Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 660

Search results for: liver fibrosis

660 Comparison between Transient Elastography (FibroScan) and Liver Biopsy for Diagnosis of Hepatic Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 4

Authors: Gamal Shiha, Seham Seif, Shahera Etreby, Khaled Zalata, Waleed Samir


Background: Transient Elastography (TE; FibroScan®) is a non-invasive technique to assess liver fibrosis. Aim: To compare TE and liver biopsy in hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients, genotype IV and evaluate the effect of steatosis and schistosomiasis on FibroScan. Methods: The fibrosis stage (METAVIR Score) TE, was assessed in 519 patients. The diagnostic performance of FibroScan is assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs). Results: The cut-off value of ≥ F2 was 8.55 kPa, ≥ F3 was 10.2 kPa and cirrhosis = F4 was 16.3 kPa. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 70.1% and 81.7% for the diagnosis of ≥ F2, 62.6% and 96.22% for F ≥ 3, and 27.7% and 100% for F4. No significant difference between schistosomiasis, steatosis degree and FibroScan measurements. Conclusion: Fibroscan could accurately predict liver fibrosis.

Keywords: chronic hepatitis C, FibroScan, liver biopsy, liver fibrosis

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659 Prospective Validation of the FibroTest Score in Assessing Liver Fibrosis in Hepatitis C Infection with Genotype 4

Authors: G. Shiha, S. Seif, W. Samir, K. Zalata


Prospective Validation of the FibroTest Score in assessing Liver Fibrosis in Hepatitis C Infection with Genotype 4 FibroTest (FT) is non-invasive score of liver fibrosis that combines the quantitative results of 5 serum biochemical markers (alpha-2-macroglobulin, haptoglobin, apolipoprotein A1, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and bilirubin) and adjusted with the patient's age and sex in a patented algorithm to generate a measure of fibrosis. FT has been validated in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) (Halfon et al., Gastroenterol. Clin Biol.( 2008), 32 6suppl 1, 22-39). The validation of fibro test ( FT) in genotype IV is not well studied. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of FibroTest in an independent prospective cohort of hepatitis C patients with genotype 4. Subject was 122 patients with CHC. All liver biopsies were scored using METAVIR system. Our fibrosis score(FT) were measured, and the performance of the cut-off score were done using ROC curve. Among patients with advanced fibrosis, the FT was identically matched with the liver biopsy in 18.6%, overestimated the stage of fibrosis in 44.2% and underestimated the stage of fibrosis in 37.7% of cases. Also in patients with no/mild fibrosis, identical matching was detected in 39.2% of cases with overestimation in 48.1% and underestimation in 12.7%. So, the overall results of the test were identical matching, overestimation and underestimation in 32%, 46.7% and 21.3% respectively. Using ROC curve it was found that (FT) at the cut-off point of 0.555 could discriminate early from advanced stages of fibrosis with an area under ROC curve (AUC) of 0.72, sensitivity of 65%, specificity of 69%, PPV of 68%, NPV of 66% and accuracy of 67%. As FibroTest Score overestimates the stage of advanced fibrosis, it should not be considered as a reliable surrogate for liver biopsy in hepatitis C infection with genotype 4.

Keywords: fibrotest, chronic Hepatitis C, genotype 4, liver biopsy

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658 Biopsy or Biomarkers: Which Is the Sample of Choice in Assessment of Liver Fibrosis?

Authors: S. H. Atef, N. H. Mahmoud, S. Abdrahman, A. Fattoh


Background: The aim of the study is to assess the diagnostic value of fibrotest and hyaluronic acid in discriminate between insignificant and significant fibrosis. Also, to find out if these parameters could replace liver biopsy which is currently used for selection of chronic hepatitis C patients eligible for antiviral therapy. Study design: This study was conducted on 52 patients with HCV RNA detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) who had undergone liver biopsy and attending the internal medicine clinic at Ain Shams University Hospital. Liver fibrosis was evaluated according to the METAVIR scoring system on a scale of F0 to F4. Biochemical markers assessed were: alpha-2 macroglobulin (α2-MG), apolipoprotein A1 (Apo-A1), haptoglobin, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin (TB) and hyaluronic acid (HA). The fibrotest score was computed after adjusting for age and gender. Predictive values and ROC curves were used to assess the accuracy of fibrotest and HA results. Results: For fibrotest, the observed area under curve for the discrimination between minimal or no fibrosis (F0-F1) and significant fibrosis (F2-F4) was 0.6736 for cutoff value 0.19 with sensitivity of 84.2% and specificity of 85.7%. For HA, the sensitivity was 89.5% and specificity was 85.7% and area under curve was 0.540 at the best cutoff value 71 mg/dL. Multi-use of both parameters, HA at 71 mg/dL with fibrotest score at 0.22 give a sensitivity 89.5%, specificity 100 and efficacy 92.3% (AUC 0.895). Conclusion: The use of both fibrotest score and HA could be as alternative to biopsy in most patients with chronic hepaitis C putting in consideration some limitations of the proposed markers in evaluating liver fibrosis.

Keywords: fibrotest, liver fibrosis, HCV RNA, biochemical markers

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657 Comparative Stem Cells Therapy for Regeneration of Liver Fibrosis

Authors: H. M. Imam, H. M. Rezk, A. F. Tohamy


Background: Human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) is considered as a unique source for stem cells. HUCB contain different types of progenitor cells which could differentiate into hepatocytes. Aims: To investigate the potential of rat's liver damage repair using human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs). We investigated the feasibility for hUCMSCs in recovery from liver damage. Moreover, investigating fibrotic liver repair and using the CCl4-induced model for liver damage in the rat. Methods: Rats were injected with 0.5 ml/kg CCl4 to induce liver damage and progressive liver fibrosis. hUCMSCs were injected into the rats through the tail vein; Stem cells were transplanted at a dose of 1×106 cells/rat after 72 hours of CCl4 injection without receiving any immunosuppressant. After (6 and 8 weeks) of transplantation, blood samples were collected to assess liver functions (ALT, AST, GGT and ALB) and level of Procollagen III as a liver fibrosis marker. In addition, hepatic tissue regeneration was assessed histopathologically and immunohistochemically using antihuman monoclonal antibodies against CD34, CK19 and albumin. Results: Biochemical and histopathological analysis showed significantly increased recovery from liver damage in the transplanted group. In addition, HUCB stem cells transdifferentiated into functional hepatocytes in rats with hepatic injury which results in improving liver structure and function. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that transplantation of hUCMSCs may be a novel therapeutic approach for treating liver fibrosis. Therefore, hUCMSCs are a potential option for treatment of liver cirrhosis.

