, live line, magnetic field, sensor, transmission lines

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3202 Torque Magnetometry of Low Anisotropic CaCo2As2 Single Crystals

Authors: Kashif Nadeem, W. Zhang, X. G. Qiu


Role of Co spins in CaCo2As2 single crystal is systematically studied by using dc magnetization and magnetic torque measurements. A spin-flop transition in the antiferromagnetism (AFM) CaCo2As2 single crystal is studied by using dc magnetization and magnetic torque. Field dependent and angle dependent torque magnetometry confirmed the existence of spin-flop transition in this compound which is in agreement with the dc magnetization studies. A comparison of dc magnetization and torque magnetometry measurements for CaCo2As2 single crystal is done in detail. In conclusion, torque magnetometry can be a useful tool to study the spin flop transition in low anisotropic compounds analogous to dc magnetization studies.

Keywords: spin flop transition, torque magnetometry, magnetization, anisotropic

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3201 Structural, Magnetic and Thermodynamic Investigation of Iridium Double Perovskites with Ir⁵⁺

Authors: Mihai I. Sturza, Laura T. Corredor, Kaustuv Manna, Gizem A. Cansever, Tushar Dey, Andrey Maljuk, Olga Kataeva, Sabine Wurmehl, Anja Wolter, Bernd Buchner


Recently, the iridate double perovskite Sr₂YIrO₆ has attracted considerable attention due to the report of unexpected magnetism in this Ir⁵⁺ material, in which according to the Jeff model, a non-magnetic ground state is expected. Structural, magnetic and thermodynamic investigations of Sr₂YIrO₆ and Ba2YIrO6 single crystals, with emphasis on the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the specific heat will be presented. The single crystals were grown by using SrCl₂ and BaCl₂ as flux. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements performed on several crystals from different preparation batches showed a high quality of the crystals, proven by the good internal consistency of the data collected using the full-sphere mode and an extremely low R factor. In agreement with the expected non-magnetic ground state of Ir⁵⁺ (5d4) in these iridates, no magnetic transition is observed down to 430 mK. Moreover, our results suggest that the low-temperature anomaly observed in the specific heat is not related to the onset of long-range magnetic order. Instead, it is identified as a Schottky anomaly caused by paramagnetic impurities present in the sample, of the order of

Keywords: double perovskites, iridates, self-flux grown synthesis, spin-orbit coupling

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3200 The Study of Magnetic and Transport Properties in Normal State Eu1.85+yCe0.15-yCu1-yFeyO4+α-δ

Authors: Risdiana, D. Suhendar, S. Pratiwi, W. A. Somantri, T. Saragi


Superconductor is a promising material for future applications especially for energy saving because of their advantages properties such as zero electrical resistivity when they are cooled down to sufficiently low temperatures. However, the mechanism describing the role of physical properties in superconductor is far from being understood clearly, so that the application of this material for wider benefit in various industries is very limited. Most of superconductors are cuprate compounds, which has CuO2 as a conducting plane in their crystal structures. The study of physical properties through the partially substitution of impurity for Cu in superconducting cuprates has been one of great interests in relation to the mechanism of superconductivity. Different behaviors between the substitution of nonmagnetic impurity and magnetic impurity for Cu are observed. For examples, the superconductivity and Cu-spin fluctuations in the electron-doped system are suppressed through the substitution of magnetic Ni for Cu more markedly than through the substitution of nonmagnetic Zn for Cu, which is contrary to the result in the hole-doped system. Here, we reported the effect of partially substitution of magnetic impurity Fe for Cu to the magnetic and transport properties in electron-doped superconducting cuprates of Eu1.85+yCe0.15-yCu1-yFeyO4+α-δ (ECCFO) with y = 0.01, 0.02, and 0.05, in order to investigate the mechanism of magnetic and transport properties of ECCFO in normal-state. Magnetic properties are investigated by DC magnetic-susceptibility measurements that carried out at low temperatures down to 2 K using a standard SQUID magnetometer in a magnetic field of 5 Oe on field cooling. Transport properties addressed to electron mobility, are extracted from radius of electron localization calculated from temperature dependence of resistivity. For y = 0, temperature dependence of dc magnetic-susceptibility indicated the change of magnetic behavior from paramagnetic to diamagnetic below 15 K. Above 15 K, all samples show paramagnetic behavior with the values of magnetic moment in every volume unit increased with increasing y. Electron mobility decreased with increasing y. Some reasons for these results will be discussed.

Keywords: DC magnetic-susceptibility, electron mobility, Eu1.85+yCe0.15-yCu1-yFeyO4+α-δ, normal state

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3199 Highly Linear and Low Noise AMR Sensor Using Closed Loop and Signal-Chopped Architecture

Authors: N. Hadjigeorgiou, A. C. Tsalikidou, E. Hristoforou, P. P. Sotiriadis


During the last few decades, the continuously increasing demand for accurate and reliable magnetic measurements has paved the way for the development of different types of magnetic sensing systems as well as different measurement techniques. Sensor sensitivity and linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, measurement range, cross-talk between sensors in multi-sensor applications are only some of the aspects that have been examined in the past. In this paper, a fully analog closed loop system in order to optimize the performance of AMR sensors has been developed. The operation of the proposed system has been tested using a Helmholtz coil calibration setup in order to control both the amplitude and direction of magnetic field in the vicinity of the AMR sensor. Experimental testing indicated that improved linearity of sensor response, as well as low noise levels can be achieved, when the system is employed.

Keywords: AMR sensor, closed loop, memory effects, chopper, linearity improvement, sensitivity improvement, magnetic noise, electronic noise

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3198 Magnetic and Optical Properties of GaFeMnN

Authors: A.Abbad, H.A.Bentounes, W.Benstaali


The full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW) within the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) is used to calculate the magnetic and optical properties of quaternary GaFeMnN. The results show that the compound becomes magnetic and half metallic and there is an apparition of peaks at low frequencies for the optical properties.

Keywords: FP-LAPW, LSDA, magnetic moment, reflectivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 406