Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: tetrachloride

26 Camel Thorn Has Hepatoprotective Activity Against Carbon Tetrachloride or Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity but Enhances the Cardiac Toxicity of Adriamycin in Rodents

Authors: Awad G. Abdellatif, Huda M. Gargoum, Abdelkader A. Debani, Mudafara Bengleil, Salmin Alshalmani, N. El Zuki, Omran El Fitouri

Abstract:

In this study, the administration of 660 mg/kg of the ethanolic extract of the Alhgigraecorum (camel thorn) to mice, showed a significant decrease in the level of transaminases in animals treated with a combination of CTE plus carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or acetaminophen as compared to animals receiving CCl4 or acetaminophen alone. The histopathological investigation also confirmed that camel thorn extract protects the liver against damage-induced either by carbon tetrachloride or acetaminophen. On the other hand, the cardiac toxicity produced by adriamycin was significantly increased in the presence of the ethanolic extract of camel thorn. Our study suggested that camel thorn can protect the liver against the injury produced by carbon tetrachloride or acetaminophen, with an unexpected increase in the cardiac toxicity–induced by adriamycin in rodents.

Keywords: ethanolic, alhgigraecorum, tetrachloride, acetaminophen

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25 Therapeutic Role of Polygonum bistorta and Zingiber roseum by in vivo and in vitro Study

Authors: Deepak Kumar Mittal, Alok Kumar Jena, Deepmala Joshi

Abstract:

The present study was carried out to observe the hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract of the roots of Polygonum bistorta (PB) (200 mg/kg) and Zingiber roseum (ZR) (250 mg/kg) in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride (0.15 ml/kg, i.p.). Extract of PB and ZR at the tested doses restored the levels of liver homogenate enzymes, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes, significantly. The activities of MTT assay significantly recovered the damage and supported the biochemical observations. This study suggests that Zingiber roseum has a higher protective effect on liver, compared to Polygonum bistorta, against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity and possesses antioxidant activities. Also, extracts exhibited moderate anticancer activity towards cell viability at higher concentration.

Keywords: Polygonum bistorta, Zingiber roseum, hepatoprotective effect, carbon tetrachloride, anti-cancerous

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24 Hepatoprotective Activity of Sharbat Deenar, against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Nazmul Huda, Ashik Mosaddik, Abdul Awal, Shafiqur Rahman, Rukhsana Shaheen, Mustofa Nabi

Abstract:

Polyherbal formulation Sharbat Deenar is a very popular unani medicine in Bangladesh. It is usually used for different kinds of liver disorders. In absence of reliable and inadequate hepatoprotective agents in conventional medicine, the herbal preparations are preferred for liver diseases. The present study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Sharbat Deenar on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity in male Long-Evans albino rats. Group I served as normal control and received neither formulation nor carbon tetrachloride. Group II received only CCl4 1mL/kg body weight of rat intraperitoneally for consecutive 14 days. Group III received CCl4 1mL/kg body weight of rat intraperitoneally and Silymarin, in dose 50mg/kg body weight of rat orally. Group IV received CCl4 1mL/kg body weight of rat intraperitoneally and Sharbat Deenar 1mL/kg body weight of rat for the same 14 consecutive days. At the end of the study, hepatoprotective activity was evaluated by the levels of total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Histopathological study of rat liver was also carried out. The results showed that polyherbal formulation Sharbat Deenar exhibited a significant hepatoprotective effect. Such an outcome seems to be the synergistic effect of all ingredients of tested herbal formulation. Although this study suggests that Sharbat Deenar may be used to cure or minimize various liver diseases, it needs further study to attain the clarity of mechanism and safety.

Keywords: polyherbal formulation, sharbat deenar, carbon tetrachloride, silymarin, hepatoprotective

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23 Grape Seed Extract in Prevention and Treatment of Liver Toxic Cirrhosis in Rats

Authors: S. Buloyan, V. Mamikonyan, H. Hakobyan, H. Harutyunyan, H. Gasparyan

Abstract:

The liver is the strongest regenerating organ of the organism, and even with 2/3 surgically removed, it can regenerate completely. Hence, liver cirrhosis may only develop when the regenerating system is off. We present the results of a comparative study of structural and functional characteristics of rat liver tissue under the conditions of toxic liver cirrhosis development, induced by carbon tetrachloride, and its prevention/treatment by natural compounds with antioxidant and immune stimulating action. Studies were made on Wister rats, weighing 120~140 g. Grape seeds extracts, separately and in combination with well known anticirrhotic drug ursodeoxycholic acid (ursodiol) have demonstrated effectiveness in prevention of liver cirrhosis development and its treatment.

Keywords: carbon tetrachloride, GSE, liver cirrhosis, prevention, treatment

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22 Study on the Effect Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Extracts on Rat Liver Injuries Induced by Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)

Authors: Asmaa F. Hamouda, Randa M Shrourou

Abstract:

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) constitute apportion of regular human diet. The effect of Cabbage(CE) and Ginger extracts(GE) separately on liver nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin, total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(T.G), high density lipoprotein(HDL cholesterol), low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), Triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4) in rats treated and untreated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was studied. The levels of NO, MDA, as well as serum AST, ALT, total bilirubin, TC, T.G, LDLand TSH showed an elevation and decline in HDL, T3, and T4 in rats treated with CCl4 as compared to control. Treatment of rats with GE pre, during, and post CCl4 administration improved NO, MDA, as well as serum AST, ALT, total bilirubin, TC, T.G, HDL, LDL, TSH, T3, T4 as compared to CCl4, indicates that GE improve thyroid function and reduced oxidative stress as well as injuries induced by CCl4. Treatment of rats with CE pre, during, and post CCl4 administration did not improved in the thyroid hormones and lipid profile levels as compared to CCl4. These findings suggest that ginger treatment exerts a protective effect on metabolic disorders by decreasing oxidative stress.

