Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5630

Search results for: solid coordination network (SCN)

5630 Throughput of Point Coordination Function (PCF)

Authors: Faisel Eltuhami Alzaalik, Omar Imhemed Alramli, Ahmed Mohamed Elaieb

Abstract:

The IEEE 802.11 defines two modes of MAC, distributed coordination function (DCF) and point coordination function (PCF) mode. The first sub-layer of the MAC is the distributed coordination function (DCF). A contention algorithm is used via DCF to provide access to all traffic. The point coordination function (PCF) is the second sub-layer used to provide contention-free service. PCF is upper DCF and it uses features of DCF to establish guarantee access of its users. Some papers and researches that have been published in this technology were reviewed in this paper, as well as talking briefly about the distributed coordination function (DCF) technology. The simulation of the PCF function have been applied by using a simulation program called network simulator (NS2) and have been found out the throughput of a transmitter system by using this function.

Keywords: DCF, PCF, throughput, NS2

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5629 3D Interpenetrated Network Based on 1,3-Benzenedicarboxylate and 1,2-Bis(4-Pyridyl) Ethane

Authors: Laura Bravo-García, Gotzone Barandika, Begoña Bazán, M. Karmele Urtiaga, Luis M. Lezama, María I. Arriortua

Abstract:

Solid coordination networks (SCNs) are materials consisting of metal ions or clusters that are linked by polyfunctional organic ligands and can be designed to form tridimensional frameworks. Their structural features, as for example high surface areas, thermal stability, and in other cases large cavities, have opened a wide range of applications in fields like drug delivery, host-guest chemistry, biomedical imaging, chemical sensing, heterogeneous catalysis and others referred to greenhouse gases storage or even separation. In this sense, the use of polycarboxylate anions and dipyridyl ligands is an effective strategy to produce extended structures with the needed characteristics for these applications. In this context, a novel compound, [Cu4(m-BDC)4(bpa)2DMF]•DMF has been obtained by microwave synthesis, where m-BDC is 1,3-benzenedicarboxylate and bpa 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane. The crystal structure can be described as a three dimensional framework formed by two equal, interpenetrated networks. Each network consists of two different CuII dimers. Dimer 1 have two coppers with a square pyramidal coordination, and dimer 2 have one with a square pyramidal coordination and other with octahedral one, the last dimer is unique in literature. Therefore, the combination of both type of dimers is unprecedented. Thus, benzenedicarboxylate ligands form sinusoidal chains between the same type of dimers, and also connect both chains forming these layers in the (100) plane. These layers are connected along the [100] direction through the bpa ligand, giving rise to a 3D network with 10 Å2 voids in average. However, the fact that there are two interpenetrated networks results in a significant reduction of the available volume. Structural analysis was carried out by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. Thermal and magnetic properties have been measured by means of thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray thermodiffractometry (TDX), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Additionally, CO2 and CH4 high pressure adsorption measurements have been carried out for this compound.

Keywords: gas adsorption, interpenetrated networks, magnetic measurements, solid coordination network (SCN), thermal stability

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5628 Synthesis of a Serie of Metallic Complexes Derived from bis(4-Amino-5-Mercapto-1,2,4-Triazol-3-yl)butane with First Raw Transition Metals

Authors: I. Belbachir, T. Benabdallah, N. Belhadj

Abstract:

The present research work describes the synthesis, through a multi-step strategy, as well as the structural characterization of a polydentate organic ligand, namely the bis(4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole-3-yl)butane (BAMT). The bis-triazolic ligand was characterized by different spectroscopic studies, in order to enlighten its coordination mode, in the neutral and deprotonated forms, towards cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) sulfates, in both solution and solid state. The stoichiometry of the complexes [neutral BAMT-metal] and [deprotonated BAMT-metal] was first established in a solution of DMF with each of the three metallic cations and their complexation constants calculated, allowing us to compare the stability of the various prepared complexes. The various complexes were finally isolated in the solid state and the coordination mode of neutral and deprotonated BAMT explored towards each of the three metallic sulfates. The establishment of some ligand field parameters (Dq, B, β…) by electronic spectroscopy finally allowed to compare the coordination modes of BAMT towards each of the three metals and to highlight the influence of the deprotonation on the complexing properties of the bis-triazolic ligand.