Keywords: carbon tetra chloride, liver fibrosis, mesenchymal stem cells, rat

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656 Curcumin Attenuates Angiogenesis in Liver Fibrosis and Inhibits Angiogenic Properties of Hepatic Stellate Cells

Authors: Feng Zhang, Li Chen, Desong Kong, Xiaoping Zhang, Xiaojing Zhu, Yin Lu, Shizhong Zheng


Sinusoidal pathological angiogenesis is a novel therapeutic target for liver fibrosis. We demonstrated that curcumin ameliorated fibrotic injury and sinusoidal angiogenesis in rat liver with fibrosis caused by carbon tetrachloride. Curcumin reduced the expression of angiogenic markers in fibrotic liver. Experiments in vitro showed that the viability and vascularization of rat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) were not impaired by curcumin. Further investigations showed that curcumin inhibited VEGF expression in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) by disrupting PDGF-βR/ERK and mTOR pathways. HSC motility and vascularization were also suppressed by curcumin via blocking PDGF-βR/FAK/RhoA cascade. Gain- or loss-of-function analyses revealed that activation of PPARγ was required for curcumin to inhibit angiogenic properties of HSCs. We concluded that curcumin attenuated sinusoidal angiogenesis in liver fibrosis possibly by targeting HSCs via a PPARγ activation-dependent mechanism. PPARγ could be a target molecule for reducing pathological angiogenesis during liver fibrosis.

Keywords: angiogenesis, hepatic stellate cell, curcumin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ

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655 MiR-200a/ZEB1 Pathway in Liver Fibrogenesis of Biliary Atresia

Authors: Hai-Ying Liu, Yi-Hao Chen, Shu-Yin Pang, Feng-Hua Wang, Xiao-Fang Peng, Li-Yuan Yang, Zheng-Rong Chen, Yi Chen, Bing Zhu


Objective: Biliary atresia (BA) is characterized by progressive liver fibrosis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated as a key mechanism in the pathogenesis of organ fibrosis. MiR-200a has been shown to repress EMT. We aim to explore the role of miR-200a in the fibrogenesis of BA. Methods: We obtained the plasma samples and liver samples from patients with BA or controls to examine the role of miR-200a. Histological liver fibrosis was assessed using the Ishak fibrosis scores. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was performed to detect the expression of miR-200a in plasma. We also evaluated the expression of miR-200a in liver tissues using tyramide signal amplification fluorescence in situ hybridization (TSA-FISH). The expression of EMT related proteins zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1), E-cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the liver sections were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results: We found that the expression of miR-200a was both elevated in the plasma and liver tissues from BA patients compared with the controls. The hepatic expression of ZEB1 and α-SMA were markedly increased in the liver sections from BA patients compared to the controls, whereas E-cadherin was downregulated in the BA group. Simultaneously, we noted that the hepatic expression of miR-200a, E-cadherin and α-SMA were upregulated with the progression of liver fibrosis in the BA group, while ZEB1 was downregulated with the progression of liver fibrosis in BA patients. Conclusion: These findings suggest EMT has a critical effect on the fibrotic process of BA, and the interaction between miR-200a and ZEB1 may regulate EMT and eventually influence liver fibrogenesis of BA.

Keywords: biliary atresia, liver fibrosis, MicroRNA, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1

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654 Effect of Nicorandil in Bile Duct Ligation-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats: Role of Hepatic Stellate Cells

Authors: Y. S. Mohamed, L. A. Ahmed, H. A. Salem, A. M. Agha


Liver Fibrosis is one of the most serious conditions that affect the Egyptian society. In the present study, the effect of nicorandil was investigated in experimentally-induced liver fibrosis by bile duct ligation in rats. Nicorandil (3mg/kg/day) was given orally 24 h after bile duct ligation for 14 days till the end of the experiment. Nicorandil group showed a significant improvement in liver function tests (ALT and ALP) as well as a significant decrease in oxidative stress biomarkers (TBARS and GSH), area of fibrosis and activity of hepatic stellate cells as indicated by decreased expression of alpha smooth muscle actin.Moreover, nicorandil treatment decreased HSCs proliferation due to its inhibitory effects on protein kinase C(PKC) and Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) . Oral administration of either glibenclamide (10 mg/kg/day)(a KATP channel blocker) or L-NAME (30 mg/kg/day) (an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase) blocked the protective effects of nicorandil. However, nicorandil and L-NAME treated group showed more or less results similar to that of untreated bile duct ligated group. In conclusion, nicorandil was effective against the development of bile duct ligated-induced liver fibrosis in rats where activation of the NO pathway plays an important role in the protective effect nicorandil.

Keywords: hepatic stellate cells, nicorandil, nitric oxide donor, liver fibrosis

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653 Regression of Fibrosis by Apigenin in Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis Rat Model through Suppression of HIF-1/FAK Pathway

Authors: Hany M. Fayed, Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman, Alyaa F. Hessin, Hanan A. Ogaly, Gihan F. Asaad, Abeer A. A. Salama, Sahar Abdelrahman, Mahmoud S. Arbid, Marwan Abd Elbaset Mohamed


Liver fibrosis is a serious global health problem that occurs as a result of a variety of chronic liver disorders. Apigenin, a flavonoid found in many plants, has several pharmacological properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifibrotic efficacy of apigenin (APG) against experimentally induced hepatic fibrosis in rats via using thioacetamide (TAA) and to explore the possible underlying mechanisms. TAA (100 mg/kg, i.p.) was given three times each week for two weeks to induce liver fibrosis. After TAA injections, APG was given orally (5 and 10 mg/kg) daily for two weeks. Biochemical, molecular, histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed on blood and liver tissue samples. The functioning of the liver, oxidative stress, inflammation, and liver fibrosis indicators were all evaluated. The findings showed that TAA markedly increased the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) with a reduction in albumin, total protein, A/G ratio, GSH content and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Moreover, TAA elevated the content of collagen I, α -smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and hydroxyproline in the liver. The treatment with APG in a dose-dependent manner has obviously prevented these alterations and amended the harmful effects induced by TAA. The histopathological and immunohistochemical observations supported this biochemical evidence. The higher dose of APG produced the most significant antifibrotic effect. As a result of these data, APG appears to be a promising antifibrotic drug and could be used as a new herbal medication or dietary supplement in the future for the treatment of liver fibrosis. This effect might be related to the inhibition of the HIF-1/FAK signaling pathway.