Keywords: liver injuries, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), ginger (Zingiber officinale), thyroid function

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21 Hepatoprotective Assessment of L-Ascorbate 1-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-4,6-Dimethyl-1, 2-Dihydropyrimidine-2-On Exposure to Carbon Tetrachloride

Authors: Nail Nazarov, Alexandra Vyshtakalyuk, Vyacheslav Semenov, Irina Galyametdinova, Vladimir Zobov, Vladimir Reznik

Abstract:

Among hepatic pyrimidine used as a means of stimulating protein synthesis and recovery of liver cells in her damaged toxic and infectious etiology. When an experimental toxic hepatitis hepatoprotective activity detected some pyrimidine derivatives. There are literature data on oksimetiluratcila hepatoprotective effect. For analogs of pyrimidine nucleobases - drugs Methyluracilum pentoxy and hepatoprotective effect of weakly expressed. According to the American scientists broad spectrum of biological activity, including hepatoprotective properties, have a 2,4-dioxo-5-arilidenimino uracils. Influenced Xymedon medicinal preparation (1- (beta-hydroxyethyl) -4,6-dimethyl-1,2-dihydro-2-oksopirimidin) developed as a means of stimulating the regeneration of tissue revealed increased activity of microsomal oxidases human liver. In studies on the model of toxic liver damage in rats have shown hepatoprotective effect xymedon and stimulating its impact on the recovery of the liver tissue. Hepatoprotective properties of the new compound in the series of pyrimidine derivatives L-ascorbate 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4,6-dimethyl-1,2-dihydropirimidine-2-one synthesized on the basis Xymedon preparation were firstly investigated on rats under the carbon tetrachloride action. It was shown the differences of biochemical parameters from the reference value and severity of structural-morphological liver violations decreased in comparison with control group under the influence of the compound injected before exposure carbon tetrachloride. Hepatoprotective properties of the investigated compound were more pronounced in comparison with Xymedon.

Keywords: hepatoprotectors, pyrimidine derivatives, toxic liver damage, xymedon

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20 Protective Effects of Coenzyme Q10 and N-Acetylcysteine on Myocardial Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Impaired Energy metabolism in Carbon Tetrachloride Intoxicated Rats

Authors: Nayira A. Abd Elbaky, Amal J. Fatani, Hazar Yaqub, Nouf M. Al-Rasheed, Naglaa El-Orabi, Mai Osman

Abstract:

The present work is aimed to evaluate the protective effect of N-acetyl cystiene (NAC), coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), and their combination against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. CCl4 treatment significantly elevated the levels of cardiac oxidative stress bio markers including nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA). A concomitant decrease in the level of reduced glutathione and the activity of membrane bound enzyme, calcium-adenosine triphosphatase were observed in the hearts of rats exposed to CCl4 compared to respective values in normal group. Quantitative analysis of myocardial energy metabolism revealed a significant decrease in the glucose content coupled with depletion in the activities of myocardial glycolytic enzymes as hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) after CCl4 treatment. In addition, a significant elevation in myocardial hydroxyproline level was observed in CCl4 intoxicated rats indicating interstitial collagen accumulation. Pretreatment with either NAC, CoQ10 or their combination successively alleviated the alterations in myocardial oxidative stress and antioxidant markers, as well as effectively up-regulated the decrease in cardiac energetic biomarkers in CCl4 intoxicated rats. Moreover, these antioxidants markedly reduced myocardial hydroxyproline level versus that of CCl4-treated animals. In conclusion, the present results illustrated that the prophylactic use of the current antioxidant resulted in a remarkable cardioprotective effect against CCl4 induced myocardial damage, which suggest that they may candidates as prophylactic agents against different cardio-toxins.

Keywords: carbon tetrachloride, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant, energy metabolism, hydroxyproline

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19 Development and Characterization of Soya Phosphatidylcholine Complex of Coumestans from Eclipta alba for the Management of Hepatotoxicity

Authors: Abhishek Kumar Jain, Anki Jain, Yuvraj Singh Dangi, Brajesh Kumar Tiwari

Abstract:

The plant Eclipta alba Hassk. (Family: Compositae) contains coumestans (wedelolactone and demethyl wedelolactone) used in liver disorders. The objective of the present investigation was to develop a formulation of these coumestans in combination with the soya phosphatidylcholine (PC), in order to overcome the limitation of absorption and to investigate the protective effect of coumestans–phosphatidylcholine complex (C-PC) on carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver damage in rats. Methanolic extract (ME) of the whole plant of Eclipta alba was fractionated with water and then with ehylacetate. Coumestans were characterized in the ethylacetate fraction of methanolic extract (EFME). The C-PC was prepared by dissolving EFME and PC in 1:1 ratio in dichloromethane and heating at 60°C for 2 h. The C-PC was characterized by DSC and FTIR spectroscopy. In vitro drug release from EFME and C-PC through egg membrane was measured using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The hepatoprotective activity of C-PC (equivalent to 5.35 and 10.7 mg/kg body weight of EFME), ME 250 mg/kg and EFME 5.35 mg/kg was evaluated by measuring various enzymes level. C-PC significantly provided better protection to the liver by restoring the enzyme levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP and total billirubin with respect to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated group (P < 0.001). Histopathological studies were also performed. The C-PC provided better protection to rat liver than ME and EFME at similar doses as well as shown significant regeneration of hepatocytes, central vein, intact cytoplasm, and nucleus.