Keywords: 1, 2, 4-triazol, bis-1, 2, 4-triazol, metallic complexes, coordination in solution and solid state

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5627 Management of Interdependence in Manufacturing Networks

Authors: Atour Taghipour

Abstract:

In the real world each manufacturing company is an independent business unit. These business units are linked to each other through upstream and downstream linkages. The management of these linkages is called coordination which, could be considered as a difficult engineering task. The degree of difficulty of coordination depends on the type and the nature of information exchanged between partners as well as the structure of relationship from mutual to the network structure. The literature of manufacturing systems comprises a wide range of varieties of methods and approaches of coordination. In fact, two main streams of research can be distinguished: central coordination versus decentralized coordination. In the centralized systems a high degree of information exchanges is required. The high degree of information exchanges sometimes leads to difficulties when independent members do not want to share information. In order to address these difficulties, decentralized approaches of coordination of operations planning decisions based on some minimal information sharing have been proposed in many academic disciplines. This paper first proposes a framework of analysis in order to analyze the proposed approaches in the literature, based on this framework which includes the similarities between approaches we categorize the existing approaches. This classification can be used as a research map for future researches. The result of our paper highlights several opportunities for future research. First, it is proposed to develop more dynamic and stochastic mechanisms of planning coordination of manufacturing units. Second, in order to exploit the complementarities of approaches proposed by diverse science discipline, we propose to integrate the techniques of coordination. Finally, based on our approach we proposed to develop coordination standards to guaranty both the complementarity of these approaches as well as the freedom of companies to adopt any planning tools.

Keywords: network coordination, manufacturing, operations planning, supply chain

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5626 Systematic Study of Mutually Inclusive Influence of Temperature and Substitution on the Coordination Geometry of Co(II) in a Series of Coordination Polymer and Their Properties

Authors: Manasi Roy, Raju Mondal

Abstract:

During last two decades the synthesis and design of MOFs or novel coordination polymers (CPs) has flourished as an emerging area of research due to their role as functional materials. Accordingly, ten new cobalt-based MOFs have been synthesized using a simple bispyrazole ligand, 4,4′-methylene-bispyrazole (H2MBP), and isophthalic acid (H2IPA) and its four 5-substituted derivatives R-H2IPA (R = COOH, OH, tBu, NH2). The major aim of this study was to validate the mutual influence of temperature and substitutions on the final structural self-assembly. Five different isophthalic acid derivatives were used to study the influence of substituents while each reaction was carried out at two different temperatures to assess the temperature effect. A clear correlation was observed between the reaction temperature and the coordination number of the cobalt atoms which consequently changes the self assembly pattern. Another fact that the periodical change in coordination number did bring about some systematic changes in the structural network via secondary building unit selectivity. With the presence of a tunable cavity inside the network, and unsaturated metal centers, MOFs show highly encouraging photocatalytic degradation of toxic dye with a potential application in waste water purification. Another fascinating aspect of this work is the construction of magnetic coordination polymers with the occurrence of a not-so-common MCE behavior of cobalt-based MOF.

Keywords: MOFs, temperature effect, MCE, dye degradation

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5625 Forecasting Solid Waste Generation in Turkey

Authors: Yeliz Ekinci, Melis Koyuncu

Abstract:

Successful planning of solid waste management systems requires successful prediction of the amount of solid waste generated in an area. Waste management planning can protect the environment and human health, hence it is tremendously important for countries. The lack of information in waste generation can cause many environmental and health problems. Turkey is a country that plans to join European Union, hence, solid waste management is one of the most significant criteria that should be handled in order to be a part of this community. Solid waste management system requires a good forecast of solid waste generation. Thus, this study aims to forecast solid waste generation in Turkey. Artificial Neural Network and Linear Regression models will be used for this aim. Many models will be run and the best one will be selected based on some predetermined performance measures.

Keywords: forecast, solid waste generation, solid waste management, Turkey

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5624 A Survey of Novel Opportunistic Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: R. Poonkuzhali, M. Y. Sanavullah, M. R. Gurupriya

Abstract:

Opportunistic routing is used, where the network has the features like dynamic topology changes and intermittent network connectivity. In Delay Tolerant network or Disruption tolerant network opportunistic forwarding technique is widely used. The key idea of opportunistic routing is selecting forwarding nodes to forward data and coordination among these nodes to avoid duplicate transmissions. This paper gives the analysis of pros and cons of various opportunistic routing techniques used in MANET.

Keywords: ETX, opportunistic routing, PSR, throughput

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5623 Optimal Protection Coordination in Distribution Systems with Distributed Generations

Authors: Abdorreza Rabiee, Shahla Mohammad Hoseini Mirzaei

Abstract:

The advantages of distributed generations (DGs) based on renewable energy sources (RESs) leads to high penetration level of DGs in distribution network. With incorporation of DGs in distribution systems, the system reliability and security, as well as voltage profile, is improved. However, the protection of such systems is still challenging. In this paper, at first, the related papers are reviewed and then a practical scheme is proposed for coordination of OCRs in distribution system with DGs. The coordination problem is formulated as a nonlinear programming (NLP) optimization problem with the object function of minimizing total operating time of OCRs. The proposed method is studied based on a simple test system. The optimization problem is solved by General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) to calculate the optimal time dial setting (TDS) and also pickup current setting of OCRs. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed method and its applicability.