Keywords: apigenin, FAK, HIF-1, liver fibrosis, rat, thioacetamide

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652 Rebamipide Retards CCL4 Induced Hepatic Fibrosis: A Role of PGE2

Authors: Alaa E. El-sisi, Sherin Zakaria


Rebamipide is an antiulcer drug with unique properties such as anti-inflammatory action. It induces endogenous prostaglandin e2 (PGE2). PGE2 is considered as a potent physiological suppressor of liver fibrosis. Aim of study: This study investigated the effect of rebamipide on hepatic fibrosis. Material and Method: Hepatic fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injections (IP) injection of CCl4 (0.45 mL/kg) in corn oil 1:5 twice a week for 4 weeks. Rats were divided into four groups as follow: Group 1 treated with CCL4 only, group 2 and 3 treated with CCL4 and rebamipide 60 mg/kg/day (group2) or 100 mg/kg/day (group3), and the fourth group was considered as control group and treated with vehicles. ALT, AST, and Bilirubin were assayed in serum. Antioxidant markers such as malondialdhyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and fibrotic markers such as hyaluronic acid (HA) and procollagen-III (procol-III) were evaluated in liver tissues. IL-10 as well as PGE2 were also assayed in liver tissues. Pathologic changes in the liver were detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Collagen precipitation in liver tissues was visualized using masson trichrom stain. Results: Rebamipide inhibit CCL4 induced increase in ALT and AST significantly (p < 0.05). Rebamipide exerted an antioxidant effect as it inhibits CCL4 induced increased MDA level and decreased SOD activity. Fibrotic markers assay revealed that repamipide (60 or 100 mg/kg/day) decreased the level of procol-III and HA compared to CCl4 (p < 0.05). Oral administration of Rebamipide was associated with a significant increase (p < 0.05) of PGE2 and IL-10. Rebamipide especially at the dose of (100 mg/kg/day) restores liver histology structure and abolish collagen precipitation in liver tissues. Conclusion: Rebamipide retards hepatic fibrosis induced by CCL4 may be through the induction of PGE2 level.

Keywords: fibrotic markers, hepatic fibrosis, PGE2, rebamipide

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651 Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffolds Modified with Collagen-I and Fibronectin with LX-2 Cells to Study Liver Fibrosis in vitro

Authors: Prativa Das, Lay Poh Tan


Three-dimensional microenvironment is a need to study the event cascades of liver fibrosis in vitro. Electrospun nanofibers modified with essential extracellular matrix proteins can closely mimic the random fibrous structure of native liver extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we fabricate a series of 3D electrospun scaffolds by wet electrospinning process modified with different ratios of collagen-I to fibronectin to achieve optimized distribution of these two ECM proteins on the fiber surface. A ratio of 3:1 of collagen-I to fibronectin was found to be optimum for surface modification of electrospun poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) fibers by chemisorption process. In 3:1 collagen-I to fibronectin modified scaffolds the total protein content increased by ~2 fold compared to collagen-I modified and ~1.5 fold compared to 1:1/9:1 collagen-I to fibronectin modified scaffolds. We have cultured LX-2 cells on this scaffold over 14 days and found that LX-2 cells acquired more quiescent phenotype throughout the culture period and shown significantly lower expression of alpha smooth muscle actin and collagen-I. Thus, this system can be used as a model to study liver fibrosis by using different fibrogenic mediators in vitro.

Keywords: electrospinning, collagen-I and fibronectin, surface modification of fiber, LX-2 cells, liver fibrosis

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650 Curcumin Reduces the Expression of Main Fibrogenic Genes and Phosphorylation of Smad3C Signaling Pathway in TGFB-Activated Human HSCs. A New Remedy for Liver Fibrosis

Authors: Elham Shakerian, Reza Afarin


The hepatic disease causes approximately 2 million deaths/year worldwide. Liver fibrosis is the last stage of numerous chronic liver diseases, and until now there is no definite cure or drug for it. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the main reason for fibrosis. Transforming growth factor (TGF-β), as a main profibrogenic cytokine, if increased in these cells, leads to liver fibrosis through smad3 signaling pathways and increasing the expressions of Collagen type I and III, and actin-alpha smooth muscle (αSMA) genes. Curcumin (CUR) is a polyphenolic compound and an active ingredient derived from the rhizome of the turmeric plant that exerts effective antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activity. It has been shown that daily consumption of curcumin may have a protective effect on the liver against oxidative stress associated with alcohol consumption. In this study, we investigate the role of Curcumin in decreasing HSC activation and treating liver fibrosis. First, the human HSCs were treated with 2 ng/ml of (TGF-β) for 24 hours to become activated, then with Silibinin for 24 hours. Total RNAs were extracted, reversely transcribed into cDNA, Quantitative Real-time PCR, and western blot were performed. The mRNA expression levels of Collagen type I and III, αSMA genes, and the level of smad3 phosphorylation in TGF-β activated human HSCs treated with Curcumin were significantly reduced compared to human HSCs untreated with Curcumin. Curcumin is effective in reducing the expression of fibrogenic genes in the activated human HSCs treated with TGFB through downregulation of the TGF-β/smad3 signaling pathway. Therefore, Curcumin possesses significant antifibrotic properties in hepatic fibrosis

Keywords: hepatic fibrosis, human HSCs, curcumin, fibrogenic genes

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649 Assessment of Hepatosteatosis Among Diabetic and Nondiabetic Patients Using Biochemical Parameters and Noninvasive Imaging Techniques

Authors: Tugba Sevinc Gamsiz, Emine Koroglu, Ozcan Keskin


Aim: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the most common chronic liver disease in the general population. The higher mortality and morbidity among NAFLD patients and lack of symptoms makes early detection and management important. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between noninvasive imaging and biochemical markers in diabetic and nondiabetic patients diagnosed with NAFLD. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from (September 2017) to (December 2017) on adults admitted to Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology outpatient clinics with hepatic steatosis reported on ultrasound or transient elastography within the last six months that exclude patients with other liver diseases or alcohol abuse. The data were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Number cruncher statistical system (NCSS) 2007 program was used for statistical analysis. Results: 116 patients were included in this study. Diabetic patients compared to nondiabetics had significantly higher Controlled Attenuation Parameter (CAP), Liver Stiffness Measurement (LSM) and fibrosis values. Also, hypertension, hepatomegaly, high BMI, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, high A1c, and hyperuricemia were found to be risk factors for NAFLD progression to fibrosis. Advanced fibrosis (F3, F4) was present in 18,6 % of all our patients; 35,8 % of diabetic and 5,7 % of nondiabetic patients diagnosed with hepatic steatosis. Conclusion: Transient elastography is now used in daily clinical practice as an accurate noninvasive tool during follow-up of patients with fatty liver. Early diagnosis of the stage of liver fibrosis improves the monitoring and management of patients, especially in those with metabolic syndrome criteria.