Keywords: hepatotoxicity, wedelolactone, soya phosphatidylcholine, eclipta alba

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18 Comparative Histological, Immunohistochemical and Biochemical Study on the Effect of Vit. C, Vit. E, Gallic Acid and Silymarin on Carbon Tetrachloride Model of Liver Fibrosis in Rats

Authors: Safaa S. Hassan, Mohammed H. Elbakry, Safwat A. Mangoura, Zainab M. Omar

Abstract:

Background: Liver fibrosis is the main reason for increased mortality in chronic liver disease. It has no standard treatment. Antioxidants from a variety of sources are capable of slowing or preventing oxidation of other molecules. Aim: to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of vit. C, vit. E and gallic acid in comparison to silymarin in the rat model of carbon tetrachloride induced liver fibrosis and their possible mechanisms of action. Material& Methods: A total number of 60 adult male albino rats 160-200gm were divided into six equal groups; received subcutaneous (s.c) injection for 8 weeks. Group I: as control. Group II: received 1.5 mL/kg of CCL4 .Group III: CCL4 and co- treatment with silymarin 100mg/kg p.o. daily. Group IV: CCL4 and co-treatment with vit. C 50mg/kg p.o. daily. Group V: CCL4 and co-treatment with vit. E 200mg/kg. p.o. Group VI: CCL4 and co-treatment with Gallic acid 100mg/kg. p.o. daily. Liver was processed for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Levels of AST, ALT, ALP, reduced GSH, MDA, SOD and hydroxyproline concentration were measured and evaluated statistically. Results: Light and electron microscopic examination of liver of group II exhibited foci of altered cells with dense nuclei and vacuolated, granular cytoplasm, mononuclear cell infiltration in portal areas, profuse collagen fiber deposits were found around portal tract, more intense staining α-SMA-positive cells occupied most of the liver fibrosis tissue, electron lucent areas in the cytoplasm of the hepatocytes, margination of nuclear chromatin. Treatment by any of the antioxidants variably reduced the hepatic structural changes induced by CCL4. Biochemical analysis showed that carbon tetrachloride significantly increased the levels of serum AST, ALT, ALP, hepatic malondialdehyde and hydroxyproline content. Moreover, it decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione. Treatment with silymarin, gallic acid, vit. C and vit. E decreased significantly the AST, ALT, and ALP levels in plasma, MDA and hydroxyproline and increased the activities of SOD and glutathione in liver tissue. The effect of administration of CCl4 was improved with the used antioxidants in variable degrees. The most efficient antioxidant was silymarin followed by gallic acid and vit. C then vit. E. It is possibly due to their antioxidant effect, free radical scavenging properties and the reduction of oxidant dependent activation and proliferation of HSCs. Conclusion: So these antioxidants can be a promising drugs candidate for ameliorating liver fibrosis better than the use of the drugs and their side effects.

Keywords: antioxidant, ccl4, gallic acid, liver fibrosis

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17 Lactate Biostimulation for Remediation of Aquifers Affected by Recalcitrant Sources of Chloromethanes

Authors: Diana Puigserver Cuerda, Jofre Herrero Ferran, José M. Carmona Perez

Abstract:

In the transition zone between aquifers and basal aquitards, DNAPL-pools of chlorinated solvents are more recalcitrant than at other depths in the aquifer. Although degradation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF) occurs in this zone, this is a slow process, which is why an adequate remediation strategy is necessary. The working hypothesis of this study is that the biostimulation of the transition zone of an aquifer contaminated by CT and CF can be an effective remediation strategy. This hypothesis has been tested in a site on an unconfined aquifer in which the major contaminants were CT and CF of industrial origin and where the hydrochemical background was rich in other compounds that can hinder natural attenuation of chloromethanes. Field studies and five laboratory microcosm experiments were carried out at the level of groundwater and sediments to identify: i) the degradation processes of CT and CF; ii) the structure of microbial communities; and iii) the microorganisms implicated on this degradation. For this, concentration of contaminants and co-contaminants (nitrate and sulfate), Compound Specific Isotope Analysis, molecular techniques (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) and clone library analysis were used. The main results were: i) degradation processes of CT and CF occurred in groundwater and in the lesser conductive sediments; ii) sulfate-reducing conditions in the transition zone were high and similar to those in the source of contamination; iii) two microorganisms (Azospira suillum and a bacterium of the Clostridiales order) were identified in the transition zone at the field and lab experiments that were compatible with the role of carrying out the reductive dechlorination of CT, CF and their degradation products (dichloromethane and chloromethane); iv) these two microorganisms were present at the high starting concentrations of the microcosm experiments (similar to those in the source of DNAPL) and continued being present until the last day of the lactate biostimulation; and v) the lactate biostimulation gave rise to the fastest and highest degradation rates and promoted the elimination of other electron acceptors (e.g. nitrate and sulfate). All these results are evidence that lactate biostimulation can be effective in remediating the source and plume, especially in the transition zone, and highlight the environmental relevance of the treatment of contaminated transition zones in industrial contexts similar to that studied.