Keywords: distributed generation, DG, distribution network, over current relay, OCR, protection coordination, pickup current, time dial setting, TDS

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5622 A One Dimensional Cdᴵᴵ Coordination Polymer: Synthesis, Structure and Properties

Authors: Z. Derikvand, M. Dusek, V. Eigner

Abstract:

One dimensional coordination polymer of Cdᴵᴵ based on pyrazine (pz) and 3-nitrophthalic acid (3-nphaH₂), namely poly[[diaqua bis(3-nitro-2-carboxylato-1-carboxylic acid)(µ₂-pyrazine) cadmium(II)]dihydrate], {[Cd(3-nphaH)2(pz)(H₂O)₂]. 2H₂O}ₙ was prepared and characterized. The asymmetric unit consists of one Cdᴵᴵ center, two (3-nphaH)– anions, two halves of two crystallographically distinct pz ligands, two coordinated and two uncoordinated water molecules. The Cdᴵᴵ cation is surrounded by four oxygen atoms from two (3-nphaH)– and two water molecules as well as two nitrogen atoms from two pz ligands in distorted octahedral geometry. Complicated hydrogen bonding network accompanied with N–O···π and C–O···π stacking interactions leads to formation of a 3D supramolecular network. Commonly, this kind of C–O–π and N–O···π interaction is detected in electron-rich CO/NO groups of (3-nphaH)– ligand and electron-deficient π-system of pyrazine.

Keywords: supramolecular chemistry, Cd coordination polymer, crystal structure, 3-nithrophethalic acid

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5621 Drug Delivery to Solid Tumor: Effect of Dynamic Capillary Network Induced by Tumor

Authors: Mostafa Sefidgar, Kaamran Raahemifar, Hossein Bazmara, Madjid Soltani

Abstract:

The computational methods provide condition for investigation related to the process of drug delivery, such as convection and diffusion of drug in extracellular matrices, and drug extravasation from microvascular. The information of this process clarifies the mechanisms of drug delivery from the injection site to absorption by a solid tumor. In this study, an advanced numerical method is used to solve fluid flow and solute transport equations simultaneously to show how capillary network structure induced by tumor affects drug delivery. The effect of heterogeneous capillary network induced by tumor on interstitial fluid flow and drug delivery is investigated by this multi scale method. The sprouting angiogenesis model is used for generating capillary network induced by tumor. Fluid flow governing equations are implemented to calculate blood flow through the tumor-induced capillary network and fluid flow in normal and tumor tissues. The Starling’s law is used for closing this system of equations and coupling the intravascular and extravascular flows. Finally, convection-diffusion-reaction equation is used to simulate drug delivery. The dynamic approach which changes the capillary network structure based on signals sent by hemodynamic and metabolic stimuli is used in this study for more realistic assumption. The study indicates that drug delivery to solid tumors depends on the tumor induced capillary network structure. The dynamic approach generates the irregular capillary network around the tumor and predicts a higher interstitial pressure in the tumor region. This elevated interstitial pressure with irregular capillary network leads to a heterogeneous distribution of drug in the tumor region similar to in vivo observations. The investigation indicates that the drug transport properties have a significant role against the physiological barrier of drug delivery to a solid tumor.

Keywords: solid tumor, physiological barriers to drug delivery, angiogenesis, microvascular network, solute transport

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5620 Solving Directional Overcurrent Relay Coordination Problem Using Artificial Bees Colony

Authors: M. H. Hussain, I. Musirin, A. F. Abidin, S. R. A. Rahim

Abstract:

This paper presents the implementation of Artificial Bees Colony (ABC) algorithm in solving Directional OverCurrent Relays (DOCRs) coordination problem for near-end faults occurring in fixed network topology. The coordination optimization of DOCRs is formulated as linear programming (LP) problem. The objective function is introduced to minimize the operating time of the associated relay which depends on the time multiplier setting. The proposed technique is to taken as a technique for comparison purpose in order to highlight its superiority. The proposed algorithms have been tested successfully on 8 bus test system. The simulation results demonstrated that the ABC algorithm which has been proved to have good search ability is capable in dealing with constraint optimization problems.