Keywords: diabetes, elastography, fatty liver, fibrosis, metabolic syndrome

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648 Implementation of Cord- Blood Derived Stem Cells in the Regeneration of Two Experimental Models: Carbon Tetrachloride and S. Mansoni Induced Liver Fibrosis

Authors: Manal M. Kame, Zeinab A. Demerdash, Hanan G. El-Baz, Salwa M. Hassan, Faten M. Salah, Wafaa Mansour, Olfat Hammam


Cord blood (CB) derived Unrestricted Somatic Stem Cells (USSCs) with their multipotentiality hold great promise in liver regeneration. This work aims at evaluation of the therapeutic potentiality of USSCs in two experimental models of chronic liver injury induced either by S. mansoni infection in balb/c mice or CCL4 injection in hamsters. Isolation, propagation, and characterization of USSCs from CB samples were performed. USSCs were induced to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes and hepatocyte-like cells. Cells of the third passage were transplanted in two models of liver fibrosis: (1) Twenty hamsters were induced to liver fibrosis by repeated i. p. injection of 100 μl CCl4 /hamster for 8 weeks. This model was designed as; 10 hamsters with liver fibrosis and treated with i.h. injection of 3x106 USSCs (USSCs transplanted group), 10 hamsters with liver fibrosis (pathological control group), and 10 hamsters with healthy livers (normal control group). (2) Murine chronics S.mansoni model: twenty mice were induced to liver fibrosis with S. mansoni ceracariae (60 cercariae/ mouse) using the tail immersion method and left for 12 weeks. This model was designed as; 10 mice with liver fibrosis were transplanted with i. v. injection of 1×106 USCCs (USSCs transplanted group). Other 2 groups were designed as in hamsters model. Animals were sacrificed 12 weeks after USSCs transplantation, and their liver sections were examined for detection of human hepatocyte-like cells by immunohistochemistry staining. Moreover, liver sections were examined for fibrosis level, and fibrotic indices were calculated. Sera of sacrificed animals were tested for liver functions. CB USSCs, with fibroblast-like morphology, expressed high levels of CD44, CD90, CD73 and CD105 and were negative for CD34, CD45, and HLA-DR. USSCs showed high expression of transcripts for Oct4 and Sox2 and were in vitro differentiated into osteoblasts, adipocytes. In both animal models, in vitro induced hepatocyte-like cells were confirmed by cytoplasmic expression of glycogen, alpha-fetoprotein, and cytokeratin18. Livers of USSCs transplanted group showed engraftment with human hepatocyte-like cells as proved by cytoplasmic expression of human alpha-fetoprotein, cytokeratin18, and OV6. In addition, livers of this group showed less fibrosis than the pathological control group. Liver functions in the form of serum AST & ALT level and serum total bilirubin level were significantly lowered in USSCs transplanted group than pathological control group (p < 0.001). Moreover, the fibrotic index was significantly lower (p< 0.001) in USSCs transplanted group than pathological control group. In addition liver sections, of i. v. injection of 1×106 USCCs of mice, stained with either H&E or sirius red showed diminished granuloma size and a relative decrease in hepatic fibrosis. Our experimental liver fibrosis models transplanted with CB-USSCs showed liver engraftment with human hepatocyte-like cells as well as signs of liver regeneration in the form of improvement in liver function assays and fibrosis level. These data provide hope that human CB- derived USSCs are introduced as multipotent stem cells with great potentiality in regenerative medicine & strengthens the concept of cellular therapy for the treatment of liver fibrosis.

Keywords: cord blood, liver fibrosis, stem cells, transplantation

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647 Diallyl Trisulfide Protects the Rat Liver from CCl4-Induced Injury and Fibrogenesis by Attenuating Oxidative Stress

Authors: Xiao-Jing Zhu, Liang Zhou, Shi-Zhong Zheng


Various studies have shown that diallyl trisulfide (DATS) can protect the liver injury, and DATS has a strong antioxidant property. The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vivo role of DATS in protecting the liver against injury and fibrogenesis and further explores the underlying mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that DATS protected the liver from CCl4-caused injury by suppressing the elevation of ALT and AST activities, and by improving the histological architecture of the liver. Treatment with DATS or colchicine improved the liver fibrosis by sirius red staining and immunofluorescence. In addition, immunohistochemistry, western blot, and RT-PCR analyses indicated that DATS inhibited HSC activation. Furthermore, DATS attenuated oxidative stress by increasing glutathione and reducing lipid peroxides and malondialdehyde. These findings suggest that the protective effect of DATS on CCl4-caused liver injury and liver fibrogenesis was, at least partially, attributed to its antioxidant activity.

Keywords: liver fibrogenesis, liver injury, oxidative stress, DATS

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646 Insulin Resistance in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Upper Egypt Experience

Authors: Ali Kassem


Background: In the last few years, factors such as insulin resistance (IR) and hepatic steatosis have been linked to progression of hepatic fibrosis.Patients with chronic liver disease, and cirrhosis in particular, are known to be prone to IR. However, chronic HCV (hepatitis C) infection may induce IR, regardless of the presence of liver cirrhosis. Our aims are to study insulin resistance (IR) assessed by HOMA-IR (Homeostatic Model Assessment Insulin Resistance) as a possible risk factor in disease progression in cirrhotic patients and to evaluate the role of IR in hepatic fibrosis progression. The correlations of HOMA-IR values to laboratory, virological and histopathological parameters of chronic HCV are also examined. Methods: The study included 50 people divided into 30 adult chronic hepatitis C patients diagnosed by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) within previous 6 months and 20 healthy controls. The functional and morphological status of the liver were evaluated by ultrasonography and laboratory investigations including liver function tests and by liver biopsy. Fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin levels were measured and body mass index and insulin resistance were calculated. Patients having HOMA-IR >2.5 were labeled as insulin resistant. Results: Chronic hepatitis C patients with IR showed significantly higher mean values of BMI (body mass index) and fasting insulin than those without IR (P < 0.000). Patients with IR were more likely to have steatosis (p = 0.006), higher necroinflammatory activity (p = 0.05). No significant differences were found between the two groups regarding hepatic fibrosis. Conclusion: HOMA-IR measurement could represent a novel marker to identify the cirrhotic patients at greater risk for the progression of liver disease. As IR is a potentially modifiable risk factor, these findings may have important prognostic and therapeutic implications. Assessment of IR by HOMA-IR and improving insulin sensitivity are recommended in patients with HCV and related chronic liver disease.

Keywords: hepatic fibrosis, hepatitis C virus infection, hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance

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645 Comparative Histological, Immunohistochemical and Biochemical Study on the Effect of Vit. C, Vit. E, Gallic Acid and Silymarin on Carbon Tetrachloride Model of Liver Fibrosis in Rats

Authors: Safaa S. Hassan, Mohammed H. Elbakry, Safwat A. Mangoura, Zainab M. Omar