Keywords: Azospira suillum, lactate biostimulation of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform, reductive dechlorination, transition zone between aquifer and aquitard

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16 The Effect of Diluents in the Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Cobalt(II) with Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phosphoric Acid

Authors: Fatima Ghebghoub

Abstract:

The solvent extraction of cobalt (II) from sulfate medium using di(2-ethylhexy1) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA, HL) at 25°C has been investigated. The influence of the following parameters was studied: the equilibrium pH, the concentration of the extractant and the nature of diluent. The effect of the diluent using polar and non-polar solvents in the extraction of nickel(II) is discussed. The extracted nickel (II species were found to be CoL2 in 1-octanol and methyl isobutyl ketone and CoL2.2HL in toluene, dichloromethane, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and cyclohexane. The extraction constants are evaluated for the different diluents.

Keywords: liquid-liquid extraction, cobalt(II), di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid, diluent effect

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15 Effect of Impurities in the Chlorination Process of TiO2

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

With the increasing interest on Ti alloys, the extraction process of Ti from its typical ore, TiO2, has long been and will be important issue. As an intermediate product for the production of pigment or titanium metal sponge, tetrachloride (TiCl4) is produced by fluidized bed using high TiO2 feedstock. The purity of TiCl4 after chlorination is subjected to the quality of the titanium feedstock. Since the impurities in the TiCl4 product are reported to final products, the purification process of the crude TiCl4 is required. The purification process includes fractional distillation and chemical treatment, which depends on the nature of the impurities present and the required quality of the final product. In this study, thermodynamic analysis on the impurity effect in the chlorination process, which is the first step of extraction of Ti from TiO2, has been conducted. All thermodynamic calculations were performed using the FactSage thermodynamical software.

Keywords: rutile, titanium, chlorination process, impurities, thermodynamic calculation, FactSage

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14 Thermodynamic Analysis of Hydrogen Plasma Reduction of TiCl₄

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

With increasing demands for high performance materials, intensive interest on the Ti has been focused. Especially, low cost production process of Ti has been extremely necessitated from wide parts and various industries. Tetrachloride (TiCl₄) is produced by fluidized bed using high TiO₂ feedstock and used as an intermediate product for the production of metal titanium sponge. Reduction of TiCl₄ is usually conducted by Kroll process using magnesium as a reduction reagent, producing metallic Ti in the shape of sponge. The process is batch type and takes very long time including post processes treating sponge. As an alternative reduction reagent, hydrogen in the state of plasma has long been strongly recommended. Experimental confirmation has not been completely reported yet and more strict analysis is required. In the present study, hydrogen plasma reduction process has been thermodynamically analyzed focusing the effects of temperature, pressure and concentration. All thermodynamic calculations were performed using the FactSage® thermodynamical software.

Keywords: TiCl₄, titanium, hydrogen, plasma, reduction, thermodynamic calculation

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13 Isolation of Antimicrobial Compounds from Marine Sponge Neopetrosia exigua

Authors: Haitham Qaralleh, Syed Z. Idid, Shahbudin Saad, Deny Susanti, Osama Althunibat

Abstract:

This study was carried out to isolate the active antimicrobial compounds from Neopetrosia exigua using bio-guided assay isolation against Staphylococcus aureus. N. exigua was extracted using methanol and subjected to liquid-liquid extraction using solvents with different polarity (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane, n-butanol and water). Purification of the active components of n-butanol and dichloromethane fractions was done using Sephadex LH-20 and reverse phase chromatography. Based on the biological guided fractionation results, dichloromethane and n-butanol fractions showed the highest antimicrobial activity. Purification of the active components of n-butanol and dichloromethane fractions yielded three compounds. The structure of the isolated compounds were elucidated and found to be 5-hydroxy-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester, cyclo-1`-demethylcystalgerone and avarol derivative. Avarol was showed potent bactericidal effect against S. aureus. N. exigua appears to be rich source of natural antimicrobial agents. Further studies are needed to investigate the mode of action of these compounds.

Keywords: antimicrobial, avarol, Neopetrosia exigua, Staphylococcus aureus

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12 Effect of Carbon Nanotubes on Thermophysical Properties of Photothermal Fluid and Enhancement of Photothermal Deflection Signal

Authors: Muhammad Shafiq Ahmed, Sabastine Ezugwu

Abstract:

Thermophysical properties of Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl₄), a photothermal fluid used frequently in Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS), containing different volume fractions of single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNTs) and their effect on the amplitude of PDS signal are investigated. It is found that the presence of highly thermally conducting SWCNTs in CCl₄ enhances the heat transfer from heated sample to the adjoining photothermal fluid, resulting in an increase in the intensity of amplitude of PDS signal. With the increasing volume fraction of SWCNTs in CCl₄, the amplitude of PDS signal is nearly doubled for volume fraction fopt =3.7X10⁻³ %., after that the signal drops with a further increase in the fraction of SWCNTs. It is shown that the use of highly thermally conducting carbon nanotubes enhances the heat exchange coefficient between the heated sample surface and adjoining fluid, resulting to an enhancement of PDS signal and consequently the improvement in the sensitivity of PDS technique.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, heat transfer, nanofluid, photothermal deflection spectroscopy, thermophysical properties

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11 Curcumin Attenuates Angiogenesis in Liver Fibrosis and Inhibits Angiogenic Properties of Hepatic Stellate Cells

Authors: Feng Zhang, Li Chen, Desong Kong, Xiaoping Zhang, Xiaojing Zhu, Yin Lu, Shizhong Zheng