Keywords: artificial bees colony, directional overcurrent relay coordination problem, relay settings, time multiplier setting

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5619 Interoperable Design Coordination Method for Sharing Communication Information Using Building Information Model Collaboration Format

Authors: Jin Gang Lee, Hyun-Soo Lee, Moonseo Park

Abstract:

The utilization of BIM and IFC allows project participants to collaborate across different areas by consistently sharing interoperable product information represented in a model. Comments or markups generated during the coordination process can be categorized as communication information, which can be shared in less standardized manner. It can be difficult to manage and reuse such information compared to the product information in a model. The present study proposes an interoperable coordination method using BCF (the BIM Collaboration Format) for managing and sharing the communication information during BIM based coordination process. A management function for coordination in the BIM collaboration system is developed to assess its ability to share the communication information in BIM collaboration projects. This approach systematically links communication information during the coordination process to the building model and serves as a type of storage system for retrieving knowledge created during BIM collaboration projects.

Keywords: design coordination, building information model, BIM collaboration format, industry foundation classes

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5618 Effective Supply Chain Coordination with Hybrid Demand Forecasting Techniques

Authors: Gurmail Singh

Abstract:

Effective supply chain is the main priority of every organization which is the outcome of strategic corporate investments with deliberate management action. Value-driven supply chain is defined through development, procurement and by configuring the appropriate resources, metrics and processes. However, responsiveness of the supply chain can be improved by proper coordination. So the Bullwhip effect (BWE) and Net stock amplification (NSAmp) values were anticipated and used for the control of inventory in organizations by both discrete wavelet transform-Artificial neural network (DWT-ANN) and Adaptive Network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). This work presents a comparative methodology of forecasting for the customers demand which is non linear in nature for a multilevel supply chain structure using hybrid techniques such as Artificial intelligence techniques including Artificial neural networks (ANN) and Adaptive Network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and Discrete wavelet theory (DWT). The productiveness of these forecasting models are shown by computing the data from real world problems for Bullwhip effect and Net stock amplification. The results showed that these parameters were comparatively less in case of discrete wavelet transform-Artificial neural network (DWT-ANN) model and using Adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS).

Keywords: bullwhip effect, hybrid techniques, net stock amplification, supply chain flexibility

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5617 Optimal Power Exchange of Multi-Microgrids with Hierarchical Coordination

Authors: Beom-Ryeol Choi, Won-Poong Lee, Jin-Young Choi, Young-Hak Shin, Dong-Jun Won

Abstract:

A Microgrid (MG) has a major role in power system. There are numerous benefits, such as ability to reduce environmental impact and enhance the reliability of a power system. Hence, Multi-MG (MMG) consisted of multiple MGs is being studied intensively. This paper proposes the optimal power exchange of MMG with hierarchical coordination. The whole system architecture consists of two layers: 1) upper layer including MG of MG Center (MoMC) which is in charge of the overall management and coordination and 2) lower layer comprised of several Microgrid-Energy Management Systems (MG-EMSs) which make a decision for own schedule. In order to accomplish the optimal power exchange, the proposed coordination algorithm is applied to MMG system. The objective of this process is to achieve optimal operation for improving economics under the grid-connected operation. The simulation results show how the output of each MG can be changed through coordination algorithm.

Keywords: microgrids, multi-microgrids, power exchange, hierarchical coordination

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5616 Distributed Coordination of Connected and Automated Vehicles at Multiple Interconnected Intersections

Authors: Zhiyuan Du, Baisravan Hom Chaudhuri, Pierluigi Pisu

Abstract:

In connected vehicle systems where wireless communication is available among the involved vehicles and intersection controllers, it is possible to design an intersection coordination strategy that leads the connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) travel through the road intersections without the conventional traffic light control. In this paper, we present a distributed coordination strategy for the CAVs at multiple interconnected intersections that aims at improving system fuel efficiency and system mobility. We present a distributed control solution where in the higher level, the intersection controllers calculate the road desired average velocity and optimally assign reference velocities of each vehicle. In the lower level, every vehicle is considered to use model predictive control (MPC) to track their reference velocity obtained from the higher level controller. The proposed method has been implemented on a simulation-based case with two-interconnected intersection network. Additionally, the effects of mixed vehicle types on the coordination strategy has been explored. Simulation results indicate the improvement on vehicle fuel efficiency and traffic mobility of the proposed method.