Background: Liver fibrosis is the main reason for increased mortality in chronic liver disease. It has no standard treatment. Antioxidants from a variety of sources are capable of slowing or preventing oxidation of other molecules. Aim: to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of vit. C, vit. E and gallic acid in comparison to silymarin in the rat model of carbon tetrachloride induced liver fibrosis and their possible mechanisms of action. Material& Methods: A total number of 60 adult male albino rats 160-200gm were divided into six equal groups; received subcutaneous (s.c) injection for 8 weeks. Group I: as control. Group II: received 1.5 mL/kg of CCL4 .Group III: CCL4 and co- treatment with silymarin 100mg/kg p.o. daily. Group IV: CCL4 and co-treatment with vit. C 50mg/kg p.o. daily. Group V: CCL4 and co-treatment with vit. E 200mg/kg. p.o. Group VI: CCL4 and co-treatment with Gallic acid 100mg/kg. p.o. daily. Liver was processed for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Levels of AST, ALT, ALP, reduced GSH, MDA, SOD and hydroxyproline concentration were measured and evaluated statistically. Results: Light and electron microscopic examination of liver of group II exhibited foci of altered cells with dense nuclei and vacuolated, granular cytoplasm, mononuclear cell infiltration in portal areas, profuse collagen fiber deposits were found around portal tract, more intense staining α-SMA-positive cells occupied most of the liver fibrosis tissue, electron lucent areas in the cytoplasm of the hepatocytes, margination of nuclear chromatin. Treatment by any of the antioxidants variably reduced the hepatic structural changes induced by CCL4. Biochemical analysis showed that carbon tetrachloride significantly increased the levels of serum AST, ALT, ALP, hepatic malondialdehyde and hydroxyproline content. Moreover, it decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione. Treatment with silymarin, gallic acid, vit. C and vit. E decreased significantly the AST, ALT, and ALP levels in plasma, MDA and hydroxyproline and increased the activities of SOD and glutathione in liver tissue. The effect of administration of CCl4 was improved with the used antioxidants in variable degrees. The most efficient antioxidant was silymarin followed by gallic acid and vit. C then vit. E. It is possibly due to their antioxidant effect, free radical scavenging properties and the reduction of oxidant dependent activation and proliferation of HSCs. Conclusion: So these antioxidants can be a promising drugs candidate for ameliorating liver fibrosis better than the use of the drugs and their side effects.

Keywords: antioxidant, ccl4, gallic acid, liver fibrosis

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644 Protective Effect of Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria on Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats: Histomorphological Study

Authors: Chittapon Jantararussamee, Malai Taweechotipatr, Udomsri Showpittapornchai, Wisuit Pradidarcheep


Hepatic fibrosis is characterized by collagen accumulation in hepatic lobules following wound healing process. If lefts untreated, it could progress into hepatic cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and liver failure. Probiotics comprise of lactic acid bacteria which are crucial components of the intestinal microflora and possess many beneficial properties. The objective of this study is to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (mixture of Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus confusus at a ratio of 1: 1: 1) on thioacetamide-induced liver fibrotic rats in term of histomorphology study. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups with 6 rats each: (A) control, (B) fibrotic, (C) fibrotic+probiotic, and (D) probiotic. Group (A) received daily oral administration of distilled water. Group (B and C) were induced by intraperitoneal injection of thioacetamide (TAA) (200 mg/kg BW) 3 times per week for consecutive 8 weeks. In probiotic-treated group (C and D), the number of a mixture of the viable microbial cells at 10⁹ CFU/ml was administered orally daily. After sacrifice, liver tissues were collected and processed for routine histological technique and stained with Sirius red. It was found that the fibrotic rats showed hepatic injury marked by area of inflammation, hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes, and accumulation of myofibroblast-like cells. The collagen fibers were substantially accumulated in the hepatic lobules. Moreover, probiotic-treated group significantly reduced the accumulation of collagen in rats treated by TAA. The liver damage was found to be lesser in the probiotic-treated group. It was noted that the liver tissues of control and probiotics groups were shown to be normal. Administration with probiotic lactic acid bacteria could improve the histomorphology in fibrotic liver and be useful for prevention of hepatic disorders.

Keywords: liver fibrosis, probiotics, lactic acid bacteria, thioacetamide

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643 RNA-seq Analysis of Liver from NASH-HCC Model Mouse Treated with Streptozotocin-High Fat Diet

Authors: Bui Phuong Linh, Yuki Sakakibara, Ryuto Tanaka, Elizabeth H. Pigney, Taishi Hashiguchi


Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a chronic liver disease, often associated with type II diabetes, which sometimes progresses to more serious conditions such as liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). NASH has become an important health problem worldwide, buttherapeutic agents for NASH have not yet been approved, and animal models with high clinical correlation are required. TheSTAM™ mouse shows the same pathological progression as human NASH patients and has been widely used for both drug efficacy and basic research, such as lipid profiling and gut microbiota research. In this study, we analyzed the RNA-seq data of STAM™mice at each pathological stage (steatosis, steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis, and HCC) and examined the clinical correlation at the genetic level. NASH was induced in male mice by a single subcutaneous injection of 200 µg streptozotocin solution 2 days after birth and feeding with high fat dietafter 4 weeks of age. The mice were sacrificed and livers collected at 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, and 20 weeks of age. For liver samples, the left lateral lobe was snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80˚C for RNA-seq analysis. Total RNA of the cells was isolated using RNeasy mini kit. The gene expression of the canonical pathways in NASH progression from steatosis to hepatocellular carcinoma were analyzed, such as immune system process, oxidation-reduction process, lipid metabolic process. Moreover, since it has been reported that genetic traits are involved in the development of NASH-HCC, we next analyzed the genetic mutations in the STAM™mice. The number of individuals showing mutations in Mtorinvolved in Insulin signaling increases as the disease progresses, especially in the liver cancer phase. These results indicated a clinical correlation of gene profiles in the STAM™mouse.

Keywords: steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, RNA-seq

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642 The Effect of Acute Rejection and Delayed Graft Function on Renal Transplant Fibrosis in Live Donor Renal Transplantation

Authors: Wisam Ismail, Sarah Hosgood, Michael Nicholson


The research hypothesis is that early post-transplant allograft fibrosis will be linked to donor factors and that acute rejection and/or delayed graft function in the recipient will be independent risk factors for the development of fibrosis. This research hypothesis is to explore whether acute rejection/delay graft function has an effect on the renal transplant fibrosis within the first year post live donor kidney transplant between 1998 and 2009. Methods: The study has been designed to identify five time points of the renal transplant biopsies [0 (pre-transplant), 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months] for 300 live donor renal transplant patients over 12 years period between March 1997 – August 2009. Paraffin fixed slides were collected from Leicester General Hospital and Leicester Royal Infirmary. These were routinely sectioned at a thickness of 4 Micro millimetres for standardization. Conclusions: Fibrosis at 1 month after the transplant was found significantly associated with baseline fibrosis (p<0.001) and HTN in the transplant recipient (p<0.001). Dialysis after the transplant showed a weak association with fibrosis at 1 month (p=0.07). The negative coefficient for HTN (-0.05) suggests a reduction in fibrosis in the absence of HTN. Fibrosis at 1 month was significantly associated with fibrosis at baseline (p 0.01 and 95%CI 0.11 to 0.67). Fibrosis at 3, 6 or 12 months was not found to be associated with fibrosis at baseline (p=0.70. 0.65 and 0.50 respectively). The amount of fibrosis at 1 month is significantly associated with graft survival (p=0.01 and 95%CI 0.02 to 0.14). Rejection and severity of rejection were not found to be associated with fibrosis at 1 month. The amount of fibrosis at 1 month was significantly associated with graft survival (p=0.02) after adjusting for baseline fibrosis (p=0.01). Both baseline fibrosis and graft survival were significant predictive factors. The amount of fibrosis at 1 month was not found to be significantly associated with rejection (p=0.64) after adjusting for baseline fibrosis (p=0.01). The amount of fibrosis at 1 month was not found to be significantly associated with rejection severity (p=0.29) after adjusting for baseline fibrosis (p=0.04). Fibrosis at baseline and HTN in the recipient were found to be predictive factors of fibrosis at 1 month. (p 0.02, p <0.001 respectively). Age of the donor, their relation to the patient, the pre-op Creatinine, artery, kidney weight and warm time were not found to be significantly associated with fibrosis at 1 month. In this complex model baseline fibrosis, HTN in the recipient and cold time were found to be predictive factors of fibrosis at 1 month (p=0.01,<0.001 and 0.03 respectively). Donor age was found to be a predictive factor of fibrosis at 6 months. The above analysis was repeated for 3, 6 and 12 months. No associations were detected between fibrosis and any of the explanatory variables with the exception of the donor age which was found to be a predictive factor of fibrosis at 6 months.