Abstract:

Sinusoidal pathological angiogenesis is a novel therapeutic target for liver fibrosis. We demonstrated that curcumin ameliorated fibrotic injury and sinusoidal angiogenesis in rat liver with fibrosis caused by carbon tetrachloride. Curcumin reduced the expression of angiogenic markers in fibrotic liver. Experiments in vitro showed that the viability and vascularization of rat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) were not impaired by curcumin. Further investigations showed that curcumin inhibited VEGF expression in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) by disrupting PDGF-βR/ERK and mTOR pathways. HSC motility and vascularization were also suppressed by curcumin via blocking PDGF-βR/FAK/RhoA cascade. Gain- or loss-of-function analyses revealed that activation of PPARγ was required for curcumin to inhibit angiogenic properties of HSCs. We concluded that curcumin attenuated sinusoidal angiogenesis in liver fibrosis possibly by targeting HSCs via a PPARγ activation-dependent mechanism. PPARγ could be a target molecule for reducing pathological angiogenesis during liver fibrosis.

Keywords: angiogenesis, hepatic stellate cell, curcumin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ

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10 Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Uranium(vi) from Aqueous Solution Using 1-Hydroxyalkylidene-1,1-Diphosphonic Acids

Authors: M. Bouhoun Ali, A. Y. Badjah Hadj Ahmed, M. Attou, A. Elias, M. A. Didi

Abstract:

The extraction of uranium(VI) from aqueous solutions has been investigated using 1-hydroxyhexadecylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HHDPA) and 1-hydroxydodecylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HDDPA), which were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 31P NMR spectroscopy. In this paper, we propose a tentative assignment for the shifts of those two ligands and their specific complexes with uranium(VI). We carried out the extraction of uranium(VI) by HHDPA and HDDPA from [carbon tetrachloride + 2-octanol (v/v: 90%/10%)] solutions. Various factors such as contact time, pH, organic/aqueous phase ratio and extractant concentration were considered. The optimum conditions obtained were: contact time= 20 min, organic/aqueous phase ratio = 1, pH value = 3.0 and extractant concentration = 0.3M. The extraction yields are more significant in the case of the HHDPA which is equipped with a hydrocarbon chain, longer than that of the HDDPA. Logarithmic plots of the uranium(VI) distribution ratio vs. pHeq and the extractant concentration showed that the ratio of extractant to extracted uranium(VI) (ligand/metal) is 2:1. The formula of the complex of uranium(VI) with the HHDPA and the DHDPA is UO2(H3L)2 (HHDPA and DHDPA are denoted as H4L). A spectroscopic analysis has showed that coordination of uranium(VI) takes place via oxygen atoms.

Keywords: liquid-liquid extraction, uranium(vi), 1-hydroxyalkylidene-1, 1-diphosphonic acids, hhdpa, hddpa, aqueous solution

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9 Anti-Jaundice Properties of Methanolic Extract of Carica Papaya Leaves on Jaundice-Induced Albino Rat

Authors: Joseph Bamidele Minari

Abstract:

The anti-jaundice properties of the methanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves on albino rat was evaluated. In order to achieve this, the phytochemical screening of the extract was carried out, and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) (i.p) was injected into albino rats to induce jaundice. The rats were simultaneously given oral doses of 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, 60 mg/kg, 80 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg (p.o) of methanolic extract of C. papaya. The effects of these extract on total bilirubin concentration, liver ALT AST, GGT activities of the jaundice-induced rats were studied after seven days period of the experiment. Administration of CCl4 alone to the rats significantly increased (p<0.05) total bilirubin concentration while the activities of ALT, AST, and GGT in the liver when compared to controls which received distilled water (p.o) was significantly lower (p<0.05). Simultaneous treatment of CCl4 injection, and oral administration of different doses of the C. papaya extract significantly reduced (p<0.05) total bilirubin concentration in the serum while the liver ALT AST, GGT activities significantly increased (p < 0.05). However, the lowest significant reduction (p<0.05) of bilirubin concentration was observed with simultaneous administration of 60mg/kg of the extract on the rats. This study suggests that the extract of C. papaya leaves possess the phytochemicals that have anti-jaundice properties.

Keywords: carica papaya, jaundice, herbal medicine, liver, rat

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8 Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Uranium (VI) from Aqueous Solution Using 1-Hydroxyalkylidene-1,1-Diphosphonic Acids

Authors: Mustapha Bouhoun Ali, Ahmed Yacine Badjah Hadj Ahmed, Mouloud Attou, Abdel Hamid Elias, Mohamed Amine Didi

Abstract:

The extraction of uranium(VI) from aqueous solutions has been investigated using 1-hydroxyhexadecylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HHDPA) and 1-hydroxydodecylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HDDPA), which were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 31P NMR spectroscopy. In this paper, we propose a tentative assignment for the shifts of those two ligands and their specific complexes with uranium(VI). We carried out the extraction of uranium(VI) by HHDPA and HDDPA from [carbon tetrachloride + 2-octanol (v/v: 90%/10%)] solutions. Various factors such as contact time, pH, organic/aqueous phase ratio and extractant concentration were considered. The optimum conditions obtained were: contact time = 20 min, organic/aqueous phase ratio = 1, pH value = 3.0 and extractant concentration = 0.3M. The extraction yields are more significant in the case of the HHDPA which is equipped with a hydrocarbon chain, longer than that of the HDDPA. Logarithmic plots of the uranium(VI) distribution ratio vs. pHeq and the extractant concentration showed that the ratio of extractant to extracted uranium(VI) (ligand/metal) is 2:1. The formula of the complex of uranium(VI) with the HHDPA and the DHDPA is UO2(H3L)2 (HHDPA and DHDPA are denoted as H4L). A spectroscopic analysis has showed that coordination of uranium(VI) takes place via oxygen atoms.