Keywords: connected vehicles, automated vehicles, intersection coordination systems, multiple interconnected intersections, model predictive control

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5615 End-to-End Control and Management of Multi-AS Virtual Service Networks Using SDN and Autonomic Computing Architecture

Authors: Yong Xue, Daniel A. Menascé

Abstract:

Automated and end-to-end network resource management and provisioning for virtual service networks in a multiple autonomous systems (a.k.a multi-AS) environment is a challenging and open problem. This paper proposes a novel, scalable and interoperable high-level architecture that incorporates a number of emerging enabling technologies including Software Defined Network (SDN), Network Function Virtualization (NFV), Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), and Autonomic Computing. The proposed architecture can be used to not only automate network resource management and provisioning for virtual service networks across multiple autonomous substrate networks, but also provide an adaptive capability for achieving optimal network resource management and maintaining network-level end-to-end network performance as well. The paper argues that this SDN and autonomic computing based architecture lays a solid foundation that can facilitate the development of the future Internet based on the pluralistic paradigm.

Keywords: virtual network, software defined network, virtual service network, adaptive resource management, SOA, multi-AS, inter-domain

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5614 Inferential Reasoning for Heterogeneous Multi-Agent Mission

Authors: Sagir M. Yusuf, Chris Baber

Abstract:

We describe issues bedeviling the coordination of heterogeneous (different sensors carrying agents) multi-agent missions such as belief conflict, situation reasoning, etc. We applied Bayesian and agents' presumptions inferential reasoning to solve the outlined issues with the heterogeneous multi-agent belief variation and situational-base reasoning. Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) was used in modeling the agents' belief conflict due to sensor variations. Simulation experiments were designed, and cases from agents’ missions were used in training the BBN using gradient descent and expectation-maximization algorithms. The output network is a well-trained BBN for making inferences for both agents and human experts. We claim that the Bayesian learning algorithm prediction capacity improves by the number of training data and argue that it enhances multi-agents robustness and solve agents’ sensor conflicts.

Keywords: distributed constraint optimization problem, multi-agent system, multi-robot coordination, autonomous system, swarm intelligence

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5613 A Method Development for Improving the Efficiency of Solid Waste Collection System Using Network Analyst

Authors: Dhvanidevi N. Jadeja, Daya S. Kaul, Anurag A. Kandya

Abstract:

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) collection in a city is performed in less effective manner which results in the poor management of the environment and natural resources. Municipal corporation does not possess efficient waste management and recycling programs because of the complex task involving many factors. Solid waste collection system depends upon various factors such as manpower, number and size of vehicles, transfer station size, dustbin size and weight, on-road traffic, and many others. These factors affect the collection cost, energy and overall municipal tax for the city. Generally, different types of waste are scattered throughout the city in a heterogeneous way that poses changes for efficient collection of solid waste. Efficient waste collection and transportation strategy must be effectively undertaken which will include optimization of routes, volume of waste, and manpower. Being these optimized, the overall cost can be reduced as the fuel and energy requirements would be less and also the municipal waste taxes levied will be less. To carry out the optimization study of collection system various data needs to be collected from the Ahmedabad municipal corporation such as amount of waste generated per day, number of workers, collection schedule, road maps, number of transfer station, location of transfer station, number of equipment (tractors, machineries), number of zones, route of collection etc. The ArcGis Network Analyst is introduced for the best routing identification applied in municipal waste collection. The simulation consists of scenarios of visiting loading spots in the municipality of Ahmedabad, considering dynamic factors like network traffic changes, closed roads due to natural or technical causes. Different routes were selected in a particular area of Ahmedabad city, and present routes were optimized to reduce the length of the routes, by using ArcGis Network Analyst. The result indicates up to 35% length minimization in the routes.

Keywords: collection routes, efficiency, municipal solid waste, optimization

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5612 Coordination of Traffic Signals on Arterial Streets in Duhok City

Authors: Dilshad Ali Mohammed, Ziyad Nayef Shamsulddin Aldoski, Millet Salim Mohammed

Abstract:

The increase in levels of traffic congestion along urban signalized arterials needs efficient traffic management. The application of traffic signal coordination can improve the traffic operation and safety for a series of signalized intersection along the arterials. The objective of this study is to evaluate the benefits achievable through actuated traffic signal coordination and make a comparison in control delay against the same signalized intersection in case of being isolated. To accomplish this purpose, a series of eight signalized intersections located on two major arterials in Duhok City was chosen for conducting the study. Traffic data (traffic volumes, link and approach speeds, and passenger car equivalent) were collected at peak hours. Various methods had been used for collecting data such as video recording technique, moving vehicle method and manual methods. Geometric and signalization data were also collected for the purpose of the study. The coupling index had been calculated to check the coordination attainability, and then time space diagrams were constructed representing one-way coordination for the intersections on Barzani and Zakho Streets, and others represented two-way coordination for the intersections on Zakho Street with accepted progression bandwidth efficiency. The results of this study show great progression bandwidth of 54 seconds for east direction coordination and 17 seconds for west direction coordination on Barzani Street under suggested controlled speed of 60 kph agreeable with the present data. For Zakho Street, the progression bandwidth is 19 seconds for east direction coordination and 18 seconds for west direction coordination under suggested controlled speed of 40 kph. The results show that traffic signal coordination had led to high reduction in intersection control delays on both arterials.