Keywords: fibrosis, transplant, renal, rejection

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641 Assessment of Alteration in High Density Lipo Protein, Apolipoprotein A1, Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase and Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase in Oral Submucous Fibrosis Patients

Authors: Marina Lazar Chandy, N. Kannan, Rajendra Patil, Vinod Mathew, Ajmal Mohamed, P. K. Sreeja, Renju Jose


Introduction- Arecoline, a major constituent of arecanut has shown to have some effect on liver. The use of arecanut is found to be the most common etiological factor for the development of Oral Submucous fibrosis (O.S.M.F). The effect of arecanut usage on liver in patients with O.S.M.F needs to be assessed. Lipids play a role in structural maintenance of cell. Alterations of lipid profile were noted in cancer patients. O.S.M.F being a precancerous lesion can have some effect on the level of lipids in the body. Objectives: This study was done to assess the alterations in liver enzymes (Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase(S.G.P.T ,Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase(S.G.O.T)) and lipid metabolism (High Density Lipoprotien(H.D.L) and Apo Lipoprotien A1 (Apo A1)) in patients with O.S.M.F. Methods-130 patients were taken for the study,100 patients with O.S.M.F and 30 as control group without O.S.M.F. Fasting blood sugar levels were taken, centrifuged and analyzed for S.G.P.T,S.G.O.T, H.D.L and Apo A1 using semi automated spectrophotometer. Results: After statistical analysis, it was concluded that there is an elevation of levels of S.G.P.T, S.G.O.T, and decreased levels of H.D.L, Apo A1 for O.S.M.F group when compared with control group. With increased grade of O.S.M.F. and duration of habit, S.G.P.T. & S.G.O.T. increased whereas, H.D.L. & Apo A1 decreased. All the values were statistically significant at p<0.01.

Keywords: apolipoprotien A1, high density lipoprotien, oral submucous fibrosis, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase

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640 Sulforaphane Attenuates Fibrosis of Dystrophic Muscle in Mdx Mice via Nrf2-Mediated Inhibition of TGF-β/Smad Signaling

Authors: Chengcao Sun, Cuili Yang, Shujun Li, Ruilin Xue, Yongyong Xi, Liang Wang, Dejia Li


Backgrounds: A few lines of evidence show that Sulforaphane (SFN) has anti-fibrosis effect in liver tissue via Nrf2-mediated inhibition of TGF-β/Smad signaling. However, its effects on muscular dystrophic fibrosis remain unknown. This work was undertaken to evaluate the effects of SFN on fibrosis in dystrophic muscle. Methods: 3-month-old male mdx mice were treated with SFN by gavage (2 mg/kg body weight per day) for 3 months. Gastrocnemius, tibial anterior and triceps brachii muscles were collected for related analysis. Fibrosis in skeletal muscles was analyzed by Sirius red staining. Histology and morphology of skeletal muscles were investigated by H&E staining. Moreover, the expressions of Nrf2, NQO1, HO-1, and TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway were detected by western blot, qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence assays. Results: Our results demonstrated that SFN treatment significantly decreased and improved morphological features in mdx muscles. Moreover, SFN increased the expression of muscle phase II enzymes NQO1 and HO-1 and significantly decreased the expression of TGF-β1,p-smad2, p-smad3, α-SMA, fibronectin, collagen I, PAI-1, and TIMP-1 in Nrf2 dependent manner. Additionally, SFN significantly decreased the expression of CD45 and TNF-α. Conclusions: Collectively, these results show that SFN can ameliorate muscle fibrosis in mdx mice by Nrf2-induced inhibition of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway, which indicate Nrf2 may be useful for the treatment of muscular dystrophy.

Keywords: sulforaphane, Nrf2, TGF-β/smad signaling, duchenne muscular dystrophy, fibrosis

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639 Encoded Nanospheres for the Fast Ratiometric Detection of Cystic Fibrosis

Authors: Iván Castelló, Georgiana Stoica, Emilio Palomares, Fernando Bravo


We present herein two colour encoded silica nanospheres (2nanoSi) for the fluorescence quantitative ratiometric determination of trypsin in humans. The system proved to be a faster (minutes) method, with two times higher sensitivity than the state-of-the-art biomarkers based sensors for cystic fibrosis (CF), allowing the quantification of trypsin concentrations in a wide range (0-350 mg/L). Furthermore, as trypsin is directly related to the development of cystic fibrosis, different human genotypes, i.e. healthy homozygotic (> 80 mg/L), CF homozygotic (< 50 mg/L), and heterozygotic (> 50 mg/L), respectively, can be determined using our 2nanoSi nanospheres.