Keywords: liquid-liquid extraction, uranium(VI), 1-hydroxyalkylidene-1, 1-diphosphonic acids, HHDPA, HDDPA, aqueous solution

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7 Effect of Annealing on Electrodeposited ZnTe Thin Films in Non-Aqueous Medium

Authors: Shyam Ranjan Kumar, Shashikant Rajpal

Abstract:

Zinc Telluride (ZnTe) is a binary II-VI direct band gap semiconducting material. This semiconducting material has several applications in sensors, photo-electrochemical devices and photovoltaic solar cell. In this study, Zinc telluride (ZnTe) thin films were deposited on nickel substrate by electrodeposition technique using potentiostat/galvanostat at -0.85 V using AR grade of Zinc Chloride (ZnCl2), Tellurium Tetrachloride (TeCl4) in non-aqueous bath. The developed films were physically stable and showed good adhesion. The as deposited ZnTe films were annealed at 400ºC in air. The solid state properties and optical properties of the as deposited and annealed films were carried out by XRD, EDS, SEM, AFM, UV–Visible spectrophotometer, and photoluminescence spectrophotometer. The diffraction peak observed at 2θ = 49.58° with (111) plane indicate the crystalline nature of ZnTe film. Annealing improves the crystalline nature of the film. Compositional analysis reveals the presence of Zn and Te with tellurium rich ZnTe film. SEM photograph at 10000X shows that grains of film are spherical in nature and densely distributed over the surface. The average roughness of the film is measured by atomic force microscopy and it is nearly equal to 60 nm. The direct wide band gap of 2.12 eV is observed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Luminescence peak of the ZnTe films are also observed in as deposited and annealed case.

Keywords: annealing, electrodeposition, optical properties, thin film, XRD, ZnTe

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6 Demetallization of Crude Oil: Comparative Analysis of Deasphalting and Electrochemical Removal Methods of Ni and V

Authors: Nurlan Akhmetov, Abilmansur Yeshmuratov, Aliya Kurbanova, Gulnar Sugurbekova, Murat Baisariyev

Abstract:

Extraction of the vanadium and nickel compounds is complex due to the high stability of porphyrin, nickel is catalytic poison which deactivates catalysis during the catalytic cracking of the oil, while vanadyl is abrasive and valuable metal. Thus, high concentration of the Ni and V in the crude oil makes their removal relevant. Two methods of the demetallization of crude oil were tested, therefore, the present research is conducted for comparative analysis of the deasphalting with organic solvents (cyclohexane, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform) and electrochemical method. Percentage of Ni extraction reached maximum of approximately 55% by using the electrochemical method in electrolysis cell, which was developed for this research and consists of three sections: oil and protonating agent (EtOH) solution between two conducting membranes which divides it from two capsules of 10% sulfuric acid and two graphite electrodes which cover all three parts in electrical circuit. Ions of metals pass through membranes and remain in acid solutions. The best result was obtained in 60 minutes with ethanol to oil ratio 25% to 75% respectively, current fits in to the range from 0.3A to 0.4A, voltage changed from 12.8V to 17.3V. Maximum efficiency of deasphalting, with cyclohexane as the solvent, in Soxhlet extractor was 66.4% for Ni and 51.2% for V. Thus, applying the voltammetry, ICP MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) and AAS (atomic absorption spectroscopy), these mentioned types of metal extraction methods were compared in this paper.

Keywords: electrochemistry, deasphalting of crude oil, demetallization of crude oil, petrolium engineering

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5 Ultrafast Ground State Recovery Dynamics of a Cyanine Dye Molecule in Heterogeneous Environment

Authors: Tapas Goswami, Debabrata Goswami

Abstract:

We have studied the changes in ground state recovery dynamics of IR 144 dye using degenerate transient absorption spectroscopy technique when going from homogeneous solution phase to heterogeneous partially miscible liquid/liquid interface. Towards this aim, we set up a partially miscible liquid/liquid interface in which dye is insoluble in one solvent carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) layer and soluble in other solvent dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). A gradual increase in ground state recovery time of the dye molecule is observed from homogenous bulk solution to more heterogeneous environment interface layer. In the bulk solution charge distribution of dye molecule is in equilibrium with polar DMSO solvent molecule. Near the interface micro transportation of non-polar solvent, CCl₄ disturbs the solvent equilibrium in DMSO layer and it relaxes to a new equilibrium state corresponding to a new charge distribution of dye with a heterogeneous mixture of polar and non-polar solvent. In this experiment, we have measured the time required for the dye molecule to relax to the new equilibrium state in different heterogeneous environment. As a result, dye remains longer time in the excited state such that even it can populate more triplet state. The present study of ground state recovery dynamics of a cyanine dye molecule in different solvent environment provides the important characteristics of effect of solvation on excited life time of a dye molecule.