Keywords: bandwidth, congestion, coordination, traffic, signals, streets

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5611 Optimum Design for Cathode Microstructure of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

Authors: M. Riazat, H. Abdolvand, M. Baniassadi

Abstract:

In this present work, 3D reconstruction of cathode of SOFC is developed with various volume fractions and porosity. Three Phase Boundary (TPB) of construction of such derived micro structures is calculated. The neural network is used to optimize the porosity and volume fraction of each phase to reach a structure with maximum TPB.

Keywords: fuel cell, solid oxide, TPB, 3D reconstruction

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5610 A Unified Ghost Solid Method for the Elastic Solid-Solid Interface

Authors: Abouzar Kaboudian, Boo Cheong Khoo

Abstract:

The Ghost Solid Method (GSM) based algorithms have been extensively used for numerical calculation of wave propagation in the limit of abrupt changes in materials. In this work, we present a unified version of the GSMs that can be successfully applied to both abrupt as well as smooth changes of the material properties in a medium. The application of this method enables us to use the previously-matured numerical algorithms which were developed to be applied to homogeneous mediums, with only minor modifications. This method is developed for one-dimensional settings and its extension to multi-dimensions is briefly discussed. Various numerical experiments are presented to show the applicability of this unified GSM to wave propagation problems in sharply as well as smoothly varying mediums.

Keywords: elastic solid, functionally graded material, ghost solid method, solid-solid interaction

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5609 Policy Monitoring and Water Stakeholders Network Analysis in Shemiranat

Authors: Fariba Ebrahimi, Mehdi Ghorbani

Abstract:

Achieving to integrated Water management fundamentally needs to effective relation, coordination, collaboration and synergy among various actors who have common but different responsibilities. In this sense, the foundation of comprehensive and integrated management is not compatible with centralization and top-down strategies. The aim of this paper is analysis institutional network of water relevant stakeholders and water policy monitoring in Shemiranat. In this study collaboration networks between informal and formal institutions co-management process have been investigated. Stakeholder network analysis as a quantitative method has been implicated in this research. The results of this study indicate that institutional cohesion is medium; sustainability of institutional network is about 40 percent (medium). Additionally the core-periphery index has measured in this study according to reciprocity index. Institutional capacities for integrated natural resource management in regional level are measured in this study. Furthermore, the necessity of centrality reduction and promote stakeholders relations and cohesion are emphasized to establish a collaborative natural resource governance.

Keywords: policy monitoring, water management, social network, stakeholder, shemiranat

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5608 Synthesis Modified Electrodes with Au/Pt Nanoparticles and Two New Coordination Polymers of Ag(I) and Cu(II) Constructed by Pyrazine and 3-Nitrophthalic Acid as a Novel Electrochemical Sensing Platform

Authors: Zohreh Derikvand, Hadis Cheraghi, Azadeh Azadbakht, Vaclav Eigner, Michal Dusek

Abstract:

Two new one and two dimensional metal organic coordination polymers of Cu(II), [Cu(3-nph)2(H2O)2pz]n (1) and Ag(I), {[Ag(3-nph)pz].H2O}n (2) with pyrazine (pz) and 3- nitrophthalic acid (3-nph) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (IR, UV-Vis), thermal (TG/DTG) analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. We used these compounds to preparation modified electrode with Au/Pt nanosparticles in order to investigation electrochemistry and electrocatalysis activities. The surface structure and composition of the sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Ag(I) coordination polymer shows a 2D layer structure constructed from dinuclear silver (I) building blocks in which two crystallographically Ag+ ions are connected to each other by a covalent bond. The pyrazine ligands adopt μ2 bridging modes, linking the metal centers into a one and two -dimensional coordination framework in 1 and 2. The two AgI cations are surrounded by pyrazine and 3-nitrophthalate mono anions and indicate distorted tetrahedral geometry. In the crystal structures of Ag(I) complex there are non-classical hydrogen bonding arrangements, C–O•••π and π–π stacking interactions. In Cu(II) coordination polymer, the coordination geometry around Cu(II) atom is a distorted octahedron. Interestingly, the structural analysis illustrates that the strong and weak hydrogen bond accompanied with C–H•••π and C–O•••π stacking interactions assemble the crystal structure of 1 and 2 into fascinating 3D supramolecular architecture.