Keywords: cystic fibrosis, trypsin, quantum dots, biomarker, homozygote, heterozygote

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638 Effects of Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Lung Remodeling

Authors: Diana Islam, Juan Fang, Vito Fanelli, Bing Han, Julie Khang, Jianfeng Wu, Arthur S. Slutsky, Haibo Zhang


Introduction: MSC delivery in preclinical models of ARDS has demonstrated significant improvements in lung function and recovery from acute injury. However, the role of MSC delivery in ARDS associated pulmonary fibrosis is not well understood. Some animal studies using bleomycin, asbestos, and silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis show that MSC delivery can suppress fibrosis. While other animal studies using radiation induced pulmonary fibrosis, liver, and kidney fibrosis models show that MSC delivery can contribute to fibrosis. Hypothesis: The beneficial and deleterious effects of MSC in ARDS are modulated by the lung microenvironment at the time of MSC delivery. Methods: To induce ARDS a two-hit mouse model of Hydrochloric acid (HCl) aspiration (day 0) and mechanical ventilation (MV) (day 2) was used. HCl and injurious MV generated fibrosis within 14-28 days. 0.5x106 mouse MSCs were delivered (via both intratracheal and intravenous routes) either in the active inflammatory phase (day 2) or during the remodeling phase (day 14) of ARDS (mouse fibroblasts or PBS used as a control). Lung injury accessed using inflammation score and elastance measurement. Pulmonary fibrosis was accessed using histological score, tissue collagen level, and collagen expression. In addition alveolar epithelial (E) and mesenchymal (M) marker expression profile was also measured. All measurements were taken at day 2, 14, and 28. Results: MSC delivery 2 days after HCl exacerbated lung injury and fibrosis compared to HCl alone, while the day 14 delivery showed protective effects. However in the absence of HCl, MSC significantly reduced the injurious MV-induced fibrosis. HCl injury suppressed E markers and up-regulated M markers. MSC delivery 2 days after HCl further amplified M marker expression, indicating their role in myofibroblast proliferation/activation. While with 14-day delivery E marker up-regulation was observed indicating their role in epithelial restoration. Conclusions: Early MSC delivery can be protective of injurious MV. Late MSC delivery during repair phase may also aid in recovery. However, early MSC delivery during the exudative inflammatory phase of HCl-induced ARDS can result in pro-fibrotic profiles. It is critical to understand the interaction between MSC and the lung microenvironment before MSC-based therapies are utilized for ARDS.

Keywords: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), hydrochloric acid (HCl), mechanical ventilation (MV)

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637 Histopathological Alterations in Liver of Mice Exposed to Different Doses of Diclofenac Sodium

Authors: Deepak Mohan, Sushma Sharma


Diclofenac sodium, a member of the acetic acid family of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, is used to retard inflammation, arthritis pain and ankylosing spondylitis. The drug is known to cause severe injury in different tissues due to formation of reactive oxygen species. The present study is focused on the effect of different doses of diclofenac (4 mg/kg/body weight and 14 mg/kg/body weight on histoarchitecture of the liver from 7-28 days of the investigation. Diclofenac administration resulted in distorted hepatic degeneration and formation of wide areas in the form of sinusoidal gaps. Hepatic fibrosis noticed in different stages of investigation could be attributed to chronic inflammation and reactive oxygen species which results in deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. The abrupt degenerative changes observed during later stages of the experiment showed maximum damage to the liver, and there was enlargement of sinusoidal gaps accompanied by maximum necrosis in the tissues.

Keywords: arthritis, diclofenac, histoarchitecture, sinusoidal

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636 The Improved Therapeutic Effect of Trans-Cinnamaldehyde on Adipose-Derived Stem Cells without Chemical Induction

Authors: Karthyayani Rajamani, Yi-Chun Lin, Tung-Chou Wen, Jeanne Hsieh, Yi-Maun Subeq, Jen-Wei Liu, Po-Cheng Lin, Horng-Jyh Harn, Shinn-Zong Lin, Tzyy-Wen Chiou


Assuring cell quality is an essential parameter for the success of stem cell therapy, utilization of various components to improve this potential has been the primary goal of stem cell research. The aim of this study was not only to demonstrate the capacity of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) to reverse stress-induced senescence but also improve the therapeutic abilities of stem cells. Because of the availability and the promising application potential in regenerative medicine, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were chosen for the study. We found that H2O2 treatment resulted in the expression of senescence characteristics in the ADSCs, including decreased proliferation rate, increased senescence-associated- β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, decreased SIRT1 (silent mating type information regulation 2 homologs) expression and decreased telomerase activity. However, TC treatment was sufficient to rescue or reduce the effects of H2O2 induction, ultimately leading to an increased proliferation rate, a decrease in the percentage of SA-β-gal positive cells, upregulation of SIRT1 expression, and increased telomerase activity of the senescent ADSCs at the cellular level. Further recently it was observed that the ADSCs were treated with TC without induction of senescence, all the before said positives were observed. Moreover, a chemically induced liver fibrosis animal model was used to evaluate the functionality of these rescued cells in vivo. Liver dysfunction was established by injecting 200 mg/kg thioacetamide (TAA) intraperitoneally into Wistar rats every third day for 60 days. The experimental rats were separated into groups; normal group (rats without TAA induction), sham group (without ADSC transplantation), positive control group (transplanted with normal ADSCs); H2O2 group (transplanted with H2O2 -induced senescent ADSCs), H2O2+TC group (transplanted with ADSCs pretreated with H2O2 and then further treated with TC) and TC group (ADSC treated with TC without H2O2 treatment). In the transplantation group, 1 × 106 human ADSCs were introduced into each rat via direct liver injection. Based on the biochemical analysis and immunohistochemical staining results, it was determined that the therapeutic effects on liver fibrosis by the induced senescent ADSCs (H2O2 group) were not as significant as those exerted by the normal ADSCs (the positive control group). However, the H2O2+TC group showed significant reversal of liver damage when compared to the H2O2 group 1 week post-transplantation. Further ADSCs without H2O2 treatment but with just TC treatment performed much better than all the groups. These data confirmed that the TC treatment had the potential to improve the therapeutic effect of ADSCs. It is therefore suggested that TC has potential applications in maintaining stem cell quality and could possibly aid in the treatment of senescence-related disorders.

Keywords: senescence, SIRT1, adipose derived stem cells, liver fibrosis

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635 Expression of Fibrogenesis Markers after Mesenchymal Stem Cells Therapy for Experimental Liver Cirrhosis

Authors: Tatsiana Ihnatovich, Darya Nizheharodava, Mikalai Halabarodzka, Tatsiana Savitskaya, Marina Zafranskaya