Keywords: excited state, ground state recovery, solvation, transient absorption

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4 Removal of Nickel and Vanadium from Crude Oil by Using Solvent Extraction and Electrochemical Process

Authors: Aliya Kurbanova, Nurlan Akhmetov, Abilmansur Yeshmuratov, Yerzhigit Sugurbekov, Ramiz Zulkharnay, Gulzat Demeuova, Murat Baisariyev, Gulnar Sugurbekova

Abstract:

Last decades crude oils have tended to become more challenge to process due to increasing amounts of sour and heavy crude oils. Some crude oils contain high vanadium and nickel content, for example Pavlodar LLP crude oil, which contains more than 23.09 g/t nickel and 58.59 g/t vanadium. In this study, we used two types of metal removing methods such as solvent extraction and electrochemical. The present research is conducted for comparative analysis of the deasphalting with organic solvents (cyclohexane, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform) and electrochemical method. Applying the cyclic voltametric analysis (CVA) and Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS), these mentioned types of metal extraction methods were compared in this paper. Maximum efficiency of deasphalting, with cyclohexane as the solvent, in Soxhlet extractor was 66.4% for nickel and 51.2% for vanadium content from crude oil. Percentage of Ni extraction reached maximum of approximately 55% by using the electrochemical method in electrolysis cell, which was developed for this research and consists of three sections: oil and protonating agent (EtOH) solution between two conducting membranes which divides it from two capsules of 10% sulfuric acid and two graphite electrodes which cover all three parts in electrical circuit. Ions of metals pass through membranes and remain in acid solutions. The best result was obtained in 60 minutes with ethanol to oil ratio 25% to 75% respectively, current fits into the range from 0.3A to 0.4A, voltage changed from 12.8V to 17.3V.

Keywords: demetallization, deasphalting, electrochemical removal, heavy metals, petroleum engineering, solvent extraction

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3 Deasphalting of Crude Oil by Extraction Method

Authors: A. N. Kurbanova, G. K. Sugurbekova, N. K. Akhmetov

Abstract:

The asphaltenes are heavy fraction of crude oil. Asphaltenes on oilfield is known for its ability to plug wells, surface equipment and pores of the geologic formations. The present research is devoted to the deasphalting of crude oil as the initial stage refining oil. Solvent deasphalting was conducted by extraction with organic solvents (cyclohexane, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform). Analysis of availability of metals was conducted by ICP-MS and spectral feature at deasphalting was achieved by FTIR. High contents of asphaltenes in crude oil reduce the efficiency of refining processes. Moreover, high distribution heteroatoms (e.g., S, N) were also suggested in asphaltenes cause some problems: environmental pollution, corrosion and poisoning of the catalyst. The main objective of this work is to study the effect of deasphalting process crude oil to improve its properties and improving the efficiency of recycling processes. Experiments of solvent extraction are using organic solvents held in the crude oil JSC “Pavlodar Oil Chemistry Refinery. Experimental results show that deasphalting process also leads to decrease Ni, V in the composition of the oil. One solution to the problem of cleaning oils from metals, hydrogen sulfide and mercaptan is absorption with chemical reagents directly in oil residue and production due to the fact that asphalt and resinous substance degrade operational properties of oils and reduce the effectiveness of selective refining of oils. Deasphalting of crude oil is necessary to separate the light fraction from heavy metallic asphaltenes part of crude oil. For this oil is pretreated deasphalting, because asphaltenes tend to form coke or consume large quantities of hydrogen. Removing asphaltenes leads to partly demetallization, i.e. for removal of asphaltenes V/Ni and organic compounds with heteroatoms. Intramolecular complexes are relatively well researched on the example of porphyinous complex (VO2) and nickel (Ni). As a result of studies of V/Ni by ICP MS method were determined the effect of different solvents-deasphalting – on the process of extracting metals on deasphalting stage and select the best organic solvent. Thus, as the best DAO proved cyclohexane (C6H12), which as a result of ICP MS retrieves V-51.2%, Ni-66.4%? Also in this paper presents the results of a study of physical and chemical properties and spectral characteristics of oil on FTIR with a view to establishing its hydrocarbon composition. Obtained by using IR-spectroscopy method information about the specifics of the whole oil give provisional physical, chemical characteristics. They can be useful in the consideration of issues of origin and geochemical conditions of accumulation of oil, as well as some technological challenges. Systematic analysis carried out in this study; improve our understanding of the stability mechanism of asphaltenes. The role of deasphalted crude oil fractions on the stability asphaltene is described.

Keywords: asphaltenes, deasphalting, extraction, vanadium, nickel, metalloporphyrins, ICP-MS, IR spectroscopy

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2 Carbon Nanotubes Functionalization via Ullmann-Type Reactions Yielding C-C, C-O and C-N Bonds