Keywords: 3-nithrophethalic acid, crystal structure, coordination polymer, electrocatalysis

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5607 Electrochemical Coordination Polymers of Copper(II) Synthesis by Using Rigid and Felexible Ligands

Authors: P. Mirahmadpour, M. H. Banitaba, D. Nematollahi

Abstract:

The chemistry of coordination polymers in recent years has grown exponentially not only because of their interesting architectures but also due to their various technical applications in many fields including ion exchange, chemical catalysis, small molecule separations, and drug release. The use of bridging ligands for the controlled self-assembly of one, two or three dimensional metallo-supramolecular species is the subject of serious study in last decade. Numerous different synthetic methods have been offered for the preparation of coordination polymers such as (a) diffusion from the gas phase, (b) slow diffusion of the reactants into a polymeric matrix, (c) evaporation of the solvent at ambient or reduced temperatures, (d) temperature controlled cooling, (e) precipitation or recrystallisation from a mixture of solvents and (f) hydrothermal synthesis. The electrosynthetic process suggested several advantages over conventional approaches. A general advantage of electrochemical synthesis is that it allows synthesis under milder conditions than typical solvothermal or microwave synthesis. In this work we have introduced a simple electrochemical method for growing metal coordination polymers based on copper with a flexible 2,2’-thiodiacetic acid (TDA) and rigid 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylate (BTC) ligands. The structure of coordination polymers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis, thermal gravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA). The single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that different conformations of the ligands and different coordination modes of the carboxylate group as well as different coordination geometries of the copper atoms. Electrochemical synthesis of coordination polymers has different advantages such as faster synthesis at lower temperature in compare with conventional chemical methods and crystallization of desired materials in a single synthetic step.

Keywords: 1, 2, 4, 5-benzenetetracarboxylate, coordination polymer, copper, 2, 2’-thiodiacetic acid

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5606 Effect of Different Porous Media Models on Drug Delivery to Solid Tumors: Mathematical Approach

Authors: Mostafa Sefidgar, Sohrab Zendehboudi, Hossein Bazmara, Madjid Soltani

Abstract:

Based on findings from clinical applications, most drug treatments fail to eliminate malignant tumors completely even though drug delivery through systemic administration may inhibit their growth. Therefore, better understanding of tumor formation is crucial in developing more effective therapeutics. For this purpose, nowadays, solid tumor modeling and simulation results are used to predict how therapeutic drugs are transported to tumor cells by blood flow through capillaries and tissues. A solid tumor is investigated as a porous media for fluid flow simulation. Most of the studies use Darcy model for porous media. In Darcy model, the fluid friction is neglected and a few simplified assumptions are implemented. In this study, the effect of these assumptions is studied by considering Brinkman model. A multi scale mathematical method which calculates fluid flow to a solid tumor is used in this study to investigate how neglecting fluid friction affects the solid tumor simulation. In this work, the mathematical model in our previous studies is developed by considering two model of momentum equation for porous media: Darcy and Brinkman. The mathematical method involves processes such as fluid flow through solid tumor as porous media, extravasation of blood flow from vessels, blood flow through vessels and solute diffusion, convective transport in extracellular matrix. The sprouting angiogenesis model is used for generating capillary network and then fluid flow governing equations are implemented to calculate blood flow through the tumor-induced capillary network. Finally, the two models of porous media are used for modeling fluid flow in normal and tumor tissues in three different shapes of tumors. Simulations of interstitial fluid transport in a solid tumor demonstrate that the simplifications used in Darcy model affect the interstitial velocity and Brinkman model predicts a lower value for interstitial velocity than the values that Darcy model does.

Keywords: solid tumor, porous media, Darcy model, Brinkman model, drug delivery

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5605 An Electromyographic Study of Muscle Coordination during Dynamic Glenohumeral Joint Elevation

Authors: Omid Khaiyat, David Hawkes

Abstract:

Introduction: There remains a lack of information on sophisticated coordination patterns across shoulder girdle muscles. Considering the stability of the shoulder being heavily dependent on coordinated muscle activity during its wide-ranging movements, it is important that key intermuscular relationships are well-defined for a better understanding of underlying pathology. This study investigated shoulder intermuscular coordination during different planes of shoulder elevation. Materials and Methods: EMG was recorded from 14 shoulder muscles in 20 healthy participants during shoulder flexion, scapula plane elevation, abduction, and extension. Cross-correlation by means of Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC) was used to examine the coordination between different muscles and muscle groups. Results: Coordination between rotator cuff and deltoid muscle groups was significantly higher (p =0.020-0.035) during the initial (PCC) = 0.79) and final (PCC = 0.74) phases of elevation compared to the mid-range (PCC = 0.34). Furthermore, a high level of coordination (PCC = 0.89) was noted between the deltoid group and the adductor group (latissimus dorsi and teres major) during the initial stage of shoulder elevation. Conclusion: The destabilising force of the deltoid during the initial stage of shoulder elevation is balanced by coordinated activity of rotator cuff, latissimus dorsi, and teres major. This is also the case for the end-range of movement, where increased demand for stability again leads to higher coordination between the deltoid and rotator cuff muscle groups. Appreciation of the sophistication of normal shoulder function evidence-based rehabilitation strategies for conditions such as subacromial impingement syndrome or shoulder instability can be developed.

Keywords: shoulder, coordination, EMG, muscle activity, upper limb

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5604 Fault Location Detection in Active Distribution System

Authors: R. Rezaeipour, A. R. Mehrabi

Abstract:

Recent increase of the DGs and microgrids in distribution systems, disturbs the tradition structure of the system. Coordination between protection devices in such a system becomes the concern of the network operators. This paper presents a new method for fault location detection in the active distribution networks, independent of the fault type or its resistance. The method uses synchronized voltage and current measurements at the interconnection of DG units and is able to adapt to changes in the topology of the system. The method has been tested on a 38-bus distribution system, with very encouraging results.

Keywords: fault location detection, active distribution system, micro grids, network operators

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5603 Changes in Postural Stability after Coordination Exercise

Authors: Ivan Struhár, Martin Sebera, Lenka Dovrtělová

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to find out if the special type of exercise with elastic cord can improve the level of postural stability. The exercise programme was conducted twice a week for 3 months. The participants were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group. The electronic balance board was used for testing of postural stability. All participants trained for 18 hours at the time of experiment without any special form of coordination programme. The experimental group performed 90 minutes plus of coordination exercise. The result showed that differences between pre-test and post-test occurred in the experimental group. It was used the nonparametric Wilcoxon t-test for paired samples (p=0.012; the significance level 95%). We calculated effect size by Cohen´s d. In the experimental group d is 1.96 which indicates a large effect. In the control group d is 0.04 which confirms no significant improvement.

Keywords: balance board, balance training, coordination, stability

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5602 A Multi Agent Based Protection Scheme for Smart Distribution Network in Presence of Distributed Energy Resources

Authors: M. R. Ebrahimi, B. Mahdaviani

Abstract:

Conventional electric distribution systems are radial in nature, supplied at one end through a main source. These networks generally have a simple protection system usually implemented using fuses, re-closers, and over-current relays. Recently, great attention has been paid to applying Distributed energy resources (DERs) throughout electric distribution systems. Presence of such generation in a network leads to losing coordination of protection devices. Therefore, it is desired to develop an algorithm which is capable of protecting distribution systems that include DER. On the other hand smart grid brings opportunities to the power system. Fast advancement in communication and measurement techniques accelerates the development of multi agent system (MAS). So in this paper, a new approach for the protection of distribution networks in the presence of DERs is presented base on MAS. The proposed scheme has been implemented on a sample 27-bus distribution network.

Keywords: distributed energy resource, distribution network, protection, smart grid, multi agent system

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5601 Interpersonal Body-Synchronization in Young Children When Watching Video Together

Authors: Saeko Takahashi, Kazuo Hiraki

Abstract:

Is it more fun to watch videos together than watching alone? Previous studies showed that synchronizing with others enhances subsequent prosocial behavior and affiliation, and conversely, prosocial individuals tend to coordinate with a partner to a greater extent. However, compared to adults, less is known about interpersonal coordination of young children in real-life situations because most studies have focused on children’s particular movement using specific tools or tasks in a laboratory setting. It has also been unclear if prosociality of young children affect the extent of interpersonal coordination within dyads. The present study examined data from motion capture of five body parts of 4-year-old dyads watching the same stimuli together or alone. A questionnaire survey including participants’ prosocial trait was also conducted. The wavelet coherence of each body parts within dyads was calculated as a measure of the extent of interpersonal coordination. Results showed that the dyads became significantly more coordinated in a social situation compared to a non-social situation. Moreover, dyads with averagely higher prosociality were more coordinated. These results shed some light on the development of interpersonal coordination in terms of social ability in young children. This study also offers a useful method for a study of spontaneous coordination in young children and infants without instructions or verbal responses.

Keywords: child development, interpersonal coordination, prosociality, synchrony, wavelet transform

Procedia PDF Downloads 41