Liver fibrosis is a complex of histological changes resulting from chronic liver disease accompanied by an excessive production and deposition of extracellular matrix components in the hepatic parenchyma. Liver fibrosis is a serious medical and social problem. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) make a significant contribution to the extracellular matrix deposition due to liver injury. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a pronounced anti-inflammatory, regenerative and immunomodulatory effect; they are able to differentiate into hepatocytes and induce apoptosis of activated HSCs that opens the prospect of their use for preventing the excessive fibro-formation and the development of liver cirrhosis. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of MSCs therapy on the expression of fibrogenesis markers genes in liver tissue and HSCs cultures of rats with experimental liver cirrhosis (ELC). Materials and methods: ELC was induced by the common bile duct ligation (CBDL) in female Wistar rats (n = 19) with an average body weight of 250 (220 ÷ 270) g. Animals from the control group (n = 10) were sham-operated. On the 56th day after the CBDL, the rats of the experimental (n = 12) and the control (n = 5) groups received intraportal MSCs in concentration of 1×106 cells/animal (previously obtained from rat’s bone marrow) or saline, respectively. The animals were taken out of the experiment on the 21st day. HSCs were isolated by sequential liver perfusion in situ with following disaggregation, enzymatic treatment and centrifugation of cell suspension on a two-stage density gradient. The expression of collagen type I (Col1a1) and type III (Col3a1), matrix metalloproteinase type 2 (MMP2) and type 9 (MMP9), tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases type 1 (TIMP1), transforming growth factor β type 1 (TGFβ1) and type 3 (TGFβ3) was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica 10.0. Results: In ELC rats compared to sham-operated animals, a significant increase of all studied markers expression was observed. The administration of MSCs led to a significant decrease of all detectable markers in the experimental group compared to rats without cell therapy. In ELC rats, an increased MMP9/TIMP1 ratio after cell therapy was also detected. The infusion of MSCs in the sham-operated animals did not lead to any changes. In the HSCs from ELC animals, the expression of Col1a1 and Col3a1 exceeded the similar parameters of the control group (p <0.05) and statistically decreased after the MSCs administration. The correlation between Col3a1 (Rs = 0.51, p <0.05), TGFβ1 (Rs = 0.6, p <0.01), and TGFβ3 (Rs = 0.75, p <0.001) expression in HSCs cultures and liver tissue has been found. Conclusion: Intraportal administration of MSCs to rats with ELC leads to a decreased Col1a1 and Col3a1, MMP2 and MMP9, TIMP1, TGFβ1 and TGFβ3 expression. The correlation between the expression of Col3a1, TGFβ1 and TGFβ3 in liver tissue and in HSCs cultures indicates the involvement of activated HSCs in the fibrogenesis that allows considering HSCs to be the main cell therapy target in ELC.

Keywords: cell therapy, experimental liver cirrhosis, hepatic stellate cells, mesenchymal stem cells

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634 Grape Seed Extract in Prevention and Treatment of Liver Toxic Cirrhosis in Rats

Authors: S. Buloyan, V. Mamikonyan, H. Hakobyan, H. Harutyunyan, H. Gasparyan


The liver is the strongest regenerating organ of the organism, and even with 2/3 surgically removed, it can regenerate completely. Hence, liver cirrhosis may only develop when the regenerating system is off. We present the results of a comparative study of structural and functional characteristics of rat liver tissue under the conditions of toxic liver cirrhosis development, induced by carbon tetrachloride, and its prevention/treatment by natural compounds with antioxidant and immune stimulating action. Studies were made on Wister rats, weighing 120~140 g. Grape seeds extracts, separately and in combination with well known anticirrhotic drug ursodeoxycholic acid (ursodiol) have demonstrated effectiveness in prevention of liver cirrhosis development and its treatment.

Keywords: carbon tetrachloride, GSE, liver cirrhosis, prevention, treatment

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633 Physiochemical and Histological Study on the Effect of the Hibernation on the Liver of Uromastyx acanthinura (Bell, 1825)

Authors: Youssef. K. A. Abdalhafid, Ezaldin A. M. Mohammed, Masoud M. M. Zatout


This study described the changes in the liver of Uromastyx acanthinura (Bell, 1825) males and females during hibernation and activity seasons. The results revealed that, hibernation causes increase fatty liver and pigment cells with abundant damage, comparing with nearly normal structure and less fatty liver after the hibernation with almost normal pattern. Genomic DNA showed apparent separation during hibernation. Also, caspase 3 and caspase 7 activity reached a high level in the liver tissue during hibernation comparing with activity season.

Keywords: histological liver, DNA fragmentation, hibernation, caspase 3 and caspase 7

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632 Beta-Carotene Attenuates Cognitive and Hepatic Impairment in Thioacetamide-Induced Rat Model of Hepatic Encephalopathy via Mitigation of MAPK/NF-κB Signaling Pathway

Authors: Marawan Abd Elbaset Mohamed, Hanan A. Ogaly, Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman, Ahmed-Farid O.A., Marwa S. Khattab, Reham M. Abd-Elsalam


Liver fibrosis is a severe worldwide health concern due to various chronic liver disorders. Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is one of its most common complications affecting liver and brain cognitive function. Beta-Carotene (B-Car) is an organic, strongly colored red-orange pigment abundant in fungi, plants, and fruits. The study attempted to know B-Car neuroprotective potential against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive decline in HE in rats. Hepatic encephalopathy was induced by TAA (100 mg/kg, i.p.) three times per week for two weeks. B-Car was given orally (10 or 20 mg/kg) daily for two weeks after TAA injections. Organ body weight ratio, Serum transaminase activities, liver’s antioxidant parameters, ammonia, and liver histopathology were assessed. Also, the brain’s mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), antioxidant parameters, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) expression and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression were measured. The brain’s cognitive functions (Spontaneous locomotor activity, Rotarod performance test, Object recognition test) were assessed. B-Car prevented alteration of the brain’s cognitive function in a dose-dependent manner. The histopathological outcomes supported these biochemical evidences. Based on these results, it could be established that B-Car could be assigned to treat the brain’s neurotoxicity consequences of HE via downregualtion of MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathways.

Keywords: beta-carotene, liver injury, MAPK, NF-κB, rat, thioacetamide

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631 Green Tea Extract: Its Potential Protective Effect on Bleomycin Induced Lung Injuries in Rats

Authors: Azza EL-Medany, Jamila EL-Medany


Lung fibrosis is a common side effect of the chemotherapeutic agent, bleomycin. Current evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species may play a key role in the development of lung fibrosis. The present work studied the effect of green tea extract on bleomycin–induced lung fibrosis in rats. Animals were divided into three groups: (1) Saline control group; (2) bleomycin group in which rats were injected with bleomycin (15mg/kg,i.p.) three times a week for four weeks; (3) bleomycin and green tea group in which green tea extract was given to rats (100mg/kg/day, p.o) a week prior to bleomycin and daily during bleomycin injections for 4 weeks until the end of the experiment. Bleomycin–induced pulmonary injury and lung fibrosis that was indicated by increased lung hydroxyproline content, elevated nitric oxide synthase, myeoloperoxidase (MPO), platelet activating factor (PAF), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF_α), transforming growth factor 1β (TGF1β) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in lung tissues. On the other hand, bleomycin induced a reduction in reduced glutathione concentration (GSH). Moreover, bleomycin resulted in a severe histological changes in lung tissues revealed as lymphocytes and neutrophils infiltration, increased collagen deposition and fibrosis. Co-administration of bleomycin and green tea extract reduced bleomycin–induced lung injury as evaluated by the significant reduction in hydroxyproline content, nitric oxide synthase activity, levels of MPO, PAF, TNF-α, and ACE in lung tissues. Furthermore, green tea extract ameliorated bleomycin– induced reduction in GSH concentration. Finally, histological evidence supported the ability of green tea extract to attenuate bleomycin–induced lung fibrosis and consolidation. Thus, the finding of the present study provides that green tea may serve as a novel target for potential therapeutic treatment of lung fibrosis.

Keywords: bleomycin, lung fibrosis, green tea, oxygen species

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