Authors: Anna Kolanowska, Anna Kuziel, Sławomir Boncel

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Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) represent a combination of lightness and nanoscopic size with high tensile strength, excellent thermal and electrical conductivity. By now, CNTs have been used as a support in heterogeneous catalysis (CuCl anchored to pre-functionalized CNTs) in the Ullmann-type coupling with aryl halides toward formation of C-N and C-O bonds. The results indicated that the stability of the catalyst was much improved and the elaborated catalytic system was efficient and recyclable. However, CNTs have not been considered as the substrate itself in the Ullmann-type reactions. But if successful, this functionalization would open new areas of CNT chemistry leading to enhanced in-solvent/matrix nanotube individualization. The copper-catalyzed Ullmann-type reaction is an attractive method for the formation of carbon-heteroatom and carbon-carbon bonds in organic synthesis. This condensation reaction is usually conducted at temperature as high as 200 oC, often in the presence of stoichiometric amounts of copper reagent and with activated aryl halides. However, a small amount of organic additive (e.g. diamines, amino acids, diols, 1,10-phenanthroline) can be applied in order to increase the solubility and stability of copper catalyst, and at the same time to allow performing the reaction under mild conditions. The copper (pre-)catalyst is prepared by in situ mixing of copper salt and the appropriate chelator. Our research is focused on the application of Ullmann-type reaction for the covalent functionalization of CNTs. Firstly, CNTs were chlorinated by using iodine trichloride (ICl3) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). This method involves formation of several chemical species (ICl, Cl2 and I2Cl6), but the most reactive is the dimer. The fact (that the dimer is the main individual in CCl4) is the reason for high reactivity and possibly high functionalization levels of CNTs. This method, indeed, yielded a notable amount of chlorine onto the MWCNT surface. The next step was the reaction of CNT-Cl with three substrates: aniline, iodobenzene and phenol for the formation C-N, C-C and C-O bonds, respectively, in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline and cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) as a base. As the CNT substrates, two multi-wall CNT (MWCNT) types were used: commercially available Nanocyl NC7000™ (9.6 nm diameter, 1.5 µm length, 90% purity) and thicker MWCNTs (in-house) synthesized in our laboratory using catalytic chemical vapour deposition (c-CVD). In-house CNTs had diameter ranging between 60-70 nm and length up to 300 µm. Since classical Ullmann reaction was found as suffering from poor yields, we have investigated the effect of various solvents (toluene, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide and N,N-dimethylformamide) on the coupling of substrates. Owing to the fact that the aryl halides show the reactivity order of I>Br>Cl>F, we have also investigated the effect of iodine presence on CNT surface on reaction yield. In this case, in first step we have used iodine monochloride instead of iodine trichloride. Finally, we have used the optimized reaction conditions with p-bromophenol and 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene for the control of CNT dispersion.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, coupling reaction, functionalization, Ullmann reaction

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1 Implementation of Cord- Blood Derived Stem Cells in the Regeneration of Two Experimental Models: Carbon Tetrachloride and S. Mansoni Induced Liver Fibrosis

Authors: Manal M. Kame, Zeinab A. Demerdash, Hanan G. El-Baz, Salwa M. Hassan, Faten M. Salah, Wafaa Mansour, Olfat Hammam

Abstract:

Cord blood (CB) derived Unrestricted Somatic Stem Cells (USSCs) with their multipotentiality hold great promise in liver regeneration. This work aims at evaluation of the therapeutic potentiality of USSCs in two experimental models of chronic liver injury induced either by S. mansoni infection in balb/c mice or CCL4 injection in hamsters. Isolation, propagation, and characterization of USSCs from CB samples were performed. USSCs were induced to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes and hepatocyte-like cells. Cells of the third passage were transplanted in two models of liver fibrosis: (1) Twenty hamsters were induced to liver fibrosis by repeated i. p. injection of 100 μl CCl4 /hamster for 8 weeks. This model was designed as; 10 hamsters with liver fibrosis and treated with i.h. injection of 3x106 USSCs (USSCs transplanted group), 10 hamsters with liver fibrosis (pathological control group), and 10 hamsters with healthy livers (normal control group). (2) Murine chronics S.mansoni model: twenty mice were induced to liver fibrosis with S. mansoni ceracariae (60 cercariae/ mouse) using the tail immersion method and left for 12 weeks. This model was designed as; 10 mice with liver fibrosis were transplanted with i. v. injection of 1×106 USCCs (USSCs transplanted group). Other 2 groups were designed as in hamsters model. Animals were sacrificed 12 weeks after USSCs transplantation, and their liver sections were examined for detection of human hepatocyte-like cells by immunohistochemistry staining. Moreover, liver sections were examined for fibrosis level, and fibrotic indices were calculated. Sera of sacrificed animals were tested for liver functions. CB USSCs, with fibroblast-like morphology, expressed high levels of CD44, CD90, CD73 and CD105 and were negative for CD34, CD45, and HLA-DR. USSCs showed high expression of transcripts for Oct4 and Sox2 and were in vitro differentiated into osteoblasts, adipocytes. In both animal models, in vitro induced hepatocyte-like cells were confirmed by cytoplasmic expression of glycogen, alpha-fetoprotein, and cytokeratin18. Livers of USSCs transplanted group showed engraftment with human hepatocyte-like cells as proved by cytoplasmic expression of human alpha-fetoprotein, cytokeratin18, and OV6. In addition, livers of this group showed less fibrosis than the pathological control group. Liver functions in the form of serum AST & ALT level and serum total bilirubin level were significantly lowered in USSCs transplanted group than pathological control group (p < 0.001). Moreover, the fibrotic index was significantly lower (p< 0.001) in USSCs transplanted group than pathological control group. In addition liver sections, of i. v. injection of 1×106 USCCs of mice, stained with either H&E or sirius red showed diminished granuloma size and a relative decrease in hepatic fibrosis. Our experimental liver fibrosis models transplanted with CB-USSCs showed liver engraftment with human hepatocyte-like cells as well as signs of liver regeneration in the form of improvement in liver function assays and fibrosis level. These data provide hope that human CB- derived USSCs are introduced as multipotent stem cells with great potentiality in regenerative medicine & strengthens the concept of cellular therapy for the treatment of liver fibrosis.

Keywords: cord blood, liver fibrosis, stem cells, transplantation